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January,  1917 


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IVlonthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  2  No.  8 


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Photography 

A  Simple  Emalaion  for  Matte  or  Gloasy  P.  O.  P.  C135 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1916,  p.  634 

About  Focusing  ,  Fl-031 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  647 

The  solhor  (probably  C.  W.  Piper)  pointa  out  the  great  advantigee  of  accarate 
focoaiiig  in  portraiture  by  means  of  which  a  oomiderably  krser  aperture  can  be  used 
with  satisfaction  than  if  the  focusing  is  done  carelessly.  Very  practical  suggestions 
are  made  for  the  conditions  of  focusing  with  different  types  of  lenses  and  especially 
when  using  anastigmat  lenses  for  portraiture. 

Some  Experiments  and  Notes  on  Reducers  C.  W.  Piper      •  HI,  1665 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  631 

Mr.  Piper  has  tried  the  substitution  of  ammonium  thiosulphate  for  hypo  in  the 
Farmer  reducer.  He  found  no  difference  except  that  the  hypo  formula  was  quicker 
in  action,  probably  owing  to  the  decomposition  of  the  ammonium  thiosulphate.  He 
then  tested  i>otassium  persulphate  in  the  place  of  ammonium  persulphate  as  a  reducer 
and  found  it  very  satisfactory.  Potaanum  persulphate  is  not  deliquescent,  can  be  used 
in  weaker  solution  than  ammonium  persulphate, and  does  not  seem  to  refuse  to  act  in 
the  way  that  the  ammonium  |alt  sometimes  does.  Mr.  Piper  finds  the  reducer  recom- 
mended by  Mr.  W.  J.  Smith,  referred  to  in  the  December  Abstract  Bulletin,  satis- 
factory. 

The  Development  of  Bromide  Papers  B.  T.  J.  Glover         J4 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  627 

The  author  points  out  that  at  the  beginning  of  development  the  contrast  of  a  bro- 
mide paper  increases  but  that  after  the  maximum  contrast  has  been  reached,  the  print 
does  not  gain  contrast  but  continues  to  increase  in  density.  He  considers  that  a 
print  shoukl  be  exposed  to  such  a  degree  that  the  requisite  amount  of  density  will  be 
reached  as  soon  as  the  maximum  amount  of  contrast  is  obtained  in  development  and 
he  recommends  development  by  factor.  The  letter  is  written  entirely  from  the  point 
of  view  of  modem  sensitometry. 

Antimony  Toning  of  Developed  Pictures  L.  Strasser         J84 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1036 

A  bleached  silver  print  gives  stable  red  brown  tones  with  a  .05%  solution  of 
sodium  thioantimonate.  Simultaneous  or  subsequent  sulphiding  leads  to  colder 
brown  tones. 

A  Note  on  the  Use  of  Liver  of  Sulphur  for  Toning  J84 

Bromide  and  Gaslight  Prints 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  606 

^  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Tellurium  Toning  .      J84-1663 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  637 

The  combination  of  a  solution  of  tellurium  dioxide  or  of  one  of  tellurous  or 
telluric  acid  with  an  alkaline  sulphide  such  as  soda  sulphide  has  been  patented  in 
been  patented  also  in  Grermany  by  A.  Spitzer  and  L.  Wilhelm,  Vosendorf,  Auntria. 
Germany  by  the  firm  of  E.  Schering,  D.  R.  P.  290,720.  A  somewhat  similar  process  has 
According  to  this  patent^  No.  292,352,  ordinary  hypo  (sodium  thiosulphate)  or 
.  ammonium  thiosulphate  is  used  in  combination  with  tellurous  or  telluric  acid  or  pre- 
ferably with  the  sodium  salts  or  one  or  other  of  these  acids. 

Cabinet  Experiments  in  Color  Photography  G.  E.  Brown        K 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1916,  p.  47 

The  editor  concluaes  his  description  of  the  lecture  experiments  referred  to  in  the 
November  Bulletin, 

Color  Cinematography  A.  S.  Cory  K06 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1916,  p.  2887 

Commences  a  comprehensive  and  valuable  series  or  articles  dealing  with  the 
many  patented  methods  for  producing  motion  pictures  in  natural  colors. 

The  Bleach-Out  Process  .'  K/93 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1916,  p.  45 

The  full  text  of  the  specification  of  the  patent  20396,  referred  to  in  our  patent 
abstracts.  The  editor  of  the  B.  J.  remarks  that  the  sjfecification,  by  its  enumeration 
of  the  diflBculties  attaching  to  the  making  of  a  bleach-out  three-color  paper,  probably 
serves  the  purpose  of  turning  experimenters  from  the  process.  The  bleach-out  process 
is  one  which  has  been  the  subject  of  research  and  experiment  out  of  all  proportion  to  the 
degree  of  success  which  has  been  attained ;  one  might  almost  now  say  out  of  propor- 
tion to  the  possibility  of  success  which  the  process  offers. 

The  Genesis  of  the  Camera  019 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  618 

Very  interesting  article  on  early  forms  of  the  camera-obscura,  the  first  distinct 
account  of  which  was  given  by  Leonardo  da  Vinci.  Portable  cameras  were  described 
in  1702. 

A  Plea  for  the  Portrait  Album  A.  H.  Baird        031 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  609 

Some  Notes  on  Halation  E.  A.  Salt        041-1685 

B.  J.,  1916,  pp.  620  and  636 

A  general  discussion  of  the  subject  of  halation  written  in  a  clear  and  interesting 
manner.  The  various  methods  of  stopping  halation  by  backing  and  substrata  are 
dealt  with  and  there  is  a  historical  note  on  the  origin  of  the  double-coated  plate.  A 
description  is  given  of  the  best  method  of  printing  through  a  negative  of  an  interior  - 

where  detail  is  present  in  the  windows  but  has  become  buried  owing  to  over-exposure.      \  * 


Digitized  by  Google    ^  ^ 


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There  was  a  very  interesting  discussion  after  the  reading  of  this  paper  at  the  Croydon 
Camera  Clnb.  Among  other  points  brought  up,  Mr.  Terry  disagreed  with  the 
lecturer's  statement  that  orthochromatic  plates  exposed  behind  a  deep  filter  were 
more  prone  to  halation  than  when  exposed  without  a  filter,  and  stated  that  his  ex- 
perience was  the  opposite.  Mr.  Piper  agreed  with  Mr.  Terry.  The  experience  of  the 
Laboratory  is  that  there  is  much  more  halation  when  using  a  strong  color  filter  and 
that  this  increase  in  halation  is  due  to  the  fact  that  plates  are  considerably  lees 
opaque  to  the  longer  wavelengths  so  that  more  light  penetrates  to  give  that  halation. 


Decennia  Practica  045 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  638 

Lantern  Slides,  I.  This  gives  formuke  for  various  developers  and  for  the  making 
of  lantern  slides  by  the  ozobrome  process. 

Decennia  Practica  015 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  649 

Lantern  Slides,  II.  This  gives  a  number  of  hints  and  fonnnlte  on  the  toning  of 
elides.  In  particular,  it  deals  with  the  method  of  bleai*hing  with  iodine  and  dyeing 
Uie  silver  iodide  produced. 


An  Enlarging  Tip  046 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  606 

Hie  suggestion  is  made  that  in  combination  printing  instead  of  removing  the 
bromide  paper  from  the  easel  while  the  negative  is  being  changed,  a  light-tight 
flexible  blind  ^ould  be  fitted  in  front  of  the  paper  which  can  be  dropped  over  it 
while  changing  the  negative. 


Decennia  Practica  046-G8 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  622 

Making  Enlarged  Negatives.  This  gives  formuke  for  the  various  methods  for 
producing  an  enlarged  negative  direct  from  a  smaller  one  designed  to  render  the 
making  of  the  enlarged  negative  a  more  speedy  and  economical  operation. 


Photographs  on  Mirrors,  Backed  with  a  Silver  Deposit  048 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1916,  p.  532 

Detailed  instructions  and  formulae  for  silvering  collodion  transpan^ncies  on  glass 
80  as  to  give  a  mirror  backing  to  them. 


Decennia  Practica  0582 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  611 

Night  Photography.  This  includes  such  work  as  the  making  of  firelight  and 
candlelight  portraits  and  the  development  of  negatives  of  night  subjects  in  which  it  is 
necessary  to  secure  intense  lights  free  from  halation  at  the  same  time  as  adequate 
detail  in  deep  shadows.  ^^  ^  ^ ^T  ^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


Tinting  Motion  Picture  Film  ^  0645 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1916,  p.  3696 

An  article  prepared  by  the  Research  Laboratory  of  the  Eafltinan  Kodak 
C#mpan<y. 

PamiJy  Tr»e  of  the  Coftl  Tar  Defvelopers  D.  R.  Famess        1531 

Phot.  J.  of  Amer.,  1916,  p.  536 
Chart  showing  relationship  of  the  more  common  developers. 

Developer  Poisoning  15315 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  644 

In  reply  to  a  correspondent,  two  prescriptaoiH  suggeeled  by  Dr.  Beera  are  given. 

A  Single  Solution,  Non- Acid,  T.  H.  GreenftU        16ei-J84 

Permanganate  Bleacher 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  621 

The  following  formula  ie  suggested:  Solution  of  potaserium  pemanganate 
(2  grains  in  1  oz. )  4  to  5  fluid  ozs.,  common  salt,  1  oz.,  water  to  make  20  o».  The 
prints  do  not  bleach  out  but  the  image  changes  to  brown-gray  and  after  bleaching 
the  prints  must  be  cleared  in  the  following  bath:  Dilute  hydrochloric  acid  (1  in  5) 
2  fluid  ozs.,  sol.  of  common  salt  (1  in  10)  1  fluid  oz.,  water  to  make  2&  cfM.  Td  eacli 
ounce  of  above  solution  add,  at  time  of  using,  not  more  than  20  or  30  minims  of  a  1 
in  .5  solution  of  sodium  sulphite.  The  prints  can  be  sulphided  after  clearing  and 
washing. 

A  Photographic  Ink  P.  E.  O.         1698 

Amat.  Phot.,  1916,  p.  410 

Potassium  iodide,  10  parts;  iodine,  1  part;  gum  arabic,  1  part;  water,  30  partD^ 
The  ink  bleaches  and  leaves  the  writing  ad  white  on  the  dark  ground  of  the  print.  • 

Local  Control  in  Printing  of  Negatives  E.  Hinge        L2 

B.  J..  1916,  p.  651 

Suggested  method  for  evening  up  the  printing  of  a  negative  —  by  dabbing 
plasticine  on  the  back. 

Developing  Machine  for  Portrait  Film  2543 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  648 

With  regard  to  the  machine  designed  by  J.  C.  Monro,  it  is  mentioned  that 
jackets  are  provided  on  the  tray  holding  the  developer  for  the  purpose  of  introducing 
hot  and  cold  water  as  required  by  the  temperature  of  the  dark  room  so  that  although 
th^  machine  i.s  not  designed  primarily  for  development  by  time,  it  can  be  so  U8e<l 

Luxury  in  Dark  Room  Lighting  255 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1916,  p.  499 


An  article  from  the  Research  laboratory  of  the  Eastman  Kodak 

Digitized  by 


^egle 


Speed  Testing  of  Shutters  by  Means  of  an  L.  G.  Abingdon         262 

Inclined  Plane 

Phot.  Focus,  November  14,  1916,  p.  325 

Optical  Glass:  A  Brief  Historical  Review  263 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  607 
Deals  chiefly  with  the  earlier  development  of  the  art. 

A  Paper  That  Gives  Green  Prints  /HI 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1916,  p.  617 

Paper  coated  with  a  2%  gelatine  solution  is  sensitized  in :  potassium  bichromate, 
15  gri. ;  magnesium  sulphate,  25  grs. ;  water  1  oz.  After  exposure  the  print  is 
washed  and  developed  with  a  wad  of  cotton  moistened  with  pyrocatechin,  5  gra., 
water  1  oz. 

New  Method  of  Picture  Production  J.  M.  C.  Grove  •787 

Amat.  Phot.,  November  6,  1916,  p.  369 
From  a  water  soaked  pinatype  plate  a  plaster  cast  is  made.    Pencil  *'rubbing8" 
are  then  made  from  the  cast. 

Mr.  W.  J.  Wilson,  the  originator  of  the  Paget  Prize  plates  ai)d  for  many 
years  director  of  the  Company,  died  Noveml)er  17th. 
B.  J.,  1916,  p.  639 

The  Adaptability  of  the  Eye  to  the  Illumination 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  648 

An  article  based  on  the  work  done  in  the  Research  Laboratory,  dealing  with  the 
change  of  sensitiveness  of  the  eye  under  different  conditions  of  illumination. 


Photo-Engraving 

Photography  as  a  Graphic  Art  07 

Printing  Art,  November,  1916,  p.  219 

A  note  on  tlie  exhibition  of  photography  recently  held  by  the  American  Institute 
of  Graphic  Arte. 

The  Preparation  of  Copy  for  Half-Tone  Engraving       H.  W.  Leggett    07001 
American  Printer,  December  5th,  1916,  p.  62 

Points  out  that  the  best  kind  of  photographic  print  is  a  black  or  dark  brown  tone 
on  a  velvet  or  glazed  surface. 

Deep  Etching  Ink  07006 

Process  Work,  November,  1916,  p.  71 


Various  formulte  are  given. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Etching  Glass  07006 

Process  Work,  November,  1916,  p.  72 

Etching  by  vapour  of  hydrofluoric  acid  and  by  its  solution  in  water  are  described, 
and  method  of  making  suitable  resists  by  photographic  printing. 

New  Re-Et€hing  Process  W.  J.  Wilkinson        07007 

American  Printer,  November  20,  1916,  p.  65 

The  method  consists  in  making  from  a  continuous  tone  n^ative  an  additional 
bichromate  print  on  the  metal  plate,  this  serving  as  a  sort  of  automatic  etching  resist 
for  the  shadows. 

Methods  of  Mounting  Electros  07008 

Process  Work,  November,  1916,  p.  68 

The  advantage  of  metal  over  wood  for  mounting  is  discussed  and  methods  for 
sweating  work  on  to  metal  base  described. 

Printing  from  Zinc  without  Offset  S.  H.  Horgan        07009     723 

Inland  Printer,  December,  1916,  p.  348 

The  author  states  that  the  principal  reason  why  the  rubber  offset  is  used  is  that 
the  delicate  texture  of  the  grain  which  is  necessary  to  retain  the  moisture  when 
printing  lithographically  is  soon  destroyed  in  printing  direct. 

School  of  Photogravure  Carl  von  Nemethy        0713 

American  Printer,  November  20,  1916,  p.  4i 

Owing  to  the  dearth  of  competent  workers  for  the  rotary  photogravure  process, 
it  is  suggested  that  a  school  should  be  established. 

The  Making  of  Paper  1412 

Printing  Art,  November,  1916,  p.  197 

A  series  of  views  in  the  mill  of  the  D.  B.  Rising  Paper  Company,  showing  tlie 
various  processes  in  the  manufacture  of  paper. 

The  Photo-Engraver's  Union  and  Trade  Education  70 

Inland  Printer,  December,  1916,  p.  338 

A  plea  for  the  proper  treatment  of  the  apprentice  as  regards  his  technical  educa- 
tion and  advocating  the  study  hy  lK)th  employer  and  employee  of  economics  and  labor 
questions. 

Improving  Business  Conditions  in  Printing  Industry 

Photo-Engravers'  Bulletin,  November,  1916,  p.  7 

The  United  Typothetae  and  Franklin  Clulw  propose  to  conduct  a  three  years 
campaign  to  get  the  printing  and  allied  industries  thoroughly  organized  ii^ith  a  view 
to  making  the  practices  of  the  industry  uniform  and  stable. 


*  Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Physics 

The  Mobility  of  the  Negative  Ion  S.  Ratner      ^ 

Phil.  Mag.,  1916,  p.  441 

The  author  measures  the  mobility  or  velocity  of  negative  ions,  positive  ions,  and 
free  electrons  in  various  gases  under  different  preasure**  and  €»U'ctrical  fiekls,  reaching 
some  interesting  conclusions. 

The  Equilibrium  of  the  Magnetic  Compass  in  Aeroplanes      8.  G.  Starling 

Phil.  Mag.,  1916.  p.  461 

A  matliematical  discussion  of  the  effect  of  the  N-arious  movements  of  an  aeroplane 
upon  a  magnetic  compass  carried  therein. 

On  Multiple  Reflexion  L.  Sin)erstein 

Phil.  Mag.,  1916,  p.  487 

An  elegant  solution  of  the  problem  of  reflexions  at  any  number  of  plane  mirrors 
by  means  of  vector  analysis. 

Report  of  the  Conmiittee  on  Progress 

Trans.  I.  E.  S.,  1916,  p.  70r> 

A  review  of  advances  in  lighting  and  relatiMl  subjtxjts  in  phyi^ics  and  photography 
during  the  yeAr. 

Optic  Projection  as  a  Problem. in  Illumination  J.  A.  Orange 

Trans.  I.  E.  S.,  1916,  p.  im 

A  study  of  the  best  conditions  for  optic  projection  witli  a  special  discussion  of 
magic  lantern  and  moving  picture  projection. 

The  Luminous  Efficiency  of  the  Solar  Radiation  H.  p].  Ives 

Trans.  I.  E.  S.,  1916,  p.  888 

By  recalulating  Kimball's  data,  Ives  finds  that  luminous  etticiency  of  the  sun  is 
13.8  per  cent.  This  agrees  with  the  theoretically  determined  maximum  etticiency  of  a 
black  body  at  temperature  6500°  absolute. 

Scientific  Research  and  Our  Future  Sources  of  Energy  I).  Robertson 

Electrician,  1916,  p,  188 
An  abstract  of  Chairman's  address,  Electrical  Engineers. 

Frequent  Bursting  of  Hot  Water  Pipes  F.  C.  Brown 

Phys.  Rev.,  November.  1916.  p.  5(X) 

The  writer  proves  from  laboratory  experiments  with  glass  tubes  that  l)oiled  water 
does  not  freeze  so  readily,  but  freezes  more  solidly  than  unboiled,  lience  accounting 
for  the  bursting. 

^  Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Temperature  and  Blackening  Effects  in  Helical  .  B.  E.  Shackelford 

'       Tungsten  Filaments 

Phys.  Rev.,  November,  1916,  p.  470 

The  writer  shows  that  the  interior  of  such  a  filament  is  twice  as  bright  as  the 
exterior;  that  this  is  not  a  temperature  effect,  but  due  to  the  internal  reflections, 
which  make  the  interior  radiate  as  a  black  body. 

The  Weber-Fechner  Law  and  Photometric  Observations        P.  P.  Lazarev 
J.  Ru8S.  Phys.  Chem.  Soc.  XLVIII,  p.  293 

From  considerations  based  on  the  Weber-Fechner  law  it  is  concluded  that  the 
limiting  accuracy  possible  in  photometric  settings  is  0.1%. 

Counteracting  Static  Electricity  in  Belts  S.  Baker 

Brass  World,  191*6,  p.  328 

Consists  of  a  comb  made  of  number  6  copper  wire  with  the  teeth  of  number  24 
copper  wire,  3"  long  and  1"  apart.  This  comb  is  connected  to  a  similar  comb  by 
nmnber  24  wire.  One  comb  is  placed  over  the  object  to  be  discharged  and  the  other 
near  a  grounded  pipe,  so  that  the  points  are  1/16"  from  the  ground  and  the  object. 

A  ^ew  Spectrum  Map  Paper  R.  P.  Anderson 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1916,  p.  1146 

A  convenient  paper  for  mapping  emission  spectra,  in  use  in  (^ornell  University. 
It  would  likewise  be  suitable  for  mapping  absorption  spectra  when  no  great  accuracy 
is  required. 


Photochemistry 


The  Production  of  the  Lower  Chlorides  of  Methane  .     C.  W.  Bedford 

from  Natural  Gas 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1916,  p.  1090 

In  the  photo-chlorination  a  white  flame  arc  light  wan  used  as  source  and  found 
satisfactory.  Results  of  chiei  interest  photochemically  are:  (1)  at  low  temperatures, 
each  of  the  four  chlorides  of  methane  form  in  turn  from  the  preceding  member  of  the 
series  chlorine  showing  a  alight  preference  for  chlor-methane  over  methane  itself. 

(2)  The  lower  the  temperature  at  which  reaction  takes  place,  the  more  actinic  the 
light  required  to  maintain  the  reaction  for  a  given  concentration  of  free  chlorine. 

(3)  Water  does  not  hinder  the  reaction  but  accelerates  it  by  removal  of  reaction 
products.  (4)  Ammonia  or  similar  nitrogenous  bodies  are  powerful  negative  catalysts 
(as  found  by  Chapman  and  Burgesj*  for  the  interaction  of  hydrogen  and  chlorine  in 
light).  The  reaction  is  stopped  until  a  high  concentration  of  chlorine  overpowers  the 
negative  catalyst,  when  it  proceeds  explosively. 

Action  of  X-Rays  on  Iodine  and  Starch  Iodide  H.  Bordier 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1058 

The  decolorization  of  starch  iodide  in  water  on  exposure  to  X-rays  is  stated  to  be 
— ^e  to  the  ionizing  action  of  the  rays  on  the  colloidal  solution. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQ IC 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Constitution  of  Solids  and  Liquids     Part  I  I.  Langinuir 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.,  1916,  p.  2221 

A  long  paper  of  remarkable  interest  nnent  a  bold  chemical  invasion  of  the 
"mokcular  physics**  protectorate.  At  once  a  review,  a  critique  ami  an  original 
theeig,  it  is  perhaps  impossible  to  abstract  this  paper  adequately.  Starting  from  the 
work  of  the  Braggs  on  crystal  structure  by  X-ray  spectrography,  it  is  flrst  contended 
that  only  poiar  compounds  have  been  studied,  which  are  not  representative  of  com- 
poumls  in  general.  These  polsir  compounds  the  author  considers  built  up  of  atoms 
bound  by  Secondary  or  residual  valency.  The  whole  crystal  must  be  regarded  as  a 
single  molecule.  Solid  non-polar  compounds  he  considers  consist  of  **  group 
molecules'*  in  which  groups  the  atoms  an'  bound  by  primary  valency  but  which 
groups  in  turn  are  bound  by  secondary  valency  to  form  a  large  "crystal 
molecule/  *  which  is  in  principle  the  theory  of  Wyrobouff  modernized.  It  is  contended 
that  there  is  no  present  juHtification  for  dividing  interatomic  or  intermolecular  forces 
\nto physicui «ii^  chemicalioTnef^.  It  is  better  to  regard  all  such  forces  as  purely 
chemical.  Hence,  evaporation,  condensation,  solution,  crystallization,  adsorption, 
surface  tension,  etc.,  should  be  n»garded  as  typically  chemical  processes,  and  the 
object  of  the  paper  is  to  show  that  present  chemical  knowledge  is  directly  applicable 
to  their  study.  Since  solid  substances  in  general  are  held  together  by  secondary 
rather  than  primary  valency,  there  are  few  limitations  to  the  number  of  compounds 
capable  of  existence  in  solid  state.  Most  of  these  have  compositions  which  could  not 
be  predicted  from  the  ordinary  rules  of  ^^lency.  It  is  concluded  that  the  attractive 
forces  (affinity)  between  atoms  reach  a  maximumintensity  when  the  distance  between 
adjacent  atoms  in  solids  is  increased  by  about  0.6  x  10"^  cm.  (10%-30^  of  normal 
inter\'al).  Surfaces  of  solids  contain  more  potential  energy  than  corresponding  arrays 
•^►f  atoms  in  the  interior.  This  intense  surface  field  of  force  (unsaturated  chemical 
afiinity)  is  one  of  the  causes  of  condensation  and  evaporation  phenomena.  Surfaces 
of  solids  are  inelastic  as  regards  impinging  molecules,  a  highly  interesting  differentia- 
tion between  reversible  and  irreversible  evaporation.  Condensation,  etc.,  is  made, 
and  adsorption  connected  with  the  hysteresis  in  the  evaporation-condensation  process. 
Poisoning  of  contact  catalysts  is  attributed  to  mon-atomic  *' stable"  films  over  the 
surface.  ■  A  law  of  ** surface  action  '*  analogous  to  '*  law  of  mass"  action  is  proposed 
in  regard  to  heterogeneous  reactions.  It  is  applied  to  heterogeneous  gas  reactions 
and  enzyme  reactions.  The  second  installment  will  deal  with  tlie  structure  of  liquids 
and  will  endeavor  to  replace  the  vague  chemical  information  on  the  shapes,  cross 
sections,  lengths,  etc. ,  of  the  group  molecules  of  liquids. 


Studies  in  the  Measurement  of  the  Elec-        W.  A.  Taylor  and  S.  F.  Acree 
trical  Conductivity  of  Solutions  at 
Different  Frequencies 

J,  Amer.  Cheni.  Soc,  1916,  p.  2396 

Various  types  of  alternating  current  generators  are  discussetl.    Vreeland  oscillators 
give  pure  sine- wave  and  variable  frequency. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Investigations  of  Bridge  Methods,  Resi-         W.  A.  Taylor  and  S.  F.  Acree 
sistances,  Cells,  Capacities,' Inductances,  Phase  Relations,  Precision 
of  Measurements,  and  a  Comparison  of  the  Resistances  Ob- 
tained by  the  Use  of  Inductance  and  Capacity  Bridges 
J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc,  1916,  p.  2403 

True   and   Apparent  Resistances,  W.  A.  Taylor  and  S.  F.  Acree 

Voltage,  Apparent  Capacity,  Size  and  Character  of  Electrodes, 
Ratio  of  Inductance  Changes  to  Resistance  Changes,  and  Relation 
of  Induction  and  Capacity  to  Frequency 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc,  1916,  p.  2415 

Sodium  Nitrate  Industry  in  Chile 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1058 

The  Exportation  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1916,  while  being  70%  above  that 
of  the  preceding  year,  is  still  lower  than  that  before  the  war. 

Solutions  of  Selenium  and  Tellurium  in  Absolute  Sulphuric  Acid     E.  Noles 
Chem.  Abst.,  1916,  p.  1822 

Selenium  Forms  with  Sulphuric  Acid  the  compound  SeSO,,  which  tends  to  poly- 
merise to  a  double  mokxjule. 

Design  of  Acid-Resisting  Iron  Apparatus  N.  Swindin 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  December  1,  1916,  p.  647 

The  Alloys  used  generally  consist  of  Iron  and  Silicon.  They  are  very  hard  and 
brittle,  these  properties  increasing  as  the  silicon  content  increases.  Socket  joints  in 
pipes  are  prt»ferred  to  flanged  joints.  No  sharp  angles  should  be  used ;  i.  e. ,  plane 
surfaces  should  be  connected  by  cur\'e8  of  large  radius.  Castings  heavier  than  a  few 
hundredweights  should  he  avoided,  also  those  grt»ater  than  4  fet»t  in  diameter  or 
depth.     Webbing  should  be  avoided. 


Colloid  Chemistry 


The  Analysis,  Purification  and  Some  Chemical  C.  R.  Fellers 

Properties  of  Agar-Agar 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1916,  p.  1128 

A  Valuable  Paper,  though  chiefly  of  interest  in  Bacteriology,  contains  nmch  of 
importance  to  photographic  and  colloid  chemistry.  The  sources,  preparation  and 
composition  are  discussed.  Analyses  of  sixteen  samples  of  widely  diffea^nt  origin 
show  remarkable  uniformity  in  composition.  High  ash  or  silica  content  indicates 
inferior  product.  Considerable  nitrogenous  matter  in  all  samples;  part  of  nitrogen 
directly  assimilable  by  micro-organisms.  A  method  of  purifying  agar  is  described. 
Product  in  shreda  is  worked  with  dilute  acetic  acid,  dissolved  and  prec;ipitated 
while  hot  from  5%  .solution  by  large  volume  of  acetone  or  alcohol ;  much  nitrogen 
is  thus  removed.  Solutions  of  agar  will  solidify  at  all  concentrations  of  hydrochloric 
acid  and  sodium  hydroxide  between  4.59()  hydrochloric  acid  and  5%  sodium  hy<lroxide. 
Autoclaving  under  one  atmosphere  narrows  the  range. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Absorption  of  Coloring  Matters  by  E.  Knecht  and  E.  HiW)ert 

Charcoal  and  Silica 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1008 

The  Absorption  of  Basic  Dyes  by  Animal  Charcoal  is  shown  to  depend  to  a  con - 
eiderable  degree  on  the  nitrogen  and  oxygen  content  of  the  charcoal.  Only  hydrated, 
not  anhydrous,  silica  is  capable  of  absorbing  coloring  matters. 

Increasing  Stability  of  Bitumens  by  Introduction  of  Colloids 
Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  November  15,  1916,  p.  606 

r.  S..  Patents  1198769  and  1198955-1916  have  been  granted  Clifford  Richanls^m 
for  a*  process  consisting  in  the  introduction  of  clay  in  colloidal  solution  into  the 
bitumen  so  that  when  the  water  is  driven  off  the  product  has  an  increased  stability. 
The  products  vary  in  strength,  a  range  from  materials  resembling  hard  rubber  to 
stable  pla'^tic  mixtures  suitable  for  paving  and  other  usfH. 


Organic  Chemistry 


On  the  Miscellaneous  Vegetable  Fibers  as  the  H.  Nishida         141 1 

Raw  Material  for  Celluloid 

J.  Ind.  Chem.  Eng.,  p.  1096 

The  author  treated  nineteen  kinds  of  fibers,  some  of  which  are  peculiar  to  Japan. 
The  fibers  were  made  into  tissue  paper  by  the  usual  method  of  paper  making.  S<^me 
fibers  were  bleached,  others  unbleached.  It  was  found  that  **wet  beating' '  ^avo 
much  better  results  than  **free  beating'*.  The  copper  number  (Sob  walbe),  the  acid  num- 
ber (Vieweg),  and  the  oxycellulose  content  were  determine<l  on  each  raw  material  (as 
tissue  paper).  The  oxycellulose  content  was  determined  by  the  author's  volumetric 
method,  using  titanous  chloride  solution  and  methylene  blue.  The  results  are  tabulated: 

In  general,  fibers  containing  the  largest  impurities  and  these  which  had  been 
vigoronsly  treated  chemically  gave  the  highest  result*^.  Capillary  absorption  is  of 
great  importance,  the  thinner  the  paper,  the  better  the  penetration  of  the  acid.  In 
practice,  a  thickness  of  16-40  gm.  per  sq.  m.  is  moderate;  for  *'free  beaten"  fiber  the 
limit  is  15-30  gm.  per  sq.  m. ;  for  well  **wet  beaten"  the  limit  may  be  as  high  as  200 
gm.  per  .sq.  m.  The  author  fully  discussed  his  working  formula  for  nitration 
in  an  article  published  in"  **I^  Caoutchouc  &  La  Gutta-Percha",  March  and 
April,  1914.  The  formula  is  m%;  H,S04  64.0-6-5.5;  HNO,  15.0-16.5;  HNO, 
0.80-1.0,  Water  18.0-19.0.  The  nitrating  time  and  temperature  must  be  varied  ac- 
cording to  the  fibers.  The  author  found  that  Temp.  (°C)  x  Time  (min. )  =  Conalant 
to  produce  the  same  degree  of  nitration,  where  the  constant  varies  according  to  the 
nature  of  the  fiber;  e.  g.,  1600  foi  cotton  or  pure  cellulose,  2100  for  linen  and  allied 
fast  fibers,  2400  for  wood  and  straw  cellulose,  2700  for  mechanical  wood  and  fibers 
moet  difficultly  nitrated.     Further  the  thickne&s  must  be  taken  into  consideration. 

The  above  holds  good  up  to  40  gm.  per.  sq.  m.  When  D  (D=gm.  per.  sq.  m.)  is 
greater,  then:- Constant  x  0.9v^D/4o--uptoD  =  100 gm.  Constant  x  0.85 v/d/4o--  up 
to  D  =  200  gm.  In  table  II  the  following  results  are  given:  Yield  %  nitro- 
compound, solubility  in  86%  camphor-alcohol  solution,  viscosity  (Engler),  kind  of 
celluloid  made,  stability  heat  test,  fiash  point  ^0,  tensile  strength,  bending  stress. 
The  camphor-alcohol  solution  is  made  up  and  used  as  follows:  36  gm.  pure  camphor 
crystals  are  dissolved  in  126  cc.  absolute  alcohol  of  sp.  gr.  0.79425.     Exactly  2  gm. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQ IC 


of  the  nitrocompound  are  dissolvod  in  100  cc.  of  the  solution  with  careful  agitation. 
This  is  allowed  to  stand  for  one  day  in  a  stoppered  lOOce.  flask.  Take  25cc.  from  the 
clear  part  and  evaporate  to  dryness  at  about  45-50  C.  The  residue  is  weighed  and 
the  camphor  and  nitro-compound  calculated.  (This  method  is  open  to  criticism 
on  account  of  the  residual  solvent  and  loss  of  camphor. )  Among  the  conclusions 
reached,  the  author  finds  that  * 'Strength  is  apparently  proportional  to  viscosity", 
and  that  "The  higher  elasticity  is  always  accompanied  by  the  higher  viscous  nitro- 
cellulose-galette.*' 

The  author  has  shown  that  the  output  of  celluloid  may  be  calculated  as  follows: 
(T  X  Yield%  x  1.959)  where  T  is  the  original  amount  of  fiber  nitrated.  The  amount 
of  fiber  required  for  each  Kg.  celluloid  may  be  calculated :  1  divided  by  (yield  of  nitro- 
compound X  1.959.)  Now,  if  the  yield  and  the  price  of  two  different  fibers  are  Y,  P  and 
Y'P'  respectively,  then  we  have  the  total  cost  per  itg:  P/1.959Y,  and  P'/1.959  Y',or 
their  value  has  the  ratio  of  PY'/p'  Y.  If  the  ratio  is  greater  than  one,  tlie  first  fiber  is 
more  costly,  if  less  than  one,  the  latter.  From  his  results  the  author  evaluates  the  raw 
fibrous  materials  as  follows :  First  Class,  Unbleached  mercerized  cotton ;  tissue  from 
white  rags  and  fish  nets;  Second  Class,  Bleached  mercerized  cotton;  tissue  from 
colored  rags;  tissue  from  linen  fibers; Third  Class,  Papers  from  bast  fibers;  weavers' 
waste  yarn,  scoured  and  bleached;  Fourth  Class,  Bamboo  tissue  as  free  from  adultera- 
tion as  possible  and  wet  beaten;  Fifth  Class.  Chemical  wood  fiber,  and  straw,  as  free 
from  knots  as  possible,  Sixth  Class,  Mechanical  wood  fiber  mixed  with  a  little  cotton. 

Fume  Poisoning  from  Nitric  and  Mixed  Acid  L.  A.  DuBois         1511 

.    J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1916,  p.  1162 

Describes  the  Pulmonary  Edema  of  Severe  Cases  of  Nitrous  Fume  Poisoning.  In 
such  cases  chloroform  is  given  at  once  ( fifteen  drops  in  a  tablespoonful  of  aromatic 
spirits  of  ammonia  shaken  up  with  three-quarters  of  a  glass  of  water  and  taken  at 
intervals  during  half  an  hour. )  This  affords  relief,  though  it  does  not  arrest  the  de- 
velopment of  the  edema.  It  is  noted  that  experienced  workers  take  only  short 
breaths  when  in  an  atmosphere  containing  oxides  of  nitrogen,  in  order  that  any 
attack  may  be  localized  in  the  upper  part  of  the  lungs.  Respirators  have  not  proved 
very  successful ;  the  best  results  have  been  obtained  with  the  use  of  a  "Filtros"  sponge 
moistened  with  20^  caustic  potash.  For  prevention,  good  results  were  obtained  by 
atomizing  ammonia  into  the  atmosphere,  but  the  best  method  seems  to  be  to  install 
powerful  aeroplane  prcjpellers  which  can  be  controlled  from  the  outside  of  the  building. 

Care  of  Workmen  Employed  in  the  Manufacture  A.  B.  Mitchell 

of  Aniline  and  Benzol  Products 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1916,  p.  1161 

Kuies  for  Plant  AVorkers.  With  reasonable  precautions  there  is  little  danger  of 
FeriouH  cases  of  poisoning. 

The  Processes  of  the  Organic  A.  H.  Ney  and  D.  J.  VanMarle 

Chemical  Industry  as  Used  in  the 
Manufacture  of  Intermediate  Products 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  November  15,  1916,  p.  SHo 

Article  on  Reductions  with  Large  Scale,  mentioning  the  use  of  iron,  tin,  zinc,  and 
sodium  sulphide.  The  most  valuable  part  of  this  review  is  contained  in  the  section 
f)n  apparatus. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC  ' 


Formation  of  Toluene  from  Xylene  F.  Fischer  and  H.  Niggemann 

and  Benzene 

J.  8oc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1006 

Xylene,  on  boiling  with  2%  to  4%  of  aluminum  chloride  for  two  hours,  yields  12% 
of  toluene  together  with  some  benzene  and  higher  homologuen. 

Nitration  of  Toluene  to  T.  N.  T.  I.  W.  Humphrey 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1916,  p.  998 

Tabulation  of  Experiments  in  which  the  concentrations  and  proportions  of  acids, 
time,  and  temperature  of  reaction  are  varied  and  correlated  with  the  yield  of 
trinitrotoluene  obtained  from  crude  mononitrotoluene. 

Census  of  Artificial  DyestufTe  used  in  the  U.  S.  T.  H.  Norton 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1916,  p.  1039 


Patent  Abstracts 

U.  S.  Patents 

1205223  H.  E.  Kock        MDU 

An  Apparatus  for  Coating  Sensitive  Emulsions  on  Plates  or  Films.    The  emulsion 
is  fed  from  a  temperature-controlled  reservoir  through  a  long,  narrow  slot  to  a  brush  . 
which  spreads  it  upon  the  plates  or  films  mounte<l  on  an  endless  carrier.     The 
carrier  is  inclined  vertically  about  10  degrees,  so  as  to  form  a  bead  or  puddle  atljacent 
the  brush  to  avoid  brush  marks. 

1207513  W.  H.  Doherty         K2115 

A  Camera  for  use  in  Color  Photography.  A  pair  of  double  reflecting  rhomboidal 
prisms  are  arranged  to  slide  in  paths  at  right  angles  to  each  other,  each  path  being 
at  45  degrees  to  the  axis  of  the  lens.  By  a  suitable  actuating  mechanism  each  prism 
is  moved  so  as  to  reflect  light  to  a  color  sensitive  plate  through  a  proper  filter,  and 
at  one  stage  of  the  operation  direct  rays  from  the  lens  act  upon  a  thirtl  plate. 

1204401  A.  D.  Brixey         K824 

A  Screen  upon  which  Pictures  may  be  Projected.  It  is  esiiecially  adapted  for  tlie 
viewing  of  colored  projected  pictures  even  in  daylight.  It  consists  of  glass  coated 
wth  an  intimate  mixture  of  red,  blue  and  green  starch  particle*  in  such  proportion 
as  to  give  the  eflect  of  white  and  a  layer  of  ground  glass. 

1206000  L.  Kitsee        K/33 

A  Process  of  Making  the  Color  Screen  Elements  for  Auto-Chromes.  Cellulose  is 
dissolved  in  acetone  or  amyl  acetate  and  suitably  colored.  It  is  then  sprayed  from  a 
considerable  height  into  a  steam  atmosphere,  so  as  to  break  it  up  into  minute  colored 
globules,  which  are  used  in  place  of  the  conventional  starch  grains. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


1175224  W.  F.  Bleecker        K/33 

Ceramic  Method  of  Producing  Color  Screen  Plate.  For  the  preparation  of  the 
screen  the  color  elements  are  obtained  in  spherical  granules  of  a  transparent  and 
fupible  substance,  such  as  glass,  by  running  a  fine  stream  of  the  powdered  material 
into  a  hot-air  blast  which  heats  the  granules  to  the  melting  point,  when  they  be<(jme 
spherical  by  the  action  of  surface  tension,  while  the  separating  action  of  the  blast 
prevents  coalescence.  The  spherical' granules  are  sifted  to  uniform  size  and  then 
mixed  in  the  desired  proportion  of  the  colors.  • 

1207527         W.  F.  Fox,  Assigned  to  Kinemacolor  Co.  of  America         K/43 

A  Process  of  Color  Photography.  Two  negative  images  are  made,  one  taken 
through  a  green  filter  and  one  through  a  red  filter.  One  of  these  is  printed  upon 
positive  material  and  toned  to  a  color  complementary  to  that  of  the  screen  through 
which  the  corresponding  negative  was  taken.  Next  the  other  negative  is  printed  on 
the  positive  material  in  registry  with  the  toned  image  thereon  and  the  st  cond  positive 
image  is  dyed  a  color  complementary  to  that  of  the  screen  through  which  its  negative 
was  taken.  The  patentee  states  that  the  method  may  be  used  either  where  the  two 
positive  images  are  upon  the  same  side  of  the  positive  film  stock  or  where  they  are 
formed  ujfcn  opposite  sides.  The  second  negative  is  printed  over  the  first  positive 
image  on  the  previously  exposed  positive  emulsion  without  first  developing  and 
resensiti/Jng. 

1203802  J.  J.  C.  Smith,  Assigned  to  P.  M.  Hammalian         A07336 

An  Etching  Machine  in  which  the  etching  fluid  is  agitated  by  compres8e<l  air 
bubbled  through  a  false  bottom.  The  plate  is  held  face  downwards  and  a  handle  is 
provided  by  means  of  which  the  plate  can  l)e  dashed  into  the  mordant  occasionally. 

1207042  F.  W.  Hochstetter,  As.signed  to  H.  P.  Patents        0632     Go 

and  Processes  Company,  Inc. 

A  Combined  Developer  and  Fixer  adapted  to  be  absorbed  by  a  strip  of  felt,  which 
is  wound  up  with  motion  picture  film  immediately  after  exposure  so  as  to  develop 
and  fix  the  film  in  the  shortest  poasible  time  after  the  pictures  are  taken. 

1207506  G.  R.  Cornwall        07004 

A  Method  of  Printmg  by  the  so-called  **  Vandyke"  Process,  in  which  the  original 
is  rendered  adhesive ;  this  allows  an  incorrect  portion  to  be  cut  away  and  substituted 
by  the  correction. 

1205367  J.  A.  MacBride         1212 

A  Motion  Picture  Film  provided  at  its  marginal  portions,  just  inside  the  usual 
perforations,  with  a  series  of  spaced  projections  forced  out  of  the  film  body  so  that 
when  the  film  is  coiled  up  the  various  convolutions  will  bc»  spaced,  thereby  avoiding 
abrasion. 

1204141  C.Ellis        1511 

A  Pn>ci'8.s  of  Making  Sulfur  Trioxide  by  passing  .sulfur  dioxide  and  oxygen  into 
contact  with  a  catalyst  which  includes  chromium  oxide  and  antimony  oxide. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


1204142  C.  Ellis        1511 

A  Procese  of  Making  Sulfuric  Anhydride,  by  paFsing  a  mixture  of  sulfur  dioxide 
and  air  into  contact  with  porous  massis  of  tin  oxide  mixed  with  rhroniium  oxide  to 
act  as  a  catalyzer. 

1204143  C.  Ellis         1511 
A  Catalyst  for  use  in  making  sulfur  trioxide  consisting  of  chromium  and  tin  oxides. 

1205723  A.  M.  Fairlie        1511 

The  Production  of  Sulfuric  Acid  by  the  Chamber  Process.  The  penmen tage  of 
sulfur  dioxide  is  determined  in  the  gases  of  the  chamber  near  the  Glover  tower,  in 
the  burner  gases,  and  in  the  chamber  gases  near  the  Gay-Lussac  tower.  From  this 
data  the  relative  amounts  of  sulfur  dioxide  and  nitrogen  oxides  are  so  proportioned 
as  to  permit  the  maximum  recovery  of  nitrogen  oompoimds  in  the  Gay-Lussat*  tower. 

1205724  A.  M.  Fairlie         1511 

A  Method  for  Rapidly  Determining  Sulfur  Dioxide  in  gases  used  in  the  chamber 
process  of  making  sulfuric  acid,  the  object  being  to  avoid  errors  due  to  oxides  of 
nitrogen.  The  gases  are  passed  into  a  solution  containing  a  standard  iodine  solution 
with  a  starch  indicator,  sodium  acetate  and  acetic  acid. 

1195075  T.  C.  Oliver,  Ar.  Chemical  Construction  Co.         1511 

Metliod  of,  and  Apparatus  for,  Concentrating  Acids.  The  acid  is  passed  down- 
wards through  a  tower,  hot  gases  being  passed  upwards. 

1206062  and  1206063  F.  S.  Washburn         1511 

A  Process  of  Making  Nitric  Acid  and  Ammonium  Nitrate  by  oxidizing  ammonia 
in  the  presence  of  a  catalyst.  The  gases  are  conducted  so  rapidly  that  a  small  per- 
centage of  ammonia  is  left  uncombined  after  the  action  of  the  catalyst,  in  order  to 
minimize  the  splitting  up  of  the  intermediate  oxides  of  nitrogen  into  their  elements. 

1197019  H.  Essex  and  B.  T.  Brooks        1516 

Process  for  Making  Amyl  Acetate.     Cf.  This  Bulletin,  November,  1916,  p.  13. 

1205822  A.  P.  H.  Trivelli         1699 

A  Motion  Picture  Film  which  has  been  renovated  and  the  scratches  therein 
eliminated  by  varnishing  with  a  mixture  of  cellulose  ester,  drying  oil  and  salts  of  a 
resin  acid,  the  varnish  having  substantially  the  same  coefficient  of  refraction  as  the 
film. 

1206253  J.  B.  Roan        2284 

A  Lantern  Slide  for  Exhibiting  a  Watch  Movement.  It  includes  two  glass  plates, 
between  which  the  watch  skeleton  is  held  by  pins  which  extend  into  holes  in  one  of 
the  glass  plates. 

1206700  G.  F.  Haskins        2284 

A  Lantern  Slide  for  Exhibiting  AVatch  Movements.      The  watch  skeleton  in  held 

between  parallel  glass  plates  by  fastenings  which  engage  the  watch  eteiii./'^p.^^Tp 

igi  ize      y  g 

17 


1206984  A.  C.  R.  Bloom        2235 

A  Projection  Apparatus  for  Successively  Exhibiting  the  Pictures  on  a  Strip  of 
ordinary  Positive  Film,  the  apparatus  being  a  relatively  simple  one  for  use  in  store 
windows.  Mechanism  is  provided  for  shutting  off  the  electricity  to  the  projection 
lamp  while  the  film  is  being  moved  to  change  from  one  picture  to  the  next. 

1207105  E.  R.  Weishaupt        231 

A  Flash  Light  Igniter  which  utilizes  a  pyrophoric  alloy. 

1205893  T.  Heinen        254 

An  Apparatus  for  Developing  Photographic  Plates  by  daylight.  A  light  tight 
casing  is  provided  above  a  developing  tank  with  a  station  in  the  side  where  a  plate 
holder  may  be  placed  containing  an  exposed  plate.  A  horizontally  actuated  conveyor 
is  located  in  the  casing  to  receive  the  exposed  plate  from  the  plate  holder.  After 
receiving  the  plate,  it  is  shifted  centrally  over  the  developing  tank  and  the  plate 
lowered  into  the  bath. 

1205708  E.  W.  Caldwell        254 

A  Photographic  Developing  Apparatus  comprising  a  pivoted  developing  tank,  the 
walls  of  which  are  of  poor  heat  conducting  material,  the  tank  being  oscillated  by  an 
electric  motor  to  agitate  the  developer.  To  minimi/^  oxidation  of  the  developer  and 
at  the  same  time  permit  it  to  be  cooled,  the  tank  is  provided  with  a  dish-shaped 
cover  which  sets  down  into  the  develoi)er  and  is  filled  with  ice. 

1207036  H.  K.  Hennigh        259 

A  Developing  Box  which  may  be  also  used  as  a  changing  l)ox.  A  light  tight  box 
is  provided  with  an  observation  opening  in  the  top  having  the  usual  eye  sliade  and 
ruby  glass.  In  two  sides  of  the  box  are  openings  through  which  the  operator's  arms 
may  enter,  the  openings  being  provided  with  light  tight  sleeves. 

120.5079  W.  N.  Bartlett        2626 

A  Device  for  Actuating  Camera  Shutters  from  a  distance,  so  that  the  operator 
can  include  himself  in  the  picture.  A  large  arrangement  resembling  a  pair  of  tongs 
is  applied  to  the  end  of  a  cable  release  and  is  fastened  on  any  suitable  wooden  supjwrt. 
The  tongs  are  actuated  by  a  string  whicli  the  operator  pulls. 

1204506  F.  W.  Smising        2626 

A  Shutter  Actuator  for  Tripping  the  Shutter  after  an  Interval,  in  order  that  the 
operator  may  include  himself  in  the  picture.  It  includes  a  spring-pressed  piston,  the 
motion  of  which  i«  controlled  by  a  needle  valve  which  admits  a  small  stream  of  air 
behind  the  moving  parts.  It  is  attached  to  the  camera  trip  by  a  pair  of  jaws,  which 
hold  it  in  alinement  with  said  trip. 

1205486  F.  L.  Scott        2626 

Another  Device  for  Actuating  the  Camera  Shutter  so  that  the  operator  may  include 
himself  in  the  pictures.  An  extension  is  provided  for  the  ordinary  shutter  actuating 
lever  and  from  this  extension  is  suspended  a  cord  upon  which  a  clock-work  actuated 
reel  is  hung.  The  mechanism  is  set  so  that  aft<'r  a  desired  interval  the  reel  suddenly 
unwinds  and  the  clock-work  thus  drops,  giving  a  sudden  pull  to  the  extension  and 
shutter  actuating  lever. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 
18  ^ 


1205393  W.  A.  Riddell,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         264 

A  Foldiiig  View  Finder  proTided  wilh  a  Mask  which  may  be  rotated  by  hand 
throng  90  degreei  according  to  whether  the  piotnre  being  taken  is  a  horizontal  or  a 
vertical  one. 

1206372  J.  F.  Polhemus,  Aseigneid  to  Anaoo  Company        264 

A  Folding  Finder  for  Hand  Cameras.  It  is  of  the  reflecting  type  and  \»  adapted 
to  be  turned  through  90  degrees  when  changing  from  horizontal  to  vertical  piotores  or 
vice  versa.  It  is  provided  with  a  rotating  mask  having  a  rectangular  opening,  the 
mask  being  provided  with  teeth  which  mesh  with  teeth  on  the  stationary  lens  mount- 
ing, so  that  wheti  the  finder  is  tamed  through  90  degrees,  the  mask  is  automatically 
turned  to  give  the  correct  view. 

11M)6357  G.  W.  Nu8l)auui        3109 

An  Arrangement  for  Preventing  the  Generation  of  Static  Electricity  in  Motion 
Picture  Apparatus.  The  idea  is  to  make  the  film  guiding  surfaces,  rollers,  etc.,  out 
of  the  same  material  as  the  film,  for  eitample,  out  of  Pyroxylin. 

1204585  F.  Norte        32    221 

An  Apparatus  for  Projecting  Heading  Mattar  line  by  line  at  appropriate  timen 
daring  the  exhibition  of  motion  pictures.  It  is  particularly  inteinled  to  project  trans- 
lations of  reading  matter  accompanying  foreign  films.  t 

1205427  J.  W.  Billings        320 

An  Attachment  for  Motion  Picture  Machines  whereby  items  of  descriptive  matttT 
are  thrown  on  the  dbreen  in  timed  relation  to  the  motion  pictures.  The  it^ms  of 
dsscription  are  printed  radially  upon  a  circular  film  disk^  which  is  intermittently 
rotated  by  electromagnet  means  to  bring  the  printed  matter  successively  into  pro- 
jecting position.  The  main  motion  picture  film  is  provided  at  appropriate  intervals 
with  metallic  contact  buttons,  which  at  the  correct  time  complete  an  electric  circuit 
through  two  contact  rolls,  thereby  actuating  the  disk  carrying  the  descriptive  matter. 
The  latter  disk  maybe  provided  with  contact  buttons  which  complete  electric  circuits 
to  farther  auxiliary  apparatus. 

1205772  A.  Mehlfelder,  Assigned  to  Elizabeth  Mehlfelder        3201 

A  Mechanism  for  Producing  an  Intermittent  Feed  Motion  in  Motion  Picture 
Apparatus.  It  tnclodes  a  continuotisly  rotating  shaft  and  an  alined  counter  shaft,  the 
continuously  rotating  shaft  carrying  a  cam  which  operates  a  series  of  shif table  slides 
which  co-operate  with  holes  in  a  member  on  the  intermittently  driven  shaft. 

1204272  F.  A.  Hardy  man         3204 

A  Lamp  House  for  a  Motion  Picture  Projector.  It  consists  of  a  tubular  sheet  metal 
body  provided  at  the  front  with  a  frustro-conical  extension  and  at  the  rear  with  a 
concave  reflector  at  the  focus  of  which  an  incandescent  lamp  is  located. 

1204425  A.  F.  Gall         320*> 

A  Device  for  Holding  the  *  *  Stereopticon  "  Lens  which  is  usually  fumiHlied  with  a 
motion  picture  machine  to  project  lantern  slides.  The  holder  is  provided  not  only 
wi^  adjuatiag  means  for  moving  the  lens  forward  and  backward  when  focusing,  but 
also  with  means  for  swinging  it  laterally  so  as  to  center  the  picture  upon  ^•^'^^'pT^f  >> 

19 


1207298  W.  W.  Kircher        3208 

A  Reeling  Arrangement  for  Motion  lecture  Apparatus.  It  includes  upper  and 
lower  reels  arranged  in  parallel,  vertical  planes.  The  film  is  guided  from  the  interior 
of  the  upper  winding  reel  into  the  vertical  plane  of  the  lower  reels  and  then  through 
the  projection  apparatus.  In  returning,  it  is  guided  from  the  interior  of  the  lower 
winding  reel  into  the  plane  of  the  upper  reel. 

12a5648  W.  H.  H.  Knight        321 

A  Motion  Picture  Machine  which,  when  used  as  a  projec^r,  does  not  need  to 
employ  a  shutter.  It  includes  a  vertically  reciprocating  carriage  carrying  a  set  of  film 
moving  rolls  and  sprockets  which  are  driven  by  complex  mechanism,  whereby  the 
film  is  held  stationary  for  a  relatively  long  interval  and  then  shifted  the  length  of  one 
picture  with  such  extreme  rapidity  that  the  shift  is  invisible  to  the  audience. 

1204771  M.  C.  Hopkins        322 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  in  which  the  pictures  are  projected  upon  a  screen 
from  a  continuously  and  uniformly  moving  film  without  the  use  of  a  shutter,  so  that 
the  screen  is  never  in  darkness.  It  includes  a  stationary  lamp  house,  a  stationary 
projecting  lens  and  a  pair  of  oppositely  rotating  polygonal  refracting  bodies  of  glass, 
which  are  rotated,  one  between  the  film  and  the  lamp  house  and  the  other  between 
the  film  ^d  the  lens. 

1204091         K.  von  Madaler,  Assigned  to  Projectophone  Co.,  Inc.         323 

An  Apparatus  for  Preparing  Ck)mbined  Motion  Picture  and  Phonograph  Records,  so 
as  to  produce  absolute  synchronism.  Motion  pictures  and  a  phonographic  record  are 
taken  simultaneously  of  a  scene  in  the  usual  way.  The  motion  picture  positive  is 
then  run  through  the  present  apparatus  and  a  phonographic  record  is  made  in  fhe 
edge  thereof  from  the  original  phonographic  record.  As  the  original  phonographic 
record  is  turned  it  oscillates  a  needle  which  actuates  a  lever  carrying  a  heated  platinum 
wire  which  bears  against  the  moving  picture  strip  so  that  for  every  wave  in  the 
original  phonographic  record  a  corresponding  wave  will  be  burned  or  melted  into  the 
edge  of  the  motion  picture  strip. 

1204775  A.  T.  Jacobsson        324 

A  Motion  Picture  Screen  composed  of  a  fireproofed  canvas  base  coated  a  pure 
white  with  French  zinc.  The  surface  is  covered  with  a  layer  of  minute  glass  globulee, 
for  example,  Ballontino  pearls,  which  are  treated  with  hydrofiuoric  acid  to  remove 
their  polish. 

1206287  L.  J.  Auerbacher,  Assigned  to  The  Federal  Screen        324 

Corporation  of  New  York 

A  Process  of  Making  Projection  Screens.  It  consists  in  facing  a  fabric  or  wire 
cloth  with  a  layer  of  pyroxylin  on  each  face,  the  layer  upon  one  of  the  faces  being 
given  a  series  of  minute  lenticular  formations. 

1206286  H.  V.  Ashby        326 

A  Toy  Motion  Picture  Machine.  The  picture  strip  is  mounted  on  the  periphery 
of  a  drum  which  is  intermittently  rotated  to  successively  pass  the  pictures  under  an 
observation  window  and  beneath  a  magnifying  glass.  ^-^  I 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


1204424  A.  F.  Gall        325 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  for  exhibiting  films  upon  which  the  pictaree  are 
arranged  in  three  or  more  paraUel  rows.  The  mechanism  is  such  that  after  one  row 
of  pictures  is  exhibited  the  operator  may  shift  the  film  to  exhibit  the  next  adjacent 
row  and  so  on. 

1205996  E.  A.  Ivatts,  Assigned  to  Compagnie  Generale  de        325 

Phonographes  Cinematographes  et  Appareils  de  Precision 

A  Motion  Picture  Projecting  Apparatus  which  is  provided  with  its  own  illumin- 
ating means.  The  crank  which  drives  the  film  feed  is  connected  to  also  drive  an 
electric  generator  which  is  provided  with  a  speed  governor.  The  film  feeding 
mechanism  may  be  disconnected  from  the  driving  mechanism  to  permit  the  film  to 
be  readily  rewound. 

1205632  L.  J.  R.  Hoist,  Assigned  to  Lubin  Film  Co.         34 

A  Printing  Machine  for  Motion  Pictures  in  which  the  intensity  of  the  printing 
light  is  varied  to  correspond  with  the  changes  in  density  in  the  negative  film,  thereby 
obtaining  uniformity  in  the  positive.  A  disk  is  provided  with  a  circular  series  of 
apertures  of  progressively  increasing  size,  the  disk  being  intermittently  operated  to 
bring  difierent  sized  apertures  in  front  of  the  printing  light.  The  negative  film  is 
provided  at  the  points  where  the  density  changes  with  seta  of  long  perforations  which 
operate  an  electro-magnetic  apparatus  which  turns  the  disk  to  bring  the  proper 
aperture  in  front  of  the  printing  light. 

1206582  J.  Tessier,  Assigned  to  Lubin  Film  Co.        34 

A  Printing  Machine  for  Motion  Pictnns,  so  arranged  that  tlie  printing  light  is 
varied  in  accordance  with  the  printing  density  of  the  different  portions  of  negative 
fibn.  A  disk  is  provided  with  a  circular  series  of  apertures  which  can  be  adjusted  in 
advance.  These  apertures  are  moved  successively  in  front  of  the  printing  light  to 
vary  its  intensity.  The  step  by  step  motion  of  the  disk  is  caused  by  perforations 
made  in  the  negative  film  each  time  a  marked  change  in  density  is  present.  The 
apertures  in  the  disk  are  prearranged  to  correspond  to  the  changes  in  density  and 
consequently  to  correspond  to  the  apertures  in  the  negative  film. 

1206039  J.  E.  Singleton  and  S.  T.  White        387 

A  Machine  for  Cleaning  Film  by  pulling  it  through  a  channel  lined  with  felt,  the 
channel  being  inclined  to  the  direction  of  pull,  so  that  the  upper  surface  of  the  film 
is  especially  rubbed  at  one  end  of  the  channel  and  the  under  side  of  the  film  is 
especially  rubbed  at  the  opposite  end. 

1205583  J.  Tessier,  Assigned  to  Lubin  Mfg.  Co.         387 

A  Machine  for  Cleaning  and  Polishing  Film.  The  film  passes  through  a  series  of 
mechanisms,  one  of  which  applies  a  fluid,  such  as  alcohol  to  its  surface,  a  second 
brushes  it,  a  third  polishes  it,  etc.  The  tension  of  the  film  is  regulated  by  a  pivoted 
idler  roller. 

1200567  H.  A.  Wood 

1201787,  1201788  John  C.  Yetter 

Relate  to  Improvements  in  Rotary  Photogravure  Printing  Machines. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


British  Patents 

B14225-1916  Pancromotion  Inc.,  Assignees  of        K/24 

C.  R.  and  W.  van  D.  Kelley 

CJolor  Cinematography.  Modification  of  the  two-color  successive  additive  pro- 
cess in  which  in  order  to  cut  down  the  exposure,  each  exposure  is  made  first  through 
a  color  taking  filter  and  then  with  a  subsequent  exposure  to  white  or  yellow  light, 
the  rotating  filter  disk  being  provided  with  slots  which  can  be  either  clear  or  filled 
with  a  yellow  color  filter  so  that  each  of  the  color  separa^n  negatives  is  partly  ex- 
posed for  its  own  color  and  partly  to  white  light.  ^ 

B20396-1913  J.  Szczepanik  and  F.  Habrow        K/93 

Bleach-Out  Process.  One  claim  is  for  a  process  of  making  coatings  or  emulsions 
for  use  in  the  bkach-out  process,  which  consists  in  spreading  granules  dyed  with  dyes 
of  the  three  colors  (red,  yellow  and  blue),  which  will  not  diffuse  from  their  proper 
granules  with  or  without  a  binding  medium,  which  may  also  be  sensitized  and  dyed 
with  a  non-diflfuslng  dye. 

B100224  O.  Rohm        1411 

Treatment  of  Raw  Cotton.  Alkali  treatment  before  bleaching  is  replaced  by 
digestion  at  20°- 40°  C  with  a  0.1%  solution  of  pancreatin  or  similar  enzyme. 

B101555.1916  H.  Dreyfus        1513 

Celhilose  Acetates.  In  the  production  of  cellulose  acetates  insoluble  in  chloro- 
form but  soluble  in  alcohol-chloroform,  condensing  agents  other  than  suphurie  acid 
are  employed,  or  mixtures  of  sulphuric  acid  with  other  condensing-agents,  and  the 
cellnloee  is  subjected  to  a  preliminary  hydration  or  hydrolysis  at  a  temperature 
lower  than  that  at  which  aoetylation  is  effected ;  the  acetylation  is  stopped  when  the 
product  shows  the  desired  solubility. 

B13608.1915  V.  Wolny        2131 

Folding  Keflex  Cameras.  The  invention  relates  to  a  type  of  folding  reflex  camera 
in  which  the  focusing  screen  folds  downwards.  A  light-tight  seal  between  the  mirror 
(when  raised)  and  the  focusing  screen  is  formed  by  a  folding  frame,  which,  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  invention,  is  formed  of  bellows  connecting  the  two  frames  which 
hold  the  mirror  and  focusing  screen  respectively. 

B11312-1915  F.  F.  Church        2153 

See  U.  S.  Pat.  1202160.     (This  Bulletin,  December,  1916,  p.  20). 

B101389-1916  J.  Merrett        281 

Mount  Bevellers.  This  refers  to  apparatus  in  which  the  cutting  is  done  by  means 
of  an  inclined  blade  moving  over  the  edge  of  a  fixed  blade  on  which  the  card  is 
clamped.  The  apparatus  in  the  invention  is  made  so  as  to  clamp  the  card  at  one 
end  only  by  means  of  a  guide  block,  and  the  movable  blade  is  entirely  detached  from 
other  parts  of  the  apparatus,  being  guided  at  an  acute  angle  to  the  cutting  edge,  thus 
obtaining  a  push  cut  similar  to  that  of  a  carpenter's  plane. 

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B12741-1915  L.  J.  E.  Colardeau  and  J.  Richard         218-083 

Telephoto  Stereoscopic  Camera.  The  invention  is  a  steroecopic  camera  fitted 
with  a  pair  of  telephoto  lenses  and  intended  for  use  from  aircraft. 

B8201-1915  E.  E.  Press        3203 

Cinematographs.  Means  for  advancing  and  rotating  the  shutter  around  its  axis 
while  in  motion. 

B13185-1915  A.  W.  Kingston         364 

Cinematograph  View-Finder.  The  invention  consists  of  a  minature  camera,  to 
be  fixed  to  the  side  of  the  cinematograph  camera,  and  provided  with  a  lens  in  a 
helical  mount.  In  focusing  an  object  witli  this  finder-camera  the  position  of  the  lever 
operating  the  lens  shows  on  a  sc&le  the  distance  of  the  camera,  and  the  focus  of  the 
main  camera  can  be  set  accordingly.  Moreover,  the  focusing  screen  of  the  finder- 
camera  is  caused  to  nlide  across  the  axis  of  the  lens  as  tlie  lens  is  moved,  and  the 
finder-camera  thus  caused  to  show  the  same  view  as  the  main  camera. 


French  Patents 

477173     First  addition  L.  Paris  and  G.  Picard         K/33 

Process  for  the  Reduction  of  Exposure  in  Color  Photography.  Grains  of  phos- 
phorescent zinc  sulphide  are  substituted  for  the  starch  grains  as  in  the  Autochrome 
plate.  These  are  treated  successively  with  alum  and  ammonia  solutions,  and  the 
gelatinous  alumina  stained. 

478436-1914  Usines  du  Rhone         1513 

Preparation  of  New  Cellulose  Esters.     (J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.  1916,  p.  1009). 

478404-1910  '  H.  de  Chardonnet         1514 

Process  and  Apparatus  for  denitrating,  bleaching,  dyeing  and  otherwise  treating 
collodion  threads.     (J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1009). 


German  Patents 

DRP  292723  G.  W.  A.  Sosna  and  J.  E.  Biederbach         Go 

Addition  to  DRP  288328.  Photographic  Materials  with  addition  of  a  dye  by 
which  light  sensitiveness  is  reduced.  Phenolphthalein  or  similar  substance  is  coated 
on  the  plate  or  film.  This  reacts  with  the  alkali  of  the  developer  to  give  a  colored 
solution  which  protects  the  emulsion  from  difl*used  daylight  during  development.  J. 
Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1083. 

DRP  292352.  A.  Spitzer  and  L.  VVilhelm         J84 

Process  for  the  Simulianeous  Toning  and  Fixing  of  Silver  Photographic  Images. 
Combined  toning  and  fixing  baths  containing  sodium  or  ammonium  thiosulphate  and 
salts  (sodium)  of  tellurous  or  telluric  acids.     J.  h?oc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1083. 

DRP  293004  C.  Schleussner         K/33 

Multicolored  Screens  for  Color  Photography  consisting  of  colloidal  particles  stained 

wiih  different  colors  and  subsequently  caused  to  coalesce  by  swelling  in  a  suitable 

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f  p,    .'i^O^,  i 


Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


v^ 


February,  1917 


Issued  hy  the  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COMPANY 

Rochester.  Nevt'York 


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f 


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Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  2  No.  9 


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.•f  „ 


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^^ 


Photography 

Warm  Development  Gil       / 

B.  J.,  1916,  pp.  669,  695  "^ 

A  note  pointing  out  that  it  is  usua]  for  press  photographers,  who  desire  to  get 
the  maximum  detail  out  of  a  negative,  to  employ  a  concentrated  developer  and  warm 
the  same  to  a  point  bordering  on  the  melting  point  of  the  gelatine.  A  preliminary 
bath  in  formalin,  or  an  addition  of  formalin  to  the  developer   is  also  recommended. 

From  experiments  conducted  in  the  Laboratory,  the  addition  of  formalin  to  most 
developers  produces  more  or  less  fog,  while  if  formalin  be  used  as  a  preliminary  bath, 
the  plate  should  be  well  rinsed  before  development.  The  use  of  warm  developers, 
even  for  developing  high-speed  plates,  cannot  be  recommended,  since  at  high  tempera- 
tures the  rate  of  production  of  chemical  fog  is  greater  than  the  rate  of  growth  of  the 
image  in  the  shadows.  For  developing  extreme  under  exposures  on  highspeed  plates, 
the  use  of  a  strong  pyro  developer  without  bromide,  at  a  temperature  not  above  70° 
is  recommended. 

Securing  Registration  in  Double  Printing  J 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  34 

A  reprint  from  Photography.  Describing  a  printing  "dodge"  which  permits  of 
the  viewing  of  the  whole  of  a  p.  o.  p.  image  during  printing.  The  device  is  not  suit- 
able for  film  negatives. 

On  Developing  Bromide  Prints  for  Toning  Harold  Baker        J3-137 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  672 

The  author  considers  that  the  important  factor  which  determinee  the  color  of 
sulfide  toned  prints  is  the  time  of  exposure  given  to  the  print.  A  print  developed 
with  hydrochinon,  or  a  metol  developer  restrained  with  bromide,  gives  m  much  warmer 
tone  than  a  print  made  with  a  straight  metol  developer.  The  author  is  a  strong  ad- 
vocate of  the  time  method  of  development,  developing  from  2}i  to  3>^  minutes.  A 
number  of  prints  are  developed  at  once,  thus  removing  any  error  due  to  exhaustion 
of  the  developer.    The  author  also  recommends  the  use  of  two  fixing  baths. 

Toning  Bromide  and  Oaslight  Papers  with  Cobalt  J81 

Camera,  1917,  p.  59 

Drying  I^rge  Prints  L.  Heath        J9 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  707 

When  washing  and  drying  large  prints,  it  is  recommended  that  the  prints  be 
clipped  together  back  to  back,  which  prevents  their  curling  and  drying. 

The  Urban-Joy  Process  of  Color  Cinematography  K/24 

Motion  Picture  News,  1917,  p.  296 

Gives  a  clearly  worded  description  of  the  improved  Kin^nacolor  camera  and 
projector  which  reduce  to  a  minimum  color  fringes  and  color  flicker. 


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The  Visual  Centre  of  a  Rectangle,  and  its  Influence        C.W.  Piper        Nl 
on  the  Mounting  of  Prints 

.  B.  J.,  1916,  p.  700 
The  author  attempts  an  explanation  as  to  why  the  visual  centre  of  a  rectangle 
rarely  coincides  with  the  geometrical  center,  the  former  being  invariably  above  the 
latter.  He  considers,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  eye  is  accustomed  to  measuring 
distances  downwards  and  not  upwards,  that  the  extra  effort  in  measuring  upwards 
tends  to  magnify  such  distances  to  the  mind,  and  hence  the  reason  for  the  placing 
of  the  visual  centre  above  the  geometric  centre. 

Collecting  Silver  Residues  D.  Charles         PI 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  691 
A  detailed  description  of  the  usual  method  of  recovering  silver  from  fixing  baths, 
etc.,  by  dumping  the  same  into  a  solution  of  sodium  sulfide. 

Tone  Reproduction  and  Its  Limitations  F.  F.  Renwick         01 

Phot.  Jour.,  1916,  p.  222 
The  article  deals  with  the  monochrome  reproduction. of  tone,  i.  e.,  brightness,  by 
the  photographic  process.  The  range  of  contrast  existing  in  nature  is  stated  to  extend, 
from  1  to  2  up  to  1  to  60.  The  ability  of  negative  and  positive  materials  to  reproduce 
contrast  is  discussed.  Curves  are  given  which  show  the  relations  that  must  exist 
between  the  characteristics  of  the  negative  and  positive  materials  in  order  to  obtain 
reproduction  of  tone.  A  photomet^^'r  for  the  measurement  of  refli^cting  power  is 
described.  Ctmsiderable  space  is  devoted  to  a  discussion  of  the  effect  of  visual 
accomodation  upon  the  contrast  of  a  photographic  reproduction.  The  author  makes 
several  statements  in  regard  to  the  retinal  sensibility  that  are  incorrect  and  hence  his 
conclusions  in  regard  to  the  resultant  subjective  contrast  are  subject  to  serious  doubt. 
The  paper,  however,  as  a  whole,  is  good  and  brings  out  some  very  interesting  points 
in  regard  to  tone  reproduction. 

Photo-chemical  Effects  of  a  Horseshoe  Magnet  F.  F.  Mace         01 

•  B.  J.,  1916,  p.  678 
The  author  has  observed  that  by  placing  a  photographic  plate  over  the  poles  of  a 
magnet,  placing  thereon  objects  of  iron,  lead,  zinc,  sealing  wax,  etc.,  and  enclosing 
the  whole  in  an  evacuated  chamber,  that  after  a  period  of  20  days,  the  plate  on 
development  was  found  to  be  fogged  underneath  the  articles,  thus  giving  a  photo- 
graphic reproduction  of  the  same.  As  the  e<litors  point  out,  it  would  be  interesting 
to  know  if  the  action  was  not  due  to  emanations  from  the  articles  in  question,  by 
leaving  the  objects  in  contact  with  the  plate,  but  not  exposed  to  the  action  of  the 
ibagnetic  field. 

Gradations  in  Negatives  and  Prints.  016 

Camera,  1917,  p.  13 
An  article  from  the  Eastman  Kodak  Publication  department. 

Cinematograph  for  Ordinary  Portraiture  A.  Lockett         034 

i  B.  J.,  1916,  p.  660 

The  author  advocates  the  use  of  a  motion  picture  camera  in  every  photographer's 
studio,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  only  short  lengths  of  film  need  be  exposed,  while  the 
photographer  can  easily  handle  the  developing  himself,  cutting  out  the  few  pictures 
which  he  desires  to  enlarge.  The  limitations  of  the  process  lie  in  the  fact  that  only 
small  enlargements  up  to  5  x  7  can  be  made ;  and  in  any  case,  the  loss  in  definition 
involved  is  a  serious  drawback  to  a  general  adoption  of  this  method. 


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Why  They  Failed  E.  B.  Stephenson        041 

The  Camera,  1916,  p.  651 

A  statistica)  study  of  the  causee  of  failares  in  amateur  negatives. 

Decennia  Practica  046 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  661 

A  third  article  pertaining  to  the  production  of  lantern  slides. 

Motion  Picture  Literature  06 

Mov.  Pict.  News,  Dec.  23,  1916,  p.  4062 
A  very  complete  list  of  books  and  monographs  appertaining  to  motion  picture 
photography  and  projection. 

Photographic  Surveying  in  Canada  M.  P.  Bridgland        084 

Amer.  Phot.,  1917,  p.  23 
Gives  some  interesting  information  on  the  method  and  apparatus  used  in  photo- 
graphic survey. 

The  Choice  of  a  Plate  11 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  668 

Hints  to  the  professional  photographer  on  choosing  a  plate  for  any  particular 
purpose.  Having  found  a  suitable  plate,  the  photographer  is  urged  to  stick  to  the 
same  and  modify  his  methods  of  working  if  anything  goes  wrong,  rather  than  lay  the 
blame  on  the  plate  and  forsake  the  same  fi>r  some  other  brand. 

Proportional  Reducers  K.  Huw*  and  A.  H.  Niotz         1656 

Abers  Phot.  Week.,  1916,  p.  580 
Communication  No.  39  from  the  Research  laboratory  of  the  Eastman  Kodak  Co. 

A  Non-Bromide  Bleach  for  Sulfide  Toning  H.  Baker         1661 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  659 

In  view  of  the  high  price  of  potassium  bronndo,  a  potassium  bichromate-sodium 
chloride  bleaching  bath  for  the  8ulft«ie  toning  of  pi  intt?  is  recommended.  In  order  to 
prevent  yellow  stained  highlights,  the  author  recommends  the  use  of  a  second  fixing 
bath,  thus  eliminating  the  possibility  of  a  retention  of  any  silver  salt  by  the  print. 
The  chief  objection  to  the  bichromate  bath  is  tlie  prolonge<l  washing  necessary  in 
order  to  eliminate  the  bichromate  before  sulfiding.  The  elimination  may  be  hastened 
by  bathing  in  a  solution  of  sodium  chloride.  The  author  also  ncommends  the  use  of 
alum  in  the  sulfide  bath  in  order  (o  prevent  blisters. 

Decennia  Practica  21 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  67:J 
Cameras  and  Accessories. 

An  Electrical,  Portable  Igniter  for  Magnesium  ('.  L.  Woolley         281 

Flash  Powder 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  680 

An  abstract  of  a  similar  article  in  '*  American  Photography."  The  author 
employs  the  fuse  wire  ignition  method,  and  lays  stress  on  the  nature  of  the  fuse  wire 


J 


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employed.     It  has  been  found  in  the  laboratory  that  iron  vAre  of  gauge  suited  to  the 
current  employed  is  the  best  material  to  be  employed  for  this  purpose. 

Lens  Shades  and  their  Value  W.  S.  Davis         26 

Camera,  1917,  p.  1 
Gives  some  types  of  detachable  lens  shades. 

How  to  Make  a  Holder  for  a  Wratten  Filter  L.  Wendell         26(>S 

Photo  Era,  1917,  p.  24 

Decennia  Practica  27 

B.  J.,  191G,  p.  ()S7 
A  series  of  articles  describing  suitable  studio  equipments. 

Focusing  Mounts  for  Cinematograph  Cameras  3106 

Mov.  Pict.  News,  Jan.  2(),  1917,  p.  457 

A  description  of  the  various  lens  focusing  mounts  for  cinematograph  cameras. 

Decennia  Practica  /61 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  70H 
Daguerreotypes  and  other  direct  positives. 


Photo-Engraving 


The  Central- Western  Conference  of  Manufacturing  Photo-Engravers 
Photo  Eng.  Bull.,  Dec,  1916 

With  the  exception  of  a  reprint  of  the  Research  Laboratory  article  on  the 
**Ratiometer  for  Color  Work'*  in  which  the  illustrations  are  misplaced,  this  issue  is 
devoted  to  an  account  of  the  alx>ve  conference. 

Plate  Printing  R.  F.  Salade  J0714 

Amer.  Printer,  Dec.  20,  1916,  p.  33 

Deals  with  steel  and  copper  plates  (intaglio)  printing. 

Photolithographic  Machine  H.  C.  Boedicker        21     0722 

Amer.  Printer,  Dec.  20,  1916,  p.  70 

Further  notes,  (with  photograph)  on  this  camera. 

A  Wormy  Line  Half-Tone  Screen  S.  H.  Morgan        0734 

Inland  Printer,  Jan.,  1917,  p.  509 

Varnish  or  reticulated  gelatine  may  be  employed ;  it  is  especially  recommended 
that  a  transfer  be  taken  from  Ben  Day's  shading  medium  and  this  photographed. 


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Physics 


The  Adaptability  of  the  Eye  to  the  Illtimination 

Photo  Era,  1917,  p.  9 
Paper  from  the  Eastman  Kodak  Company  Publication  department. 

Optical  Glass:  A  Brief  Historical  Review 

Photo  Era,  1917,  p.  20 

Photo-Electric  Photometrj'  J.  Kunz 

J.  Frank.  In^t.,  1916,  p.  693 

Several  types  of  photo-electric  cells  gave  a  rectilinear  relation  between  light 
intensity  and  photo-electric  current. 

The  Emissive  Power  of  Tungsten  for  Short  E.  0.  Hulbert 

Wave-Lengths 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1916,  p.  696 

The  emissivity  of  timgsten  increases  with  decrease  of  wave-length,  and  with  de- 
crease of  temperature. 

The  Condensation  Pump:  An  Improved  Form  of  I.  Langmuir 

High  Vacuum  Pump 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1916,  p.  719 

Two  new  types  of  mercury  sweep  condensation  pumps  are  described.  The  factors 
foveming  the  speed  and  degree  of  exhauHtion  are  discussed  and  the  theory  of  opera- 
tion given. 

Variation  of  the  Wave-Length  Sensibility  of  H.  E.  Ives 

Photo-Electric  Cells  with  Time 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1916,  p.  811 

A  photo-electric  cell  showed  a  decrease  of  blue  sensitiveness  relative  to  red  of 
about  forty  per  cent,  in  eight  months. 

Hue  Diflference  and  Flicker  Photometer  Speed  H.  E.  Ives 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1916,  p.  812 

The  author  concludes  that  the  minimum  critical  speed  in  comparing  the  spectrum 
against  any  colored  light  occurs  at  the  wavi'-length  which  is  distant  from  the  spectrum 
the  least  number  of  hue  steps. 

A  Direct  Reading  Precision  Refractometer  with  G.  W.  Moffitt 

Uniformly  Divided  Scale 

Phyn.  Rev.,  1916,  p.  663 

The  method  consists  in  placing  a  drop  of  the  ligyaid  to  be  tested  on  a  convex  sur- 
face, bringing  the  nose  of  the  microscope  down  upon  it  and  focusing  the  eyepiece. 

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On  a  Modification  of  the  Hilger  Sector  Pliotoniet(T  Method      H.  E.  Howe 
for  Measuring  Ultra- Violet  Absorption 

Phys.  Rev.,  191G,  p.  674 
It  is  shown  that  under  the  proper  con<litions  tlie  use  of  the  rotating  sector  gives 
correct  results  in  photographic  photometry.      The  aluminum  spark  under  water  gave 
a  satisfactory  continuous  sv>ectrum. 

An  Ionization  Manometer  0.  E.  Buckley 

Pro.  Nat.  Acad.  Sci.,  1916,  p.  683 
Extremely  low  gas  pressure  s  are  measurtxl  })y  tlie  ijuantity  of  positive  ionization 
produce<l  by  an  electron  discharge. 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Glasses  of  France,  Bohemia  and  Germany  P.  Nicolardot 

Comp.  Rend.,  1916,  p.  352 
The    results  of  coniparative    trials  of  n«islance  to  reagents,  to  water,   and  to 
tern j)e rat ure-changes  are  given;  also  analjse.s. 

Standard  Cells  and  the  Nernst  Heat  Beihert,  Hulett  and  Taylor 

Theorem 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  p.  68 

Quantitative  data  are  given  which  in  connection  with  Nernst's  so-called  '*Third 
Law  of  Thermodynamics"  enables  the  voltage  of  the  stan<lard  cell  to  l)e  calculated 
from  heats  of  reaction  and  specific  heats. 

Flotation  Process 

The  Supreme  Court  confirms  the  patent  of  the  Minerals  Separation  Ltd.  versus 
James  H.  Hyde  in  regard  to  7  of  the  ilaims  and  drcidcs  against  3. 


Colloid  Chemistry 

The  Manufacture  of  Linoleum  and  its  Valuation  A.  de  Waele 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  6 

The  o|H*rations  in  the  manufacture*  of  linoleum  are  primarily  concerned  with  the 
series  of  colloid  chemical  reactions  involved  in  the  *'hlowing"  of  boiled  linseed  oil 
to  the  "cement",  a  complex  process  in  which  l>:)th  oxidation  and  polymerization  take 
place,  the  next  result  being  a  "steady  increase  in  the  viscosity  of  the  oil  and  the  forma- 
tion of  a  semi-solid  gel.  Details  are  given  of  the  actual  metho<is  in  vogue,  also  of  the 
analytical  and  organic  chemical  reactions  useful  in  valuation. 

-Emulsions  and  Suspensions  with  Molten  Metals  H.  W.  Gillett 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  31 
The  colloid  chemical  factors  involved  in  the  refining  of  metals  are  emphasized, 
and  attention  directed  to  a  large  number  of  metallic  suspensions  and  emulsions 
occurring  in  metallurgical  operations. 

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Siinilarity  of  Vitreous  and  Aqueous  Solution  A.  Silverman 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  38 

Baaed  largely  on  the  colloid  solutions  of  metals  and  metal  oxides  in  glasses. 

Vamiflh  Analysis  and  M.  Y.  Sea  ton,  E.  Probeck  and  G.  B.  Sawyer 

Varnish  CJontrol.     II.— Viscosity  of  Varnishes 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  35 

It  is  suggested  that  the  viscosity-temperature  carves  allow  a  differentiation  be- 
tween '^tme  solution"  varnishes  and  "colloid  solution"  varnishes,  the  curves  for  the 
former  being  convex  to  the  x-axis,  of  the  latter,  straight  lines  inclined  toward  it. 


Organic  Chemistry 


Nitro  Derivatives  of  Resins  as  Clarifying  Agents  C.  Bauer 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1128      * 

German  Patent,  292,542.  These  substances  can  be  used  for  clearing  turbid  aqueous 
liquids,  such  as  solutions  of  gelatine  or  dextrin.  The  nitrated  compound  in  alcoholic 
solution  is  added  to  the  liquid  to  be  clarified  and  the  mixture  filtered. 

Coumarone  Resin  F.  H.  Meyer         16L3 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1164 

Patented  method  (DRP  204107)  of  obtaining  coumarone  resin  from  solvent 
naphtha.     (See  this  BulleHn,  Sept.,  1916,  U.  S.  Patent  1191801). 

Nature  and  Origin  of  Petroleum  and  Asphalt  C.  Richardson 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  1917,  p.  26 

Study  of  the  asphalt  from  the  well-known  pitch  lake,  Trinidad.  It  appears  that 
a  petroleum,  existing  at  a  considerable  depth,  is  converted  to  a  more  solid  form  of 
bitumen  (asphalt)  by  contact  and  emulsification  with  clay  and  sand  in  colloid  condi- 
tion. The  process  \b  supposed  to  obtain  also  in  .regard  to  natural  gas  in  that  thia,  by 
■urfoce  condensation  on  sand,  is  converted  into  petroleum  oils.  Details  of  com  po- 
rtion of  asphalt,  and  of  various  natural  gases  are  given. 


Analytical  Ghemisty 


Balance  for  the  Rapid  Determination  of  the  C.  Ch^neveau 

Densities  of  Liquid  and  Solid  Bodies 

J.  Phys.,  1916,  p.  103 

Describes  a  densimetric  balance,  similar  to  the  Westphal,  but  with  a  variable 
weighted  counterpoise  arm  moving  along  a  graduated  scale.  The  principal  objects 
iwed  are:  (1)  Determination  of  density  (specific  gravity)  by  direct  reading.  (2) 
A  ^ry  extended  scale  of  densities  with  the  same  precision  in  all  parts  of  the  scale. 
Readings  are  to  four  significant  figures. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


Chemical  Analysis  of  Rubber  Goods 

Caoutchouc,  1916,  p.  9066 

Potassium  Dichromate  as  a  Standard.     11.  G.  Bruhns 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Absts.,  1916,  (ii)  p.  581 

Wagner's  supposition  that  potassium  dichromate  owes  its  high  titration  value  to 
catalytic  promotion  of  oxidation  by  dissolved  oxygen  does  not  bear  the  test  of  experi- 
ment. The  author  republishes  in  the  paper  his  experiments  on  the  time  required  for 
the  complete  separation  of  the  iodine  liberated  from  potassium  iodide  by  very  dilute 
(about  0.002-0.005  N )  potassium  dichromate  solutions  in  the  presence  of  sulphuric  and 
hydrochloric  acid  respectively.  ' 

A  Colorimetrie  Method  for  the  Determination  Higgins  and  Marriott 

of  the  Carbon  Dioxide  Percentage  in  Air 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  68 

The  method  depends  upon  the  fact  that  the  acidity  (or  hydrogen  ion  concentra- 
tion) of  a  standard  solution  of  sodium  bicarbonate  which  has  been  saturated  with  air 
containing  carbon  dioxide,  depends  upon  the  partial  pressure  (a  proportion  by 
volume)  of  carbon  dioxide  in  the  air.  The  acidities  are  determined  colorimetrically 
by  comparison  with  solutions  of  the  dye  phenolsulfonephthalein  in  phosphate  solur 
tions  of  known  acidity  which  are  standardized  in  turn  by  comparison  with  bicarbonate 
solutions  in  equilibrium  with  a  known  partial  pressure  of  carbon  dioxide.  The  ex- 
perimental details  of  the  method  are  simple,  and  satisfactory  results  are  easily 
obtained. 


Patent  Abstracts 

U.  S.  Patents 

1208490  Daniel  F.  Comstock         K32 

Assigned  to  Technicolor  Motion  Picture  Corporation 

A  Device  for  registering  the  different  Colored  Images  in  Multicolor  Motion 
Picture  Projection.  It  includes  plane  parallel  disks  of  glass,  which  are  angularly 
adjustable  in  the  image-forming  rays. 

1209420  W.  B.  Featherstone         K/24 

A  Process  for  making  Colored  Motion  Pictures.  Alternate  images  in  the  film 
are  each  the  result  of  two  exposures  through  two  filters  of  the  same  color,  but  at 
different  time  intervals.     The  object  is  to  minimize  color  fringes. 

1209453  I.  Kitsee        K/36 

A  Process  for  making  a  set  of  Printing  Rollers  by  means  of  which  three-color 
screens  may  be  printed  upon  Motion  Picture  Film.  The  rollers  are  made  photo* 
graphically  by  projecting,  through  different  filters,  the  images  of  a  master  color 
screen,  followed  by  the  usual  development  and  etching. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


1208739    •  P.  I).  Brewster         K/41 

A  Prtxjess  of  Color  Photography  which  ustt*  a  fihii  that  is  sennitiziil  on  IkjiIi  a'nivn. 
Independent  images  of  the  subject  in  approximately  complementary  colors  are  pr(>- 
jected  in  registry  upon  the  opposite  sides  of  the  film.  The  latent  images  thus  pro- 
duced are  developed  and  colored  to  produce  a  positive  for  pn)jtMtion  or  a  negative 
for  reproduction  purposes.  The  images  may  be  of  slightly  different  siz4»  on  the 
opposite  sides  of  the  film  when  they  are  projected  by  converging  rays. 

1208343  E.  M.  Louk,         M2r,3 

Assigned  to  the  Standard  Optical  Co.  of  Geneva,  N.  V. 

A  Lens  Centering  and  Transfer  Device  to  facilitate  placing  the  lennes  in  the  rotary 
holders  of  t»dg<*  grinding  machines.  .The  gripping  jaws  an*  arranged  ho  that  the 
whole  instrument  may  be  manipulatt^l  by  one  hand. 

1208000  K.  J.  Pope         Ml 41 2 

An  attachment  to  a  Fourdrinier  Machine  for  producing  a  web  «)f  paj^er  having 
a  portion  of  less  thickness  than  the  major  part  of  the  sheet.  Water  under  a  small 
pressure  is  flowed  upon  the  strip  to  b(»  thinned,  the  thinntxl  portion  then  panning  under 
longitudinal  line-forming  devices  which  pn»venta  flowing  l)ack  of  the  pul{)y  Hul)Stance 
to  the  thinned  portion. 

1208244  H.  F.  Waite         X2r)12 

A  Tank  for  Developing  Dental  X-Ray  Film.  Jt  includes  a  light-tight  passage  at 
the  top  through  which  the  several  treating  solutions  may  be  poured  in  or  out.  An 
adjustable  air  vent  is  provided  in  the  bottom  to  permit  the  entrance  of  air  when  the 
solutions  are  being  poured  out  of  the  top. 

1208664  H.  Rusj^ak  and  O.  von  HansteMil,         067 

Assigned  by  von  Hanstein  to  Rut«sak 

A  Method  of  temporarily  making  the  Scratches  on  Motion  Picture  Films  Invisible 
by  passing  the  film,  just  prior  to  projection,  between  a  pair  of  pads  which  are  satu- 
rated w  ith  carbon  tetrachloride. 

1208982  J.  J.  King        07     2651 

A  Wet  Collodion  Plate-holder  Bar,  which  is  provided  with  a  plurality  of  pockets 
to  catch  and  retain  any  dripping  of  silver  nitrate  solution. 

1200774  .  F.  Stein.niig         1515 

Treatment  of  Viscose. 

1210164  J.  P.  Hansen         2106 

A  Magazine  Camera  designed  to  {)ermit  focusing  up  to  a  short  time  prior  to  ex- 
posure. Unexposed  plates  are  located  in  special  hoklers  in  the  top  of  the  camera 
while  a  magazine  for  the  exposed  i)lat(*s  is  located  in  the  bottom.  A  forwanl  and 
backward  moving  ground  glass  frame  is  provided  at  the  rear  together  with  a  focusing 
hood  ^hich  fully  closes  when  an  exposure  is  being  made.  When  the  operating 
knob  is  turned,  after  focusing,  the  ground  glass  is  automatically  moved  rearwardly, 

1^  Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


the  focusing  hood  is  closed,  the  lens  shutter  is  closed  and  an  unexposed  plate  is 
swung  downwardly  into  the  focal  plane  and  the  exposure  takes  place ;  whereupon  the  ex* 
posed  plate  and  its  holder  are  dropped  downwardly  and  forwardly  into  the  lower 
magazine. 

1208066  H.  I.  Williams        215 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  having  a  winding  mechanism  for  rapidly  bringing  a  fresh 
section  of  film  into  the  exposure  place  without  the  necessity  of  inspecting  the  numbers 
on  the  back  of  the  film.  It  includes  a  cord  passing  over  a  winding  pulley,  the  cord 
being  pulled  downwardly  each  time  a  section  of  film  is  changed.  The  length  of  the 
movement  of  the  cord  is  progressively  diminished  to  allow  for  the  increasing  diameter 
of  the  film  on  the  winding  roll. 

1208320  H.  L.  Ide,  Assigned  i  to  Roy  W.  Ide        215-2683 

A  RoirFilm  Camera  provided  with  an  observation  window  having  a  tinted 
segment.  The  paper  backing  of  the  film  is  provided  with  a  strip  of  actinometer  paper 
which  passes  under  said  window.  It  appears  to  be  a  minor  variation  of  the  scheme 
disclosed  in  the  same  inventor's  earlier  patent,  No.  1170538. 

1209015  D.  Palmer        2152 

An  Attachment  for  Backs  of  Roll  Film  Cameras  such  as  our  Brownie  cameras. 
It  consists  of  a  lever  carrying  a  lug  which  is  interposed  in  the  path  of  the  main 
shutter  operating  lever  whereby  accidental  exposure  is  prevented. 

1209239  F.  J.  Wende         216 

A  Process  Camera  with  a  Screen  Holder  holding  more  than  one  cross  line  screen » 
and  means  to  bring  into  operation  one  screen  after  the  other  on  the  same  plate  while 
the  operation  is  being  made. 

1208071         A.  H.  Wynkoop,  Assigned  to  Photo-Reproducer  Co.         2171 

■  A  Commercial  Copying  Camera  the  body  of  which  is  sufliciently  large  to  enable 
an  operator  to  enter  therein.  On  the  front  of  the  camera  a  horizontal  vertically- 
adjustable  shelf  is  provided.  The  printed  matter  to  be  copied  is  placed  on  this  table 
and  an  .image  thereof  is  projected  into  the  body  of  the  camera  onto  a  vertical  easel 
by  meansof  a  vertical  lens  and  a  prism. 

1208558  L.  J.  R.  Hoist,        2171 

Assigned  to  Williams,  Brown  &  Earle,  Inc. 

A  Camera  for  the  commercial  copying  of  documents,  etc.  on  negative  paper. 
This  attempts  to  substitute  the  film  pack  principle  in  place  of  the  roll  film  principle 
in  cameras  of  this  type.  The  sheets  of  paper  in  the  pack  are  provided  with  long 
tabs  which  draw  the  sheets  in  succession  to  the  exposure  opening  and  then  through 
developing  and  fixing  baths. 

1209419  H.  D.  Farquhar        2176 

An  Easel  for  holding  flat  the  printed  matter  or  picture  to  be  copied  in  a  Copying 
or  Commercial  camera.  It  includes  a  pivotal  frame  which  is  readily  turned  from 
vertical  to  horizontal  for  loading  and  unloading,  and  it  is  provided  with  a  rubber 
diaphragm  which  pneumatically  presses  the  sheet  to  be  copied  against  the  glass  of  the 
easel 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


1208218  P.  J.  Scheller,  Aa^gm-d  to  The  Slide-O-Graph  (^o.  22 

A  Motor  Operated  Projection  Apparatus  for  displaying  a  Ht^rien  of  cards  or  slides 
in  succession.     An  endless  belt  carrier  the  slides. 

1209631  A.  Shtten         241 

A  Photograi5hio  Printing  Machine  particularly  adapte<l  to  Uhh\  t*ensitive  paper 
from  a  roll  over  the  exposure  area  and  sever  the  strip  after  the  picture  lias  \n^n 
printed.  It  includes  a  circular  liglit  box  around  the  periphery  of  which  is  arranged 
a  drum  of  glaf^  provided  with  a  set  of  (HtTertMit  sizwl  masks.  Tl)e  pajier  fe<Hi  is 
adjustable  to  correK{)ond  with  the  size  of  mask  an*!  negative  which  are  eniploycil. 

1208586  G.  Lcachinan         259 

A  Portable  Dark  Cabinet  provided  with  liglit-trapiKd  armhoU^  and  obst^rvation 
tubes  provided  with  ruby  glass  and  8hutt<*rs. 

1208314  E.  S.  McAll         2614 

A  Small  Fokiing  Camera  Support  luljustahlo  lo  sustain  the  camera  on  irregular 
and  inclincKi  surfaces. 

1208617  J.  R.  Montague         2(;26 

An  Apparatus  adapted  to  be  attached  to  the  Ix  d  of  a  camera  to  actuate  the 
shutter  so  that  the  operator  may  include  himsi  If  in  the  picture.  It  includes  a  spring 
actuated  lever  which  is  releaseii  when  the  opi^rator  pulls  a  string. 

1208711  J.  E.  Payne         2(i26 

A  clock-work  mechanism  for  actuating  the  Hhuiiei*s  of  ]k>x  cameras  so  that  the 
operator  may  include  himself  in  the  picture. 

1209745  \V.  H.  Morris         2626 

A  Shutter  Actuaiing  Mwhanibin  driven  l)y  clockwork  to  make  an  exposure  after 
a  predetennined  time  thereby  |K*rmitting  the  ojH^rator  t<j  include  himself  in  the  picturt*. 

1210134  J.  Becker         2645 

A  Direct  Vision  Finder  conjposed  of  a  pair  of  ecc(»ntric  diverging  lenses  whose 
axes  are  parallel  to  the  axis  of  the  camera.  One  of  the  finder  lenses  may  Ix*  removed 
to  narrow  the  finder  image  so  that  it  will  agree  with  the  camera  image  when  a  long 
focus  objective  is  used  thereon.  Means  is  provided  for  directing  the  line  of  sight  of 
tlie  observer  to  the  central  point  of  the  tinder  image. 

1210135  J.  B(H»k(T         2645 

A  Direct  Vision  Finder  for  Cameras.  It  is  so  niounte<l  that  the  negative  lens  of 
the  finder  may  be  removed  at  will  to  |)ermit  of  seeing  the  central  part  of  the  finder 
field  on  an  enlarged  scale. 

1210136  J.  Becker         2645  ■ 
A  Direct  Vision  Finder  for  Cameras.     It  consists  of  a  pair  of  eccentric  forwartlly 

Ulting  negative  lenses,  the  rear  one  of  which  is  pivotally  mounted  so  that  it  may  be 
turned  downwardly  out  of  the  line  of  vision.  The  photographic  objective  i«  a  convertible 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


one,  the  front  element  thereof  being  also  pivotally  mounted  so  that  it  may  be  moved 
out  of  the  way.  The  pivoted  element  of  the  finder  may  be  connected  by  a  link  with 
the  pivoted  member  of  the  objective  so  that  a  single  movement  of  the  link  will  move 
them  both  out  of  the  way  and  the  view  in  the  finder  will  correspond  to  the  view  in 
the  camera. 

1210137  J.  Becker        2645 

A  Direct  Vision  Finder  for  Cameras.  It  mcludes  an  eccentric  lens  set  with  its 
principal  axis  inclined  to  the  axis  of  the  camera  lens  so  that  the  observer  may  look 
downwardly  and  forwardly  at  the  finder  instead  of  viewing  it  horizontally  from  the 
rear.  The  tilting  of  the  axis  is  to  minimize  distortion.  Two  of  such  lenses  may  be 
combined  where  the  camera  objective  is  convertible  so  that  half  of  the  finder  will  be 
used  when  a  corresponding  half  of  the  camera  objective  is  employed. 

1207448  W.  W.  Venable        268 

A  Photographic  Exposure  Calculator.  It  includes  a  series  of  concentric  disks 
bearing  data  concerning  the  different  factors  from  which  exposure  times  are  de^ 
termined.  By  appropriately  turning  the  disks,  the  calculated  exposure  for  any  given 
stop  appears  under  an- observation  window. 

1208821  H.  L.  Ide        2683 

An  Actinometer  Arrangement  Applied  to  Film  Packs.  The  tabe  of  the  pack  are 
provided  \^ith  strips  of  sensitized  actinometer  paper  and  also  with  exposure  calculating 
tables. 

1208578  A.  Blondel        2915 

A  Portable  Photometer.  The  illuminant  is  an  electric  incandescent  lamp  having 
a  single  straight  filament.  The  intensity  of  illumination  is  controlled  by  an  adjust- 
able slit,  the  width  of  which  is  changed  by  a  micrometer  screw. 

1208279  I.  Kitsee        32 

An  Apparatus  for  Projecting  Motion  Picture  Films  in  which  the  pictures  are 
arranged  in  a  spiral  series  upon  a  circular  disk.  This  disk  is  placed  upon  a  rotary 
support  provided  with  a  series  of  spiral  teeth,  which  are  engaged  by  a  driving  pinion 
having  fianges  which  abut  against  the  sides  of  said  teeth.  When  the  pinion  is  rotated 
it  not  only  turns  the  support,  but  moves  it  laterally. 

1209493  N.  Power,  Assigned  to  Nicholas  Power  Co.  of  N.Y.  320 

A  Speed  Indicator  adapted  to  be  connected  with  the  driving  mechanism  of  a 
motion  picture  machine  and  arranged  to  indicate  definitely  the  time  which  it  will 
take  to  complete  the  exhibition  of  the  roll  of  film  in  the  machine.  Its  scale  is  illumi> 
nated  by  light  reflected  from  the  back  of  the  shutter  blades. 

1208462  '  S.  G.  Boernstein        320 

An  Attachment  for  Motion  ^cture  Advertising  Apparatus  of  the  type  used  in 

show  windows  or  show  cases.    It  includes  a  conical  telescoping  light  shield  or  bellows 

attached  to  a  frame  which  is  fastened  upon  the  glass  of  the  store  window  by  suction  cups. 

1208685  L.  Stanek        3201 

A  Gt^aring  for  intermittently  actuating  the  sprocket  wheels  of  motion  picture 
Him  feeding  mechanism. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQ iC 


1208740  A.  D.  Brixey         3201 

A  Framing  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Machines.  A  beveled  gear  arrangement  is 
interposed  between  the  sprocket  shaft  of  a  motion  picture  machine  and  tlie  driving 
shaft.  This  enables  the  angular  relation  between  the  shafts  to  be  adjusted  while  the 
machine  is  running  at  full  speed.  Such  angular  adjustment  enables  a  relative  move- 
ment between  the  pictures  on  the  film  and  the  window  of  the  machine  whereby 
correct  framing  is  obtained. 

1209492  N.  Power,  Assigned  to  Nicholas  Power  Co.  of  N.Y.         3201 

A  Motor  Driving  Mechanism  for  Motion  Picture  Machines.  It  includes  a  variable- 
speed  friction  gtor,  one  of  the  disks  of  which  moves  radially  over  the  other. 

1209584  '  J.  J.  Hughes        3203 

A  Rotary  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Projection  Apparatus  so  arranged  that  it 
may  be  adjusted  angularly  with  respect  to  the  shaft  on  which  it  is  mounted  while  the 
machine  is  running  at  full  speed.  The  shutter  blades  are  mounted  on  a  collar  which 
is  turned  by  a  pin  that  engages  in  a  helical  slot  of  high  pitch  in  the  driving  shaft. 
By  moving  the  collar  forwardly  or  rearwardly  through  a  suitable  yoke,  the  pin  traveln 
in  the  slot  and  the  angular  relation  to  the  shutter  and  shaft  is  changed. 

1210063  F.  C.  Hamilton,         3203 
Assigned  to  Eureka  Projector  Co.  Inc.,  of  New  York 

A  Rotary  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Projei'tion  Apparatus  compDstHi  of  a  hub 
having  dovetailed  slots  and  a  series  of  vanes  conii>o8ed  of  light  diffusin;,'  material 
which  have  dovetailed  ends  detachably  fitting  in  the  slots  of  the  hub. 

1210064  F.  C.  Hamilton,         3203 
Assigned  to  Eureka  Projector  Device  Co.  Inc.,  of  New  York 

A  Rotary  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Projection  Apparatus.  It  comprist^  a  hub 
having  dovetailed  slots  in  which  the  shutter  vanes  are  detaehably  mouiued,  the 
shutter  vanes  being  composed  of  translucent  material  which  diffuses  rather  than 
obetructs  tlie  light  rays.  Where  one  of  the  vanes  is  larger  and  heavier  than  the 
others  the  extra  weight  is  counterbalanced  by  fastening  a  j^eries  of  weight.**  u|»on  the 
opposite  aide  of  the  hub. 

1208646         N.  Power,  Assigned  to  Nicholas  Power  Co.  of  N.  Y.  :^204 

An  Indicator  which  will  show  the  operator  of  a  motion  picture  machine  how  much 
fihii  is  left  in  the  magazine.  A  pivoted  arm  bears  against  the  film  on  the  roll  antl  a^ 
the  film  is  unwound  said  ann  moves  toward  the  center  of  the  roll.  The  movenK^it  of 
the  arm  actuates  a  pointer  moving  over  a  calibrated  scale. 

1210212        J.G.G.Ross,  Assigned  to  Nicholas  Power  Co.  of  N.Y.        3204 

A  Film  Guiding  Device  adapted  to  be  use<l  as  a  "  valve"  for  the  magazine  of  a 
motion  picture  machine.  Glass  plates  are  substituted  for  brass  members  wherever 
the  edges  of  the  fihn  rub  against  the  guide,  thereby  reducing  wear  both  on  the  film 
and  on  the  guide. 

1207211         N.  Power,  Assigned  to  Nicholas  Power  Co.  of  N.Y.  3208 

A  Device  for  maintaining  a  imiform  tension  on  motion  picture  film  while  it  is 
being  wound  up.     A  bend  in  the  film  passes  over  a  roller  which  is  connected  to  a 
'  frictional  disk  which  drivas  the  winding  reel.       Whenever  the  tension  on  the  film 
becomes  too  great,  the  friction  disk  is  moved  out  of  driving  contact  with  the*  reel. 


l-'i  Digitized  by  Google 


1208647         N.  Power,  Assigned  to  Nicholas  Power  Co.  of  N.Y.  3209 

A  Signaling  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Reels  which  will  indicate  to  the  operator 
whether  or  not  the  reel  is  heing  turned  too  rapidly.  When  the  speed  of  the  reel  is 
too  great,  two  spring-pressed  arms  fly  outwardly,  due  to  centrifugal  force,  and  engage 
a  seriee  of  teeth  on  a  circular  member,  making  a  rattling  noise. 

1210203  N.  Power,  Assigned  to  Nicholas  Power  Co.  of  N.Y.  3209 

A  Safety  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Machines.  Whenever  the  film  becomes  stuck 
in  the  projection  aperture,  the  film  above  the  aperture  forms  a  progressively  elongated 
loop  which  presses  upwardly  in  a  tube  and  eventually  moves  a  lever  which  causes  a 
pawl  to  drop  into  a  ratchet  wheel  and  stop  the  machine. 

1210323  L.  Janssens        323 

An  arrangement  for  maintaining  synchronism  between  a  perforated  music  she^ 
and  a  motion  picture  film.  The  arrangement  is  such  that  the  motors  of  the  musical 
instrument  and  motion  picture  apparatus  are  automatically  speeded  up  or  retarded 
whenever  the  instruments  get  out  of  phase. 

1209498  J.  Richard  and  L.  J.  Colardeau         326 

Apparatus  for  obtaining  stereoscopic  motion  picture  efiects  by  direct  vision. 
The  stereoscopic  pairs  of  pictures  are  printed  upon  a  horizontal  movable  film, 
those  of  the  right  eye  are  above  the  medical  line  of  the  film,  and  those  of 
the  left  eye  below  said  line.  The  pictures  of  each  pair  are  also  separated  hori-. 
zontally  by  a  distance  equal  to  the  normal  space  between  the  eyes  of  an  observer. 
When  such  a  film  is  intermittently  moved  through  the  observation  apparatus  at 
sufficient  speed,  stereoscopic  motion  picture  effects  are  obtained. 


British  Patents 

B14722-1915  '     H.  Workman        K/21 

Color  Cinematography.  The  invention  consists  of  optical  appliances  for  securing 
even  illumination  of,  say,  three  separate  "gates''  by  a  single-light  source,  such  as 
an  arc  in  colour-cinematographic  projection.  Such  appliance  may  be  a  cylindrically 
curved  lens  near  the  condenser,  in  conjunction  with  a  similar  lens  at  each  **gate." 

B16708-1915  F.  F.  Renwick,  B.  V.  Storr-Messrs.  Ilford,  Ltd.         PI 

Recovering  Silver  from  Emulsions.  Claim  for  a  method  of  recovering  silver  from 
diluted  emulsions,  hitherto  thrown  away  as  waste,  in  the  manufacture  of  photographic 
emulsions.  The  method  consists  of  forming  a  flocculent  precipitate  in  the  emulsion 
by  adding  to  the  latter  a  reagent  or  reagents  capable  of  coagulating  the  gelatinous 
matter,  the  silver  being  carried  down  with  the  precipitate  and  recovered  by  subsequent 
treatment  similar  to  that  for  the  recovery  of  silver  from  concentrated  emulsions. 
The  emulsion  should  be  first  aged  by  allowing  to  stand  for  two  or  three  days,  and 
then  the  precipitant,  such  as  ferric  chloride  or  salts  of  aluminum  or  copper  added. 
Excess  of  the  salt  should  be  avoided,  and  it  is  an  advantage  if  the  gelatine  is  slightly 
alkaline.  Tannic,  picric  or  chromic  acids  are  also  suitable  precipitants,  but  much 
larger  quantities  of  these  are  required  than  of  the  inorganic  salts  above  mentioned. 


16 


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B102668-1916  F.  F.  Renwick,  B.  V.  Storr-Messrs.  Ilford,  Ltd.  PI 
Recovering  Silver  from  Emulsions.  An  improvement  on  the  method  for  recover- 
ing silver  from  dilute  emulsions,  given  in  Patent  No.  1670&-1916.  Tlie  improved 
method  consists  in  precipitating  within  the  gelatine  such  precipitates  as  hydrated 
alumina,  ferric  hydrate,  resin,  casein,  etc.,  produced  by  any  of  tlie  many  chemical 
reactions;  e.  g.,  a  solution  of  alum  may  be  added  to  the  emulsion,  followed  by  the 
addition  of  ammonia,  or  a  solution  of  resin  soap,  or  of  casein  in  ammonia  may  be 
added,  followed  by  hydrochloric  acid.  The  precipitate  of  alumina,  rewin,  or  caaein 
thus  produced  carries  down  the  colloidal  silver  halido,  from  which  the  silver  may  be 
recovered  in  tlie  usual  manner. 

Bl 7196-1915  L.  J.  E.  Collard(^u        X442 

X-Ray  Stereoscopes.  The  invention  consists  of  a  8tereoflcoi)e  for  viewing  at  will 
laterally  inverted  or  non-inverted  stereoscopic  pictuns.  Two  relatively  adjustable 
optical  systems  are  employed,  the  one  for  viewing  a  picture  in  the  usual  manner  and 
the  other  for  inverting  the  images  of  the  same  picture  without  altering  the  position 
of  the  latter,  i.e. ,  left-hand  portions  are  brought  to  the  right,  and  vice  versa ;  rear 
planes  are  brought  to  the  front  and  vice  versa,  thus  giving  the  illusion,  in  X-ray 
stereographs,  that  the  picture  had  been  taken  after  turning  the  patient  over.  For  the 
optical  system  a  set  of  magnifying  lenses  is  used ;  for  the  other  a  tetrahedron  and 
total-reflection  prism  in  conjunction. 

B18055-1915  T.  R.  Johnston        0713 

Improvements  in  Rotary  Photogravure  Printing  Machines.  Suggests  the  use  o 
flat  sheets  for  etching,  fastened  round  the  cylinder  with  a  nibber  blanket  underneath 
and  wiped  by  means  of  smooth  metal  roller  revolving  in  the  opposite  way  to  the 
cylinder. 

B16171-1915  P.  G.  Glaser        0721 

Producing  Grain  upon  a  Transparent  Material,  for  Lithographic  Purposes,  for 
Transference  to  Stone  etc.  A  resin  grain,  etched  upon  plate  glass,  forms  the  casting 
base  for  a  celluloid  film.  This  is  precisely  similar  to  the  way  Norwich  films  are  pro- 
daced  by  Dodge  in  this  country.  The  process  described  for  using  this  film  has  also 
been  previously  patented  by  Dodge. 

B14511-1915  E.  L.  Hudson        1241 

Opaque  Paper  Negatives.    The  claim  is  for  a  '*  roll-film"  of  emulsion  coated  on 

a  white  paper  base,  the  negatives  so  made  being  **  printed  "  by  photograi)hing  them 

in  a  copying  camera  or  wdth  an  adaptation  of  the  camera  with  which  they  are  made. 

B102066-1916  E.  A.  Pin.         127 

Stripping  Film.  Claim  for  the  use  of  a  substratum  of  soap  between  the  emulsion 
and  a  temporary  support  for  the  purpose  of  stripping  off"  the  finished  negative  film. 
A  forniula  for  the  substratum  consisting  of  gelatine,  chrome  alum,  soap  and  glycerine 
is  given. 

B14201-1915  H.  Dreyfus         1513 

Manufacture  of  cellulose  acetates. 

B16698-1916  W.  R.  Rooth        3206 

Duplex  Cinematograph  Projector.     The  invention  consists  in  a  projector  in  which 

rays  from  the  light-source  in  the  cinematograph  lantern  proper  are  utilized  for  a 

second  projection  system  placed  to  the  sides  and  intended  for  the  projection  of  ordi- 


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nary  lantern  slides.  The  side  rays  from  the  Ijght-source  are  reflected  into  this  second 
projection  system  by  a  mirror  placed  at  45°  to  its  optical  axis,  a  secondary  condenser 
being  mounted  in  the  partition  separating  the  two  lantern  bodies. 

B101814  H.  W.  Joy        321-K067 

Cinematograph  Mechanism.  The  claim  is  for  a  projector  suitable  for  both  color 
and  black  and  white  projection  and  provided  with  two  separate  intermittent  film- 
feeding  mechanisms,  one  for  color  and  one  for  monochrome. 

B14010-1915  F.  Folwell        322 

Continuous-Movement  Cinematograph.  The  film  is  continuously  moved  by  any 
suitable  mechanism ;  the  lens  (without  shutter)  remaining  continuously  open.  Ex- 
posures are  made  by  a  species  of  focal  plane  shutter  consisting  of  an  endless  opaque 
band  with  vertical  slits  1  in.  apart  and  l/64th  in.  in  width,  the  band  moving  continu- 
ously in  a  horizontal  plane — that  is,  in  a  direction  at  right  angles  to  that  of  the  film. 
The  speed  of  the  shutter-band  is  such  that  a  slit  traverses  the  width  of  the  film  in 
the  same  time  that  the  film  has  descended  the  depth  of  the  **gate*'.  By  this  ex- 
posure, horizontal  lines  are  distorted  in  the  negative  to  an  acute  angle.  The  nega- 
tive film  is  developed  and  printed  as  usual,  save  that  the  "gate"  of  the  printing 
machine  is  of  rhomboidal  -shape  and  the  positive  is  then  projected  by  an  arrange- 
ment similar  to  that  of  the  camera,  by  wliicli  the  distortion  is  rectified  so  long  as 
the  ratio  of  shutter  speed  to  negative-film  spesd  in  tin?  camera  is  the  same  as  that  in 
the  projector. 

French  Patents 

Fr-12266-1914  A.  A.  Cletc,  I.  Tchernickofsky        MJ6-MJ7 

A  Machine  for  Washing  and  Drying  Photograpliic  Prints  in  a  continuous  web 
coming  from  the  original  printing  apparatus.  Hot  air  from  the  illuminant  of  the 
printing  apparatus  is  utilized  for  the  drying  of  the  prints. 

^r-478951-1914  H.  Dreyfus        1511 

Process  for  the  Manufacture  of  Anhy<lri<ieH  of  Aliphatic  Acids.  »Sodium  acetate, 
on  distillation  with  Podium  pyrosnlphate,  yields  acetic  anhydri«l(\  J.  Soc.  Chem. 
Ind.,  1916,  p.  1179. 

Fr-478028-1914  H.  Diryfus         1513 

Process  for  manufacture  of  chlorofonii-iiisolubk'  I'elliilose  acetates  and  derivatives. 
TemiM»ratun»  data  for  acetylation.     .F.  S«  c.  Cliem.  IiuL,  H>lt>,  p.  1152. 

Fr-479387.19ir)  L.  Cnmcnt  and  ('.  RivnVe         1693,  1513 

Varni.Tshes  \vith  a  Bisi;^  of  (Vllulo.^i'  Posters.    Tiie  rlii.*f  dai  n  ih  for  the  addition  of 

ethyl  acetoarel ate  to  celUilos.*  mvtatt^  vanuslM's.     .).  <*k\  (lieni.  Ind.,  101(»,  p.  Ilft4. 


German  Patents 

|)RP2ti8.il)S  K.  Wodckind  I. -,1)2 

.Smokeless  and  0(iork*HS  Flashlight  Powder.**.  .Mixtiiif  ni  (incly  diviiiiHl  r.iKMuirili 
metals  (zirconium,  ihoiium,  titjminin)  with  xlu'iv  iiiira c-  or  |K*nl.lM.:i;cs.  .1.  Sk-. 
Cheiii.  Ind.,  1910,  p.  1180. 


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Monthly 

yVBSTRACT 

Bulletin 


March.  1917 


Issued   hy  the  Research  LaboratG 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COMPAl 

Rochester,  NeAv  York 


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Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 

Vol.  a  Na  I 


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Note 

In  order  to  make  the  volumes  of  the  Bulletin  run  with  the  calendar 
year,  this  number  is  the  first  number  of  the  third  volume,  which  will 
cover  from  March  to  December  1917,  having  ten  numbers,  and  January 
1918  will  thus  be  Vol.  4,  No.  1.  The  pagination  has  also  been  altered 
and  in  future  each  volume  will  be  paged  coiteecutively  instead  of  each  new 
Bulletin  commencing  with  page  1. 


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Photography 


The  Manufacture  of  Cine  Film  Stock  A1212 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  pp.  782,  946 

Direct  Positives  on  Bromide  Paper  G8 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  55 
An  article  from  the  Eastman  Kodak  Pablioity  Department. 

Decennia  Practica  ^  K263-K266 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  2 

A  new  series  of  Decennia  Practica  is  to  appear  during  1917  in  the  Color  Suple* 
ment  dealing  with  notes  on  color  photography.    The  first  installment  deals  with 

filters  for  three-color  work  and  with  the  testing  of  lenses  for  color  photography. 

« 

The  Paget  Color  Plate  Dr.  Rodman  and  others        K/32 

Phot.  J.,  1916,  p.  256 

A  discussion  of  the  practical  use  of  the  plate,  of  interest  from  the  number  of 
hints  contained  in  it. 

A  Shutter  Testing  Machine        A.  B.  Hitchins  and  F.  B.  Gilbert        M262 
Jour.  Frank.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  73 

An  ingenious,  precise,  but  somewhat  complicated,  machine  for  measuring  the 
speed  and  efficiency  of  shutters.     Photographs  and  data  on  sample  tests  are  given. 

Gradations  in  Negatives  and  Prints  015 

Camera,  1917,  p.  13 
An  article  from  the  Eastman  Kodak  Publicity  Department. 

The  So-Called  Mackie  Line  017 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  15 

There  is  a  considerable  amount  of  correspondence  in  the  B.  J.,  on  the  appearance 
of  a  white  line  (in  the  print)  surrounding  dart  objects  which,  according  to  one 
writer,  has  been  called  the  Mackie  line.  The  line  is  probably  due  to  the  local 
exhaustion  of  the  developer,  which  produces  a  local  concentration  of  strongly 
restrained  and  eshausted  developer. 

I 
Photography  of  Quinine  0562 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  3 

If  white  x>aper  be  painted  with  quinine  sulphate,  there  is  some  difficulty  in 
photographing  it  by  ordinary  light.  With  an  artificial  light  rich  in  ultra  violet  such 
as  a  mercury  vapor  lamp  or  an  enclosed  arc,  the  quinine  becomes  visible  owing  to 
its  fluorescence  and  at  the  same  time  absorbs  ultra  violet  so  that  it  photographs 
somewhat  darker  than  white  paper.  Chinese  white  is  a  more  convenient  medium 
than  quinine  for  use  for  secret  writing,  and  photographs  dark  by  ultra  violet  lightJ  p 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


The  Nature  and  Speed  of  J.  I.  Crabtree        0581-1592 

Flash  Powders 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  29 

Communication  No.  43  from  the  Research  Laboratory  of  the  Eastman  Kodak 
Company. 

An  Improved  Formula  for  Reducing  Negatives  0634-1656 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  619 

The  proportional  reducer  recently  worked  out  in*  the  Laboratory  is  recommended 
for  reducing  cine  negativ«rfilm. 

Blue  Tones  on  Motion  Picture  Film  0645 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  948 
An  article  prepared  by  the  Research  Laboratory. 

How  to  Convert  Waste  Film  into  Leader  Film  0649 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  947 
An  article  prepared  by  the  Research  Laboratory. 

The  Influence  of  Photography  in  the  War  J.  H.  Gear        083 

Phot.  J.,  1916,  p.  269 

Address  of  the  President  of  the  Royal  Photographic  Society.  Deals  with  X-ray 
work  in  the  War  and  with  the  work  of  the  Royal  Flying  Corps.  Owing  to  the 
censorship  little  information  on  technical  points  is  given. 

Anastigmat  Lenses  083-263 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  39 

The  British  government  under  the  Defence  of  the  Realm  Act  has  ordered  all 
British  photographers  to  make  returns  of  the  lenses  in  their  possession,  classifying  into 
groups  of  focal  length  and  special  apertures:  from  8  to  12  inches  and  aperture 
not  less  than  f/4.5,  18  to  24  inches  and  apertures  not  less  than  f/6,  22  to  26  inches 
and  aperture  not  less  than  f/11,  30  to  72  inches  and  aperture  not  less  than  f/8. 

Pinhole  Photography  and  Some  Special  Applications  098 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  27 

An  interesting  suggestion  is  to  use  a  pinhole  for  extremely  small  cameras  with  a 
focus  of  an  inch  or  so.  Owing  to  the  infinite  depth  of  field  given  by  a  pinhole,  it  ia 
possible  to  find  out  how^  the  world  must  look  from  the  point  of  view  of  very  small 
animals.  Mr.  Carnegie  used  a  similar  method  for  studying  the  visual  field  of  A  fish 
under  water. 

Producing  Photographs  in  Black  *'Chenaist''         763 

Sulphide  of  Silver 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  61 

A  collodion  transfer  process  in  which  the  silver  image  is  bleached  in  copper 
sulphate  and  potassium  bromide  and  sulphided  with  ammonium  sulphide.        j 

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Monomet  in  the  Development  of  H.  Baker        15314 

Plates  and  Prints 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  4 

Mr.  Baker,  who  is  a  well  known  profeestonal  photographer  of  Birmingham,  has 
used  Monomet  with  hydroquinone  in  the  place  of  metol  and  finds  it  saperior  to 
met^l  both  for  plates  and  paper. 

British  Mkde  Sensitizers  1581 

B.  J.,  Jan.  26,  1917,  p.  XI  .  , 

II ford  Ltd.,  advertise  '^SensitoP'  Green  and  '^Sensitor*  Red,  stating  that  these 
are  equal  to  the  best  Grerman  product  and  prepared  under  the  direction  of  Professof 
W.  J.  Pope.    The  prices  in  England  are  about  |10  a  gram. 

Electric  Ignition  for  Flashlight  C.  N.  Bennett        231 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  45 

Describes  the  use  of  iron  fuse  electric  ignition  for  firing  flash  powders,  a  very 
thin  iron  wire  being  used  and  ignited  from  a  storage  battery. 

The  Use  of  Supplementary  Lenses  2631 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  44 

Article  dealing  with  the  use  of  spectacle  lenses  as  supplementaries  to  the  ordinary 
lens  systems.  It  is  pointed  out  that  spectacle  lenses  are  made  in  diopters,  a  spectacle 
lens  of  1  diopter  power  having  a  focal  length  of  1  meter,  one  of  2  diopters  of  half  a 
meter,  and  so  on.  A  table  is  given  for  the  efifect  of  supplementary  lenses  of  various 
powers  upon  the  focal  length  of  lenses  dififering  from  3  to  8  inches  in  focal  length, 
assuming  a  separation  in  two  lenses  from  K  to  1  inch. 

The  Making  of  Orthochromatic  Filters  C.  Smyth         266      ^ 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  37 

Account  of  a  meeting  at  the  Croydon  Camera  Chib  at  which  Mr.  Smyth,  formerly 
at  Wratten  &  Wainwright,  described  the  preparation  of  light  filters.  The  article 
contains  a  number  of  practical  suggestions  arising  from  his  experience  in  the  subject. 

Lens  Shades  and  their  Value  W.  S.  Davis         2672 

Camera,  1917,  p.  1 
Deecribes  some  simple  forms  of  lens  shades. 

A  New  Process  of  Stellar  Photometry  2915 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  72 

A  process  developed  by  H.  T.  Stetson  at  the  Yerkes  Observatory.  The  prin- 
ciple involved  is  to  measure  the  energy  absorbed  from  a  beam  of  light  by  the  silver 
grains  in  the  stellar  image  on  a  photographic  plate  and  to  interpret  such  absorption 
in  terms  of  stellar  magnitude. 

The  Adaptability  of  the  Eye  to  the  Illumination 

Photo  Era,  1917,  p.  9 
An  article  from  the  Eastman  Kodak  Publicity  Department. 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Kodak  Bromide  Pictures 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  50 

Review  of  a  new  booklet  published  by  Kodak,  Ltd. ,  written  by  a  number  of  well 
known  authors  who  have  used  the  Kodak  bromide  papers. 

Mr.  James  Golding,  for  some  time  in  charge  of  the  Order  department  of  Messrs. 
Kodak,  Ltd.,  at  Wealdstone,  has  been  appointed  to  succeed  Mr.  Edward  Smith  as 
manager  of  the  Paget  Prize  Plate  Company,  Ltd. 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  9 

The  Boulton  and  Watt  Legend  of  Photography  in  the  Eighteenth  Century 

B.  J.,  1917,  pp.  18,  33 

An  historical  discussion  of  a  story  investigated  by  the  Royal  Photographic  Society 
in  1863  of  the  production  of  mechanical  paintings  by  a  photographic  method  in  1791. 
It  is  shown  that  ,there  is  no  probability  that  this  represents  any  participation  of 
photography. 


Photo-Engraving 

A  Trip  Through  the  Colortype  Plant  of  Zeese  Wilkinson  Co.,  K0733 

New  York 

Inset  in  Printing  Art,  Jan.,  1917 

A  beautifully  illustrated  account  of  the  commercial  manufacture  of  three-color 
engravings,  unusually  free  from  glaring  errors  in  explaining  the  theory  of  the  process. 

A  New  Rotogravure  Press  M0713 

Inland  Printer,  1917,  p.  685 
Announcement  of  a  new  press  by  Wesel  Manufacturing  CJo. 

Decalcomania  Transfers  0725 

Process  Work,  1916,  p.  75 
A  description  of  the  production  of  the  transfer  paper  for  use  in  this  work. 

Prints  for  Reproduction  07001 

B.  J.,  1916,  p.  2 

Suggests  that  if  the  engraver  is  given  a  glossy  print  to  work  from  (as  he  prefers) 
when  the  original  is  of  a  different  character,  he  should  be  shown  the  original  in  order 
not  to  misinterpret  it,  but  it  should  be  protected  in  order  to  avoid  the  damage  it  is 
likely  to  sustain  in  an  engraver's  workshop. 

Deep  Etching  Aluminum  07006 

Process  Work,  1916,  p.  75 

Failing  perchloride  of  iron,  hydrochloric  acid  is  recommended;  this  necessitates 
strong  resist.    Other  formulae  are  also  given.  r^^^^T^ 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Electrolytic  Etching  S.  H.  Horgan        07006 

Inland  Printer,  1917,  p.  636 

A  note  on  the  poesibility  of  electric  etching  in  which  it  is  soggetted  that  because 
it  ifl  not  practical  there  may  be  something  fondamentally  wrong  with  the  principle. 
(It  is  much  more  Hkely  to  be  because  it  costs  more  than  the  current  methodi. ) 

Cost  of  Materials,  Light  and  Power  J.  C.  Buckbee 

Inland  Printer,  1917,  p.  687 

Shows  what  items  make  up  $1,00Q  of  expenditure  for  materials  in  photo-engrav- 
ing.    The  cost  of  copper  and  zinc  amounts  to  more  than  half  of  the  total. 


Physics 

Distribution  of  Energy  in  the  Visible  Spectrum  W.  W.  Coblentz  and 

of  an  Acetylene  Flame  W.  B.  Emerson 

Bull.  Bur.  Stand.,  1916,  p.  355 

The  authors  find  that  with  the  flat  acetylene  flame  the  emissivity  varies  with  the 
thickness  and  the  energy  distribution  can  not  be  standardized.  Data  on  this  type 
previously  published  are  withdrawn  and  new  data  given  on  a  cylindrical  flame,  wldch 
operates  under  conditions  of  much  greater  reproducibility.  The  energy  distribution 
with  '*Bray"  and  **Cre8cent  Aero"  burners  is  found  to  be  practically  the  same. 

The  Duratioji  and  Intensity  of  Twilight  H.  H.  Kimball 

Monthly  Weather  Review,  1916,  p.  614 

Definitions  of  twiHght,  tables  of  duration  and  intensity.  The  following  are 
illuminations  in  foot  candles  from  several  sources:  zenithal  sun,  9000;  sky  at  sunset, 
33;  sky  at  end  of  civil  twilight  (sun  6  degrees  below  horizon),  0.4;  zenithal  full 
moon,  0.02;  quarter  moon,  0.002;  starlight,  0.00008.  This  number  of  the  Weather 
Review  contains  several  other  interesting  articles  on  twilight  phenomena. 

Effects  of  Brightness  and  Contrast  in  Vision  P.  G.  Nutting 

Trans.  111.  Eng.  Soc.,  1916,  p.  939 
Results  of  work  on  threshold  and  glare  sensibilities  done  in  this  laboratory. 

A  Study  of  the  Economics  of  Office  Building  Lighting  S.  G.  Hibben 

Trans.  111.  Eng.  Soc.,  1916,  p.  976 

Comparison  of  the  lighting  of  typical  offices  by  different  methods,  consideration 
being  given  to  the  wiring,  fixtures,  upkeep  and  other  details  of  service. 

Colored  Glass  in  Illuminating  Engineering  H.  P.  Gage 

Trans.  111.  Eng.  Soc.,  1916,  p.  1050 

Deals  with  optical  transmission,  processes  of  manufacture,  commercial  practic- 
^bihty  and  industrial  uses  of  various  shades  of  colored  glasses.  Includes  a  number 
of  spectrograms  and  transmission  curves.*  r-^  t 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


The  Laws  of  Reflection  and  Transmission  of  light  T.  W.  Rolph 

Trans.  111.  Eng.  Soc,  1916,  p.  1144 

A  concise  presentation  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  regular,  spread  and 
diffuse  transmission  and  reflection,  applied  to  the  optical  media  used  in  illuminating 
engineering,  with  illustrative  diagrams. 

The  Luminous  Efficiency  of  the  Radiation  E.  Karrer 

from  the  Electric  Arc  ' 

Jour.  Frank.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  61 

Data  are  given  on  a  number  of  different  types  of  arc  operated  under  stated  con- 
ditions.    Efficiencies  range  from  0.0034  to  0.226  without  lamp  accessories. 

The  Focometry  of  Lens-Combinations  A.  Anderson 

Phil.  Mag.,  1917,  p.  157 

A  modification  of  the  ordinary  nodal-slide  method  of  measuring  the  focal  length 
without  the  necessity  of  using  parallel  light. 

An  Investigation  of  the  Relative  Sensibility  of  the        W.  W.  Coblentz  and 
Average  Eye  to  Light  of  Different  Colors,  and         W.  B.  Emerson 
Some   Practical   Applications    to    Radiation 
Problems 

Phys.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  87 

The  visibility  curve  of  the  average  normal  eye,  using  125  observers,  is  wider  than 
previously  observed.  The  point  of  maximum  sensibility  is  at  wave-length  0.6576a. 
A  cylindrical  acetylene  flame  was  used  as  a  source  of  spectral  light,  a  new  determina- 
tion of  the  energy  distribution  having  been  made.  They  obtain  for  the  mechanical 
equivalent  of  light  1  lumen  =  0.00161  watt,  agreeing  well  with  the  result  of  Ivee, 
Coblentz  and  Kingsbury.     Nutting* s  curve  gives  a  value  of  0.00120. 


y 


Photochemistry 

The  Luminescence  of  the  Iodide  of  Millon's  Base  H.  B.  Weiser 

J.  Phys.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  37 

Under  conditions  of  rapid  decomposition — as  at  about  400°C — the  reaction  absorbs 
heat  and  emits  light.  The  light  is  very  bright  and  of  a  violet  color.  A  discussion 
of  the  chemiluminesence  of  mercury  compounds  is  given. 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Sodium  Thiosulfate  T.W.  Hutchins  and  A.C.  Dunningham         1641 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  219 

The  process  is  designed  to  do  away  with  the  necessity  of  evaporation  in  crystallizing 
out  the  thiosulfate.  This  is  accomplished  by  making  a  paste  of  sulfur  and  sulfite  in 
theoretical  proportions  or  an  excess  of  either  in  such  absolute  amounts  that  the  watetr 
is  supersaturated  with  respect  to  thiosulfate.    British  Patent  12599.   ^^  , 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Literature  of  the  Nitrogen  Industries,  1912-1916  H.  H.  Hosmer 

Gen.  Elec.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  76 
The  first  of  a  series  of  articles  jfiving  in  eon^^nient  form  the  (*ssential  statements 
of  papers  and  books  on  the  nitrogen  industries  published  during  the  last  five  years,  in 
inverse  chronological  order,  with  reference.    This  installment  includes  a  table  of  con- 
tents of  the  entire  series. 

Anhydrous  Hyposulfites  E.  Marburg  and  G.  Miinch 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  280 
Stable  anhydrous  hyposulfite  is  obtained  by  ad<ling  al)out  tyO%  it*  weiglit  of 
aniline  to  a  solution  of  the  hyposulfite  and  evaporating.     V.  S.  Patent  1207782. 

The  Hydrolysis  of  Iron  Ammonium  Alum  W.  N.  Rae 

Trans.  Chem.  Soc,  1916,  p.  1331 
The  precipitate  from  ferric  ammonium  alum  solution  on  keeping  is  found  to  have 
the  composition  2  molecules  of  iron  sesqui-oxide  plus  1  molecule  of  sulfuric  anhydride. 
The  color  of  iron  alum  alone  and  in  the  presence  of  other  substances  has  been 
measured,  and  attributed  to  a  soluble  form  of  the  basic  salt  above.  Concentrated 
sulphuric  acid  precipitates  the  anhydrous  alum. 

The  Measurement  of  Electrolytic  E.  Washburn  and  K.  Parker 

Conductivity.     II. 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  p.  235 

Discusses  conditions  of  maximum  sensitivity  of  the  telephone  receiver  and  means 
of  tuning  this  to  the  frequency  of  the  current  employed. 

Inconstancy  of  the  Solubility  Product.     II.  A.  E.  Hill 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  218 
Evidence  that  the  solubility  product  in  many  cases  decreases  with  increasing  con- 
centration. 

Heterogeneous  Equilibrium  between  G.  McP.  Smith  and  T,  R.  Ball 

Aqueous  and  Metallic  Solutions 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  p.  179 
Deviation  from  the  mass  law  expressions  (for  isohydric  depression  of  solubility) 
attributed  to  formation  of  complexes. 

Manufacture  of  Asbestos  Fabrics  •  A.  Heil 

Caoutchouc,  1916,  p.  9080 


Colloid  Chemistry 


Theory  of  Vegetable  Tanning  A.  R.  Procter  and  J.  A.  Wilson 

Trans.  Chem.  Soc,  1916,  p.  1327 
In  continuation  of  Procter's  work  on  hardening,  etc. ,  of  hide  and  gelatine,  it  is 
shown  that  the  combination  of  tannins  and  hide  fibre,  and  the  effect  of  acids  and 
n^itral  salts  in  the  tanning  process  is  explained  by  the  existence  of  interfacial 
potentials  and  the  neutralization  of  oj^positely  charged  colloids.  Formulee  are  de- 
duced on  the  basis  of  Donnan's  theory  of  membrane  equilibrium. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQ IC 


10  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Reversibility  of  Sulphide  Sols.  S.  W.  Young  and  W.  R.  Goddard 

J.  Phys.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  1 
Evidence  is  produced  to  show  the  complete  reversibility  of  several  such  sols,  with 
respect  to  hydrogen  sulphide,  and  for  the  protection  of  zinc  sulphide  hydroeol  against 
potassium  chloride  by  hydrogen  sulphide. 

Colloidal  Solutions  of  Copper  Sulphide  S.  W.  Young  and  R.  Neal 

J.  Phys.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  14 

The  Vulcanization  of  Caoutchouc  and  the  Possibility  of  its  R^eneration 
Caoutchouc,  1916,  p.  9092 
Review  of  recent  work  by  Harries  on  this  problem. 


Organic  Chemistry 


Tannin  from  Indian  Sumach  Puran  Singh 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  39 
The  yields  of  tannin  obtained  from  the  above  are  much  the  same  as  those  from; 
European  Sumach,  namely  10  to  20%. 

Constitution  of  Cane  Sugar  W.  N.  Ha  worth  and  J.  Law 

Trans.  Chem.  Soc.,  1916,  p.  1314 
A  study  of  the  hydrolysis  of  octamethyl  sucrose  leads  the  authors  to  suggest  a  new 
formulation  with  an  ethylene  oxidic  structure. 

Sulphonation  of  Organic  Compounds  A.  Heinemann 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1916,  p.  1008 

A  small  quantity  of  iodine  greatly  acccelerates  sulphonation  and  eliminates 
carbonization.     (Brit.  Pat.  12260-1916). 

Chromium  Compounds  of  Azo  Dyestufifs  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.  Basee 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  p.  1255 

Chromium  compounds  of  orthoaminophenols  are  diazotized  and  coupled,  yielding 
**half -chrome"  dyes.     (Brit.  Pat.  15456  1915). 

Preparation  of  Alkylamines  H.  Krause 

J.  C.  S.  Abst.,  1916,  (i)  p.  793 

Aliphatic  nitro  compounds,  like  aromatic  nitro  compounds,  can  be  reduced  by 
iron  in  presence  of  a  small  quantity  of  hydrochloride,  though  more  slowly,  since  the 
resulting  amine  precipitates  the  iron  from  solution. 

The  Paint  that  Won't  Come  Off 

Brass  World,  1916,  p.  358 

Elaterite,  elastic  bitumen,  or  mineral  caoutchouc  is  refined  and  made  into  paints 
Gives  a  coating  when  dry  which  is  claimed  to  consist  of  99%  pure  carbon  and  which 
resists  acid,  alkali,  water,  electricity,  oxygeo  and  nitrogen.  The  coating  does  not 
crack  or  peel.    Vast  beds  of  the  raw  material  exist  in  eastern  Utah.  ^-^  , 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  11 


Analytical  Ghemisty 


Notes  in  Regard  to  Titration  of  Sulfuric  Acid        C.  R.  Gyzander        1511 
Chem.  News,  1916,  p.  260 

The  claim  is  made  that  when  various  amounts  of  acid  are  titrated  with  0.2N 
sodium  hydroxide,  employing  phenolphthalein,  lacmoid,  methylorange,  and  dimethyl- 
aminoazobenzene,  results  with  phenolphthalein  are  always  higher  than  with  the 
other  three  indicators,  but  that  when  0.  IN  sodium  hydroxide  is  used  identical  results 
are  obtained  [with  all  four  indicators.  Lacmoid  is  recommended  for  titrations  of 
commercial  sulfuric  acid  for  evaluation  of  sulfuric  anhydride  content. 

Reagents  for  Use  in  Gas  Analysis  V.  R.  P.  Anderson 

J:  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.  1916,  p.  999 
Fifth  of  a  series  of  pai)ers  on  this  subject  giving  details  of  best  procedure. 

The  Titration  of  Some  Bivalent  Metal  Sulfates  H.  S.  Hamed 

by  the  Conductance  Method 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  252 

Pure  single  substances  were  studied  for  the  most  part,  but  satisfactory  approx- 
imate method  for  the  determination  of  magnesium  in  dolomite  has  been  worked  out. 

The  Interference  of  Thiosulfates,  Ferro-        L.J.  Curtman  and  B.R.  Harris 
cyanides  and  Ferricyanides  in  the 
Detection  of  Iodide  with  Palladium 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p,  266 
Excess  of  palladium  and  boiling  the' reaction  mixture  tend  to  overcome  these 
interfering  agents. 

Determination  of  Potassium  as  -    G.  P.  Baxter  and  M.  Kobayashi 

Perchlorate 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.  1917,  p.  249 
The  difficulty  connected  with   the  final  washing  of  the  perchlorate  has  been 
further  lessened  so  that  more  concordant  results  are  obtained. 

Coal  Analysis.     Final  Report  of  the  Joint  Committee  of  the  American 
Society  for  Testing  Materials  and  the  American  Chemical  Society. 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.  1917,  p.  100 
The  official  methods  recommended  in  order  to  obtain  greater  uniformity  as  well 
as  greater  precision  in  the  analytical  results  of  different  analysts  are  given  in  detail. 

Determination  of  Silver  in  Protein  Preparation.  H.  Watterson 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1916,  ii,  p.  577 

Method  suitable  with  bio-colloid  preparations  of  silver,  which  also  contain 
chlorides.  Two  tenths  to  .5gm.  is  heated  with  lOcc.  concentrated  sulphuric  acid  and 
2cc.cencentrated  nitric  till  nitrous  fumes  cease,  cooled  and  diluted  with  26  cc.  water, 
evaporated,  and  heated  30  minutes,  then  diluted  with  100  cc.  water  and  titrated  with 
N/10thiocy«.at«.  o,,.3db,GoOgle 


12  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Engineering 


What  ''Scientific  Management'^  did  for  My  By  Wm.  H,  Ijefilngwell 

Office 

System  Magazine,  1917,  p.  68 

It  Pays  to  Watch  the  Dump  By  R.  P.  Warner,  Third  Vice-President 

of  Griggs,  Copper  &  Company 
System  Magazine,  1917,  p.  97 

How  We  Hold  Our  Men  By  Disston,  President  Disston  &  Sons,  Inc. 

System  Magazine,  1917,  p.  115 

41  Ways  to  Save  Time  in  an  Office  By  Wm.  H.  Leffingwell 

System  Magazine,  1917,  p.  139 

Jobbing  Work  and  Efficiency  By  A.  Carpenter 

The  Engineering  Magazine,  1917,  p.  633 

How  to  Set  Shop  Standards  By  H.  Shepard 

The  Engineering  Magazine,  1917,  p.  651 

The  Taylor  System  in  Franklin  Management  By  D.  Babcock 

The  Engineering  Magazine,  1917, -p.  711 

Shop  Schools  for  Apprentices  By  Entropy 

American  Machinist,  1917,  p.  48 

Encouraging  Thrift  in  Workmen  By  Entropy 

American  Machinist,  1917,  p.  109 

Time  Studies  for  Rate  Setting  as  Originated  By  G.  Barth 

by  Dr.  F.  W.  Taylor 

American  Machinist,  1917,  p.  177 

Putting  the  Final  "O.  K.'*  By  W.  J.  Tewksbury,  Superintendent 

on  a  Job  Automatic  Electric  Company. 

Factory  Magazine,  1917,  p.  174 

Warring  on  Waste  By  F.  H.  LeMont 

VIII — Changing  Methods  to  Reduce  Wastes 

Factory  Magazine,  1917,  p.  178 

Practical  Ways  to  Cut  Costs 

Factory  Magazine,  1917,  p.  188 

Scientific  Management — Mistaken  Ideas  of  Efficiency  By  Engineer 

Engineering   as  Applied   to   Improving  Manu- 
facturing Results. 

'  The  Metal  Industry,  1917,  p.  22 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  1$ 

Patent  Abstracts 
U.  S.  Patents 

1213968  C.  Stickle        A1412 

An  Electrical  Control  for  Paper  Making  Machines.  Aa  fhe  aheet  of  paper  dries 
it  shortens  and  thereby  increases  its  tension.  This  actuates  an  electrical  control  which 
tarns  the  drying  heat  on  or  off,  as  required. 

1201260  F.  Ck)lli8chonn  and  F.  Ruppert        A1813 

Process  for  Manufacture  of  Cellulose  Esters.  Acetone-insoluble  acetates  are 
rendered  soluble  in  acetone  by  heating  to  90-110^  C.  in  a  solution  containing  water 
bat  no  other  hydrolytic  reagent  until  the  product  dissolves  in  acetone  but  not  in  ethyl 
acetate. 

1212628  H.  O.  GowUand        A263 

A  Smoothing  Head  for  Lens  Manufacturing  comprising  a  hemispherical  rubber 
vessel,  which  is  suitably  inflated  and  provided  on  its  convex  surface  with  metal 
abrading  disks. 

1210400  R.  8.  Becker,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         B13 

A  Photographic  Paper  bearing  on  the  imsensitized  side  a  brand  or  mark  printed 
in  an  ink  which  is  substantially  of  the  same  color  as  the  back  of  the  paper,  an  example 
of  such  ink  being  bariiun  sulfate,  casein  and  formaldehyde  when  white  paper  is  em- 
ployed.   Such  ink  is  wholly  invisible  from  the  emulsion  side  of  the  paper  and  is  visible  ' 
on  the  other  side  only  when  viewed  by  reflected  light  at  a  certain  angle. 

1214552  A.  Keller-Dorian        K1212     K134 

A  Film  for  Photographic  Projection  in  Colors.  The  Unsensitized  face  of  the  film 
base  is  molded  so  as  to  have  a  large  number  of  minute  convex  protuberances  forming 
minute  lenses  so  located  that  they  will  form  a  multitude  of  images  of  the  disk  of  the 
main  camera  lens  upon  the  sensitive  emulsion. 

1214016  A.  Dawson         K2116 

A  Three-Color  Photographic  Camera  in  which  the  usual  light  splitting  mirrors 
are  located  not  upon  sheets  of  plane  glass  but  upon  the  plane  faces  of  thin  very  low 
power  piano  convex  lenses.  A  more  exact  agreement  of  images  is  alleged.  (See 
Brit.  Patent  24638-1912). 

1213184  L.  Gaumont,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         K31     K/23 

An  Apparatus  for  Taking  Three-Color  Motion  Picture  Films.  The  pictures  are 
taken  in  groups  of  three,  one  above  the  other,  on  an  intermittently  moved  film.  The 
objective  comprises  three  lens  elements  situated  one  above  the  other,  so  as  to  form  a 
tinit,  while  permitting  individual  regulation  and  proper  focusing  so  that  the  pictures 
will  be  famished  in  equal  axe  and  will  be  readily  superposable  during  the  subsequent 
pfDJeetion.  This  optical  system  may  be  also  moved  vertically  as  a  unit  relative  to 
the  film  window.  ^  . 

Digitized  by  LjOOQ IC 


14 ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1214798  J.  Lehmann,  Assigned  to  Carl  Zeiss        K32    K/23 

An  Apparatus  for  Projecting  Colored  Motion  Pictures  of  the  type  in  which  three 
positives  of  different  colors  are  projected  simultaneously  through  three  objectives.  A 
shutter  is  arranged  between  the  condensers  and  the  film  and  auxiliary  lenses  are  pro- 
vided to  form  an  image  of  the  shutter  within  the  three  objectives.  Thus,  the  light 
rays  through  the  three  objectives  will  be  turned  on  and  off  simultaneously. 

1213037  J.  E.  Thornton,  Assigned  to  J.  Owden  O'Brien        K34    346 

An  Apparatus  for  Printing  Motion  Picture  Film  of  low  sensitiveness  such  as 
bichromated  film.  The  object  is  to  print  such  fihn  at  the  rate  of  500  to  600  feet  an 
hour  or  as  fast  as  silver  bromide  film  is  now  printed.  Another  object  is  to  secure 
accurately  placed  perforations  so  that  different  colored  films  may  be  superposed 
in  registry  for  multicolor  work.  The  film  is  perforated  prior  to  printing  and  fed 
through  a  machine  where  several  pictures  are  simultaneously  printed  but  where  no 
two  adjacent  pictures  are  allowed  to  print  at  the  same  time,  loops  being  interposed 
between  the  printing  pictures  in  order  that  each  picture  may  be  independently  placed 
or  adjusted  by  registering  pins  or  sprockets.  As  an  illuminant  a  mercury  vapor  lamp 
of  6000  candle  power  is  employed  and  a  grid  of  vertical  leaves  is  interposed  between 
the  light  and  the  film  so  that  only  perpendicular  rays  will  perform  the  printing,  thus 
avoiding  spreading  of  light  rays.  The  grid  is  moved  during  exposure  to  avoid  print- 
ing its  image. 

1211904        M.  J.  Wohl  and  M.  Mayer,  Assigned  to  Prizma,  Inc.         K/24 

A  System  of  Motion  Picture  Color  Photography  which  uses  a  film  carrying  groups 
,  of  four  different  color- value  images.  The  rotary  screen,  which  moves  in  front  of  the 
projection  lens  in  timed  relation  to  the  movement  of  said  film,  is  provided  with  two 
sets  of  balanced  complementary  colors,  the  object  being  to  reduce  the  eye  strain  which 
would  be  present  if  persistence  of  vision  was  depended  upon  to  blend  four  colors  pro- 
jected entirely  in  succession. 

1213038  J.  E.  Thornton,  Assigned  to  J.  0.  O'Brien        K/43 

A  Motion  Picture  Film  comprising  a  celluloid  base  and  three  superimposed  layers 
of  color  section  photographs  in  registry  thereon. 

1214940  H.  Miller,  Assigned  to  Brewster  Film  Corporation        KJ88 

A  Process  of  Producing  Colored  Photographic  Images.  The  silver  image  is  con- 
verted into  silver  iodide  which  acts  as  a  mordant  toward  basic  aniline  dyes.  It  seems 
to  be  very  close  to  the  Traube  process. 

1211588        E.  Josephson,  Assigned  to  Pantasote  Leather  Co.        P5-1617 

A  Process  for  Recovering  Camphor  from  Celluloid.  The  celluloid  is  pulverized  in 
a  pebble  mill  in  the  presence  of  water  and  the  paste  thus  obtained  is  distilled. 

1-210215  F.  Le  R.  Satterlee,  Jr.        X288 

A  Support  for  X-Ray  Negatives  comprising  a  celluloid  plate  having  a  matte 
surface,  the  Legative  being  clasped  centrally  thereon,  while  the  matte  border  may 
have  the  identification  data  marked  thereon.  * 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  16 


1210934  A.  Hayes,  Assigned  to  Moving  Advertisement  Co.        034 

A  Holder  for  holding,  face  to  face,  a  pair  of  glass  plates  so  that  one  may  be  slid 
throogh  a  small  distance  across  the  other.  One  plate  is  provided  with  a  set  of  screen 
lines  and  the  other  plate  is  provided  with  two  pictures  printed  on  alternate  lines 
spaced  at  a  distance  corresponding  to  the  screen  lines  on  the  first  plate.  When  the 
acreen  plate  is  slid  over  the  other  plate  the  two  pictures  are  alternately  displayed  and 
may  give  the  eflfect  of  motion. 

1212446  A.  Boularan,  dit  Deval        064/89 

A  Flexible  Film  having  a  picture  thereon  in  relief  which  is  intended  to  receive 
printing  ink  and  thereafter  be  used  in  printing  motion  picture,  positives.  A  bichro- 
mated  film  is  covered  on  the  outer  face  with  black  paper  and  printed  through  the 
back.  After  treatment  with  calcium  hyx>ochlorite  the  black  paper  and  soluble  gelatine 
are  washed  away  in  hot  water,  and  the  resulting  relief  image  is  tanned  by  successive 
treatments  in  bichromate,  chrome  alum  and  formaldehyde. 

1212342  E.  D.  George        069 

A  Telephone  System  for  transmitting  sounds  to  the  audiences  in  motion  picture 
theaters  in  synchronism  with  the  displaying  of  the  pictures  on  the  screen.  An  oper- 
^ator  is  located  ii^  a  sound-proof  compartment  where  he  can  see  the  pictures  on  the 
screen  and  talk  the  appropriate  words  into  a  telephone  transmitter.  Coin  controlled 
Teceivers  are  mounted  on  the  theater  seats. 

1213613    1212614     1213616    1213616  C.  E.  Fritts,  Dec'd        069 

Josephine  H.  Fritts,  Administratrix.     Assigned  to  J.  D.  Myers 

A  System  of  Reproducing  Sounds  in  which  optical  and  photographic  arrangements 
are  used  in  place  of  the  mechanical  means  usually  employed.  When  a  diaphragm  is 
vibrated  by  sound  waves  it  oscillates  a  shutter,  thereby  vibrating  a  beam  of  light 
across  a  moving  sensitive  paper  strip  or  film.  The  latter  is  developed  and  run  through 
the  reproducing  apparatus  which  includes  a  selenium  cell  controlling  a  telephone 
circuit.  The  developed  film  controls  the  light  falling  upon  the  selenium  cell  and 
therefore  is  alleged  to  vary  the  electrical  characteristics  of  the  telephone  circuit  in 
•exact  agreement  with  the  original  sovmd  waves,  which  will  therefore  be  reproduced 
accurately. 

The  patent  application  out  of  which  these  patents  grew  was  filed  on  October  22nd, 
1880,  over  thirty-six  years  ago.  This  is  probably  the  record  for  delays  of  this  kind. 
For  vigorous  comment  upon  one  of  these  applications  by  Commissioner  of  Patents, 
aee  Ex-Parte  Fritts  227  Official  Gazette,  page  737.  That  discussion  shows  that 
there  were  at  one  time  three  groups  of  claims  in  one  of  these  Fritts  applications 
which  were  introduced  to  cover  the  entire  art  of  producing  motion  pictures.  The 
Oommissioner  refused  to  grant  them. 

1213150  H.  C.  Bullis        069     323 

A  Method  of  Producing  Sound  Records  for  Talking-Motion -Picture  Films.  Tlirough 
.suitable  apparatus  the  sound  vibrations  alter  the  intensity  of  an  electric  light  and 
these  variations  are  recorded  photographically  upon  a  moving  film.  From  the  nega- 
tive thus  obtained  a  positive  is  printed  upon  bichromated  gelatine  containing  fine 
iron  pardcles  uniformly  distributed  therein.  When  the  soluble  parts  are  washed  away 
the  remaining  film  will  provide  a  plurality  of  transverse  lines  of  varying  iron  content 
having  thus  a  variable  magnetic  permeability.  When  this  strip  is  drawn  throngh  an 
air  gap  in  a  magnet  located  in  a  suitable  telephone  system,  the  original  sounds  will 
he  reprodooed. 


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16  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1213176  R.  A.  Fes8enden        069-328 

A  Device  for  Transmitting  Sound  in  large  volume  to  the  audiences  of  motion 
picture  theaters  in  timed  relation  to  the  exhibition  of  the  pictures.  A  telephone  trans- 
mitter into  which  a  speaking  voice  or  a  phonograph  plays  is  connected  up  io  operate 
a  Feasenden  oscillator.  This  oscillator  is  connected  with  a  large  diaphragm  which  also 
serves  as  the  screen  onto  which  the  motion  pictures  are  thrown. 

1213883  I.  Kitsoe,  Assigned  to  The  Cort-Kitsee  Co.         069-323 

A  Combined  Phonograph  and  Motion  Picture  Machine.  The  latter  is  driven  by  a 
pneumatic  engine,  the  valves  of  which  are  electrically  controlled  from  a  commutator 
driven  by  a  phonograph;  thus  the  instruments  are  run  in  83rnchroni8m. 

1214851  R.  L.  Watkins        0946 

An  Apparatus  for  taking  Photomicrographic  Motion  Pictures,  such,  for  example, 
as  those  which  show  the  movement  of  the  blood  corpuscles  and  cells. 

1213925  A.  C.  McCloskey        1313/71 

Assigned  to  Process  Paper  Mfg.  Co. 
An  Iron  Printing  Paper.  It  is  covered  on  the  front  with  the  usual  ferric  coating 
and  on  the  back  with  a  ferrous  coating  which  may  be  derived  froifi  a  ferric  coating 
by  a  suitable  exposure  to  light.  When  the  paper  is  immersed  in  tlie  clearing  solu- 
tion, the  ferrous  salts  on  the  front  face,  produced  by  the  action  of  the  light,  and  the 
ferrous  salts  on  the  rear  face  will  be  dissolved  off  and  the  stains,  which  often  appear 
upon  the  rear  face  of  paper  of  this  type,  will  be  avoided. 

1211683  H.  R.  Darling,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Company        210-2164 

A  Lever  pivoted  about  a  longitudinal  axis  at  the  forward  end  of  the  folding  base- 
board of  a  Camera.  It  can  assume  three  positions  at  right  angles  to  each  other. 
In  the  first  of  these  positions  it  acts  as  a  latch  to  hold  the  bed  of  the  camera  locked  in 
its  closed  position.  In  its  second  position  it  acts  as  a  foot  to  support  the  bed  of  the 
camera  when  a  pictures  is  taken  in  the  upright  position,  and  in  its  third  location  it 
acts  as  a  leg  to  support  the  bed  of  the  camera  when  a  horizontal  or  *  landscape" 
picture  is  being  taken. 

1210534  W.  A.  Riddell,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Company        2102 

A  Focusing  Device  for  Cameras  including  a  segmental  depressed  portion  in  the 
front  bed  and  a  lever  pivoted  therein  which  is  connected  with  the  lens  carriage  by 
a  pin  and  slot  structure. 

1213544  W.  A.  Riddell,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Company        2102 

A  Lock  for  fastening  the  Lens  Carriage  on  a  Camera  in  the  correct  position  upon 
the  track  for  focusing.  It  comprises  a  locking  cross- head  upon  the  under  side  of  the 
carriage  which  is  actuated  by  a  rotary  cam  mounted  on  the  top  of  the  carriage  and 
turned  by  pressing  upon  a  transversely  reciprocating  finger  piece. 

1213731  C.  Bornemann,  Assigned  to  Ansco  Company        2102 

A  Focusing  Mount  for  the  Lens  and  Shutter  of  small  Folding  Cameras.  The 
focusing  movement  is  imparted  to  the  shutter  and  lens  by  means  of  a  rotary  stoeve 
having  helical  slots  therein  which  co-operate  with  pins  on  the  shatter.  The  claimed 
features  relate  chiefly  to  conveniences  in  assembling  and  adjusting  the-mechan^. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  17 


1214453  J.  Goddard  and  W.  S.  Hutchings        2102 

Assigned  to  Seneca  Camera  Company 

A  Focusing  Device  for  small  collapsible  Roll  Film  Cameras.  The  lens  and  shutter 
are  mounted  in  a  frame  which  slides  rearwardly  and  forwardly.  This  frame  is  pro- 
vided with  pins  which  engage  in  inclined  slots  in  a  transversely  moving  focusing 
member,  so  that,  when  the  latter  is  moved,  the  slots  and  pins  cam  the  frame  carrying 
the  lens  and  shutter  to  the  desired  position.  The  focusing  member  is  provided  with 
a  notch  into  which  a  catch  automatically  slips  when  the  lens  is  in  the  infinity  posi- 
tion. The  structure  is  such  that  the  operation  of  the  device  tends  to  automatically  re- 
turn the  lens  to  the  infinity  position  after  it  has  been  used  at  some  other  point. 

1210241  R.  N.  Wilkinson,  Jr.         216 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  in  which  the  winding  roll  is  operated  by  a  spring  motor 
controlled  by  a  push  button  and  gearing  so  that  it  will  wind  up  one  section  of  film 
automatically  each  time  the  button  is  pressed. 

1213067  C.  Bomemann,  Assigned  to  Ansco  Company        215 

A  Small  Collapsible  Roll  Film  Camera.  The  lens  front  is  connected  to  the  camera 
body  by  four  arms,  the  inner  ends  of  which  are  pivotedly  mounted  on  the  body  while 
the  outer  ends  thereof  slide  in  slots  on  the  lens  front.  Springs  constantly  tend  to  turn 
the  arms  to  the  outward  or  open  position,  and  when  the  camera  is  closed  this 
tendency  of  the  springs  is  overcome  by  a  latch  mechanism. 

U13687  G.  Pelham        215 

A  Device  for  accurately  stopping  the  winding  of  the  film  in  a  roll  film  camera 
after  each  fresh  section  of  film  has  been  brought  before  the  exposure  opening.  The 
film  is  provided  with  pairs  of  perforations,  one  pair  being  located  at  the  end  of  each 
exposure  area.  The  camera  back  is  provided  \^ith  spring  fingers,  which  auto- 
matically slip  into  the  perforations  in  the  film.  These  fingers  are  controlled  by  a 
push  button. 

1214936  J.  A.  Maker        215 

A  Film  Spool  Holding  Mechanism  for  Roll  Film  Cameras.  Tlie  spool  centers  in 
each  film  chamber  are  connected  by  means  of  a  lever  and  rod  so  that  they  can  be 
moved  toward  and:  from  each  other  simultaneously  by  merely  pressing  a  button. 

1215142  J.  P.  C.  Granger,  Assigned  i  to  G.  Schielke         215 

A  Film  Winding  Device  for  Roll  Film  Cameras.  The  winding  reel^is  driven 
from  a  spiral  spring  motor.  This  motor  is  controlled  by  a  ratchet  and  pawl,  the 
latter  being  mounted  upon  a  carriage  which  travels  along  a  screw-threaded  shaft.  The 
pawl  carriage  is  electro  magnetically  controlled  by  a  solenoid  operated  by  a  push 
button. 

1210804  P.  W.  Rowland        215a 

An  Exposure-Identifying  Device  for  Roll  Film  Cameras.  The  back  of  the 
camera  is  provided  with  a  set  of  longitudinally  movable  transparent  strips  bearing 
(^>aque  letters  or  numerals  which  can  be  selectively  moved  over  a  transverse  opening 
in  the  camera  back.  When  the  desired  letters  are  in  place  over  said  opening,  light  i9 
permitted  to  enter  and  print  the  letters  through  the  opening  onto  the  filn^  t 

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18 ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1212447  H.  J.  Brown        2163 

A  Backing  Strip  for  Films  for  uae  in  printing  written  inecriptions  on  the  nega- 
tives either  transversely  or  longitudinally  therof.  The  backing  paper  is  provided  with 
a  transverse  slot  and  a  longitudinal  slot  corr^ponding  to  the  edges  of  each  picture 
space  on  the  negative  film  and  over  each  slot  there  is  provided  a  strip  of  carbon  paper. 

1208982  J.  J.  King        216 

A  Wet  Collodion  Plate  Holder  Bar,  which  is  provided  with  a  plurality  of  pockets 
to  catch  and  retain  any  dripping  of  silver  nitrate  solution. 

1209239  F.  J.  Wende        216 

A  Process  Camera  with  a  Screen  Holder  holding  more  than  one  cross  line  screen, 
and  means  to  bring  into  operation  one  screen  after  the  other  on  the  same  plate  while 
the  operation  is  being  made. 

1211302  R.  G.  A.  Dutert        217 

An  automatic  Focusing  Device  for  Copying  or  Enlarging  Cameras  which  includes 
a  set  of  links  connecting  the  lens,  object  board,  and  image  board,  so  that  a  focus  is 
always  maintained  regardless  of  the  scale  of  magnification  used. 

1214132  C.  H.  Carleton,  Assigned  i  to  Rene  Whaite        2177 

A  Copy-Holder  for  Enlarging  or  Copying  Cameras  provided  with  a  ground  gfcaas 
for  focusing  and  a  clear  glass  against  which  the  copy  is  held. 

1212884  A.  B.  Baron  and  C.  M.  A.  Guinard        219-083 

A  Camera  adapted  to  be  attached  to  the  bottom  of  an  Airship  so  as  to  take  a  series 
of  pictures  of  the  ground  over  which  the  ship  is  passing.  It  includes  a  shutter  and 
mechanism  for  intermittently  moving  the  film,  both  being  actuated  by  a  spring 
motor  controlled  by  a  friction  brake^  so  that  a  precise  speed  of  operation  will  be 
obtained.  Knowing  the  optical  angle  of  the  objective  as  well  as  the  surface  covered 
by  the  objective  at  a  determined  altitude,  the  altitude  of  the  machine  may  be  deter- 
mined and  from  the.  data  so  obtained  the  speed  of  the  airship  maybe  calculated,  the 
speed  of  the  spring  motor  being  considered. 


1218290  J.  A.  I^ndon        2193 

A  Photographic  Camera  provided  with  a  rear  chamber  for  receiving  a  special 
pack  of  films  or  plates.  A  developing  box  is  arranged  below  such  chamber  with 
which  it  is  connected  by  a  slot.  The  front  plate  in  the  pack,  after  exposure,  is 
dropped  through  the  slot  into  the  developer. 

1213974  J.  B.  Taylor,  Assigned  to  General  Electric  Co.         2231 

A  Projection  Apparatus  in  which  the  illuminant  is  a  special  form  of  incandescent 
lamp,  the  filament  in  which  consists  of  a  plurality  of  parallel  but  separated  sections. 
Behind  the  lamp  is  a  mirror  so  located  that  it  forms  images  of  the  filament  sections 
in  the  spaces  between  the  real  filament  sections.  ^  I 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  19 


1213975  J.  B.  Taylor,  Assigned  to  General  Electric  Co.         2231 

An  Incandescent  Lamp  for  projection  parpoees  having  a  coiled  filament  with 
spaced  parallel  eections  in  the  same  plane  and  separated  from  each  other  a  distance 
eqnal  to  the  diameter  of  the  coil. 

1210834  W.  B.  Poynter,  Assigned  i  to  W.  E.  Mayer        231 

A  Flash-Ught  Apparatus  including  a  collapsible  cabinet  and  an  electric  ignition 
system.  The  latter  is  provided  with  a  movable  slide  for  moving  the  fresh  cartridges 
into  firing  position  and  for  ejecting  the  used  cartridges. 

1211993  W.  W.  Wonner  and  C.  W.  Simon—        241 

Wonner  Assigned  to  N.  C.  Stabley 
A  Photographic  Printing  Machine  provided  with  spring  clamps  for  the  negative 
and  [for  a  mask,  the  two  sets  of  clamps   being  operated  simultaneously  or  inde- 
pendently. 

1212022  G.  Croston        241 

A  Photographic  Printing  Machine  provided  with  a  mask  in  the  form  of  a  roller- 
blind  having  apertures  of  various  shapes  and  sizes.  The  machine  is  provided  with 
two  ground  glass  diffusing  screens,  the  lower  one  being  vertically  adjustable.  It  is 
also  provided  with  an  automatic  device  for  determining  the  length  of  exposure.  An 
electric  motor  turns  a  screw-threaded  shaft  along  which  a  half  nut  rides  for  a  pre- 
determined time  and  at  the  end  of  its  path  of  movement  strikes  against  a  lever  and 
cuts  off  the  actinic  light,  at  the  same  time  opening  the  lid  of  the  machine. 

1214408  C.  F.  Barr  and  W.  R.  Miller        251 

A  Device  for  Supporting  Film  during  developing  and  other  fluid-treating  opera- 
tions. It  comprises  a  float  carr3ring  depending  clamps  which  grip  the  ends  of  a 
film  strip. 

1212498  L.  W.  Kelsay,  Assigned  i  to  J.  L.  Grindle        2541 

A  Device  for  Developing  Roll  Films.  It  comprises  a  reel  composed  of  a  central 
bub  and  two  sheet  metal  ends,  the  sheet  metal  ends  having  stamped  therein  spiral 
grooves  with  perforations  in  the  tops  of  the  grooves.  In  use,  the  natural  tendency 
of  the  film  to  curl  causes  it  to  follow  the  grooves  of  the  ends  upon  slight  pressure. 
Wlien  the  film  is  thus  coiled  on  the  reel  with  its  convolutions  spaced  apart,  it  is 
immersed  in  a  developing  tank. 

1213489  F.  A.  Binder         2541 

A  Tank  for  Developing  Roll  Film.  It  comprises  a  spiral  sheet  metal  support 
mounted  upon  a  rotary  desk  and  a  support  for  the  film  spool  so  arranged  that  the 
film  is  automatically  guided  to  and  wound  upon  the  spiral  support  when  the  latter 
is  rotated.     A  light  trapped  fluid  inlet  and  outlet  is  provided. 

1212228  R.  John,  Assigned  by  Mesne  Assignments  to         255 

Iconochrome  CJompany  of  America,  Inc. 
A  Dark-Room  Lantern  provided  with  an  inclined  safe  light  window  and  a  window 
for  giving  a  strong  white  light  during  the  reversal  of  color  plates.  The  casing  of  the 
lantern  is  hollow  and  the  inner  wall  thereof  is  provided  with  openings  which  are  out 
of  registry  with  the  openings  in  the  outer  wall,  hence  forming  a  light  trap  that 
permits  ventilation. 


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20  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1211347  A.  Plofchan  and  J.  Zuraw        2614 

A  Camera  Support  including  a  universal  joint  and  a  screw-threaded  tang  for 
attaching  it  to  wooden  objects. 

1214250  A.  Wollensak,  Assigned  to  WoUensak  Optical  Co.         2623 

An  Automatic  Between-the-Lens  Photographic  Shutter  of  the  type  that  is  pro- 
vided with  pivoted  blades  moving  oppositely  to  form  a  symmetrical  central  opening. 

1214699  P.  J.  Marks,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Company        2623 

A  Between-the-Lens  Shutter  of  the  "Set"  Type.  The  motive  power  is  produced 
by  winding  a  spiral  spring  on  a  shaft.  The  power  is  transmitted  from  this  shaft  to 
the  ring  which  moves  the  shutter  blades  by  means  of  two  cams  mounted  on  said  shaft, 
the  first  of  which  causes  the  shutter  to  open  and  the  second  of  which  causes  the 
shutter  to  close.  An  improved  mechanism  for  regulating  time  and  bulb  exposure 
is  provided. 

1215284  R.  Klein  and  T.  Brueck        2623 

A  Between-the-Lens  Shutter  of  the  '* Automatic*'  Type.  A  simplified  mounting 
for  the  ring  which  operates  the  shutter  blades  is  provided  and  a  weighted  lever  acts 
as  a  retarding  means  for  controlling  the  speed.  The  retarding  means,  as  well  as  the 
mechanism  for  giving  time  and  bulb  exposure,  is  controlled  by  a  pivoted  lever  which 
has  an  opening  through  which  the  lens  projects. 

1211664  E.  E.  Bjorling        2626 

Another  Device  for  Automatically  Operating  the  Camera  Shutter,  at  predet»r- 
mined  time  after,  it  is  set  so  that  the  operator  may  include  himself  in  the  picture. 
It  is  controlled  by  an  ordinary  watch  mechanism. 

1212383  S.  Nagy        2626 

A  Spring  Actuated,  Pneumatic  Controlled  Shutter  Actuating  Device  whereby 
the  operator  can  include  himself  in  the  picture. 

1204030  G.  A.  H.  Kellner        263 

A  target  for  a  lens  centering  instrument  so  arranged  that  both  cross-hairs  may 
be  sharply  focused  even  when  measuring  astigmatic  lenses.  One  cross-hair  is  ver- 
tically mounted  on  a  front  carriage  while  a  second  cross-hair  is  horizontally  mounted 
on  a  rear  movable  carriage  and  a  lens  on  this  second  carriage  projects  forwardly  the 
image  of  the  horizontal  cross-hair. 

1210896  S.  Brown        264 

A  Finder  for  Cameras  which  have  Rising  Fronts.  The  finder  is  tiltable  about  a 
horizontal  transverse  axis  and  a  level  is  provided  adjacent  the  finder.  While  holding 
the  camera  level  the  finder  is  tilted  until  the  desired  view  appears  therein.  The 
angle  of  tilt  is  read  off  on  a  scale  and  the  rising  front  of  the  camera  is  raised  through 
the  amount  thus  indicated,  the  rising  front  being  provided  with  a  scale  calibrated  to 
correspond  to  the  scale  of  the  pivoted  finder.  A  similar  arrangement  has  been 
used  for  a  number  of  years  on  the  Una  Camera  sold  by  James  A.  Sinclair  and 
Company  of  Ix>ndon  and  described  in  successive  numbers  of  the  British  Journal 
Almanac.  ^-^  , 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  21 


1212137  H.  Gindele         2(>53 

A  Photographic  Film  Cartridge  so  arranged  that  any  particular  exposed  portion 
of  the  film  may  be  removed  for  development  without  prt»venting  the  subsequent  use 
of  other  portions  of  the  film  in  the  camera.  The  film  is  providt^l  with  transverse 
slots  at  distances  conesponding  to  the  edges  of  the  picture  areas.  In  back  of  each  of 
these  slotted  portions  there  is  arranged  a  gummed  sticker  which  is  nominally  in 
detachable  connection  with  the  paper  backing  of  the  film,  but  which  can  be  n8e<l  to 
stick  the  loose  ends  of  the  film  to  the  backing  paper  when  an  intermediate  portion  of 
said  film  is  torn  out  for  development. 

1213514  F.  W.  Lovejoy,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2(>o3-12111 

A  Photographic  Roll  Film.  The  film  strip  is  provided  along  one  edge  with  sets 
of  protuberances,  one  set  being  located  adjacent  each  picture  area  and  the  number 
of  protuberances  in  each. set  corresponding  to  the  number  of  the  picture  area.  For 
example,  there  will  be  five  protuberances  opposite  the  fifth  area,  six  protuberances 
opposite  the  sixth  area,  etc.  By  this  means  a  particular  picture  area  can  be  iden- 
tified even  after  the  backing  paper  has  been  separated  from  the  film  strip. 

1213694  W.  J.  Schultz,  Sr.         2054 

A  Film  Roll  Holder  designed  to  be  interchangeable  with  the  ordinary  double 
plate  holders  such  as  are  used  on  our  Cycle  Graphic  and  Premo  Plate  Cameras.  It 
comprises  a  long,  narrow  chamber  of  the  same  thickness  as  a  plate  holder,  carrying 
at  one  end  two  thicker  chambers  containing  the  winding  roll  and  the  feeding  roll 
respectively. 

1209395  A.  W.  Church,  Assigned  i  to  Clarence  C.  Sinnott        267 

A  distance  Finder  to  enable  a  photographer  approximately  to  determine  the  dis- 
tance to  an  object  so  that  he  can  set  his  focusing  scale  accurately.  Sighting  means 
ia  provided  which  in  use  is  inclined  to  aim  at  the  feet  of  the  person  whost^  picture  is 
to  be  taken  and  is  so  calibrated  that  the  distance  indicated  by  such  inclination  can 
be  read  off  on  a  scale  carried  by  a  pendulum. 

1211780  A.  C.  Stewart        2682 

An  Actinometer  for  Photographic  Purposes  in  which  the  light  from  the  subject 
is  reflected  by  a  difi'using  surface  to  an  inclined  mirror  and  thence  through  a  filter  of 
actinic  color  to  the  observer's  eye.  The  light  from  the  subject  is  progressively  cut 
down  by  a  stop  mechanism  imtil  no  light  from  the  subject  can  be  seen.  A  scale 
connected  with  the  moving  parts  directly  indicates  the  exposure  necessary.  A  special 
feature  is  an  arrangement  whereby  the  existence  of  appreciable  light  is  tested  in 
comparison  with  a  condition  of  darkness. 

1213485  A.  Herz        2682 

A  Combination  of  an  Actinometer  with  the  lens  and  shutter  of  a  camera. 
Specific  actinometers  disclosed  are  either  of  the  type  in  which  an  image  is  formed 
and  the  illumination  decreased  until  image  detail  disappears  in  the  shadows,  or  the 
type  in  which  the  actinometer  image  is  compared  with  a  standard  illuminant.  The 
arrangement  is  such  that  the  moving  actinometer  parts  will  automatically  adjust  both 
the  speed  of  the  shutter  and  working  aperture  of  the  lens.  A  third  adjustment 
compensates  for  the  speed  of  the  sensitive  plate  or  film.  ^^  t 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


22  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1212355  H.  L.  He,  Assigned  i  to  Roy  W.  Ide        268$ 

An  Actinometer  combined  with  a  Boll  Film  Camera.  A  disk  of  actinometer 
paper  is  provided  on  the  end  of  the  film  spool  and  an  observation  window  is 
adjustably  located  in  the  end  of  the  film  spool  chamber,  whereby  the  various  elements 
of  the  sensitive  paper  may  be  printed  out  to  measure  the  light  in  the  usual  way.  A 
light  trap  prevents  fogging  of  the  camera  film  by  stray  light  from  the  actinometer. 

1211497  A.  S.  Spiegel         287-034 

Assigned  i  to  R.  Glendinning  and  i  to  G.  Felsenthal 

A  holder  for  Animated  Photographs  of  the  type  in  which  a  lined  screen  is  moved 
over  a  photograph  composed  of  a  plurality  of  pictures  divided  into  vertical  strips,  the 
distance  apart  of  which  is  equal  to  the  distance  between  the  lines  of  the  screen.  It 
is  composed  of  pasteboard  folded  in  such  a  way  that  the  photograph  can  be  easily 
inserted  underneath  and  in  registry  with  the  screen  and  fast^ned  into  position. 

1210744  J.  T.  Welle,  Assigned  to  The  Edwards  Mfg.  Co.         3201 

A  Film-Feed  Mechanism  for  intenpittently  moving  the  film  in  a  motion  picture 
camera  or  projector.  It  comprises  a  constantly  turning  driving  disk  and  an  inter- 
mittently driven  gear  which  is  disposed  within  the  periphery  of  the  operating  disk 
for  compactness. 

1212570  M.  Segel        3201 

A  Modified  Geneva  Movement  for  intermittently  feeding  motion  picture  film. 

1213147  T.  H.  Blair        3203 

A  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors.  It  comprises  a  rotary  disk  provided 
with  an  opaque  sector  corresponding  to  the  usual  sector  in  the  ordinary  shutters,  but 
provided  with  groups  of  relatively  narrow  sector-shaped  light  projecting  openings  and 
with  sets  of  radially  arranged  perforations,  so  that  flickering  is  avoided  and  the 
picture  given  adequate  illumination.  It  is  alleged  that  pictures  may  be  successfully 
projected  at  the  rate  of  only  eight  per  second  if  this  arrangement  is  used. 

1214301  F.  C.  Hamilton,         3203 

Assigned  to  Eureka  Projector  Device  Co.,  Inc. 

A  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Projecting  Apparatus  in  which  the  sector-shaped 
vanes  are  not  opaque  but  merely  diffuse  the  light  so  that  the  pictures  on  the  screen 
will  alternate  with  periods  of  diff'used  light  rather  than  darkness.  The  vanes  are  held 
in  place  on  the  hub  by  an  adjustable  trif  urea  ted  flat  spring. 

1210113  L.  Sollisch,  Assigned  i  to  G.  Albanese         3204 

A  Reel  for  Motion  Picture  Films  for  diminishing  the  fire  risk  when  the  reel  is  not 
in  use.  It  consists  of  a  hub  provided  with  the  usual  side  plates,  having  each  a  large 
aperture  closed  by  a  detachable  door.  A  flanged  metal  band  is  provided  which  clamps 
around  the  periphery  of  the  plates  and  thus  forms  a  closed  metal  container. 

1210909  A.  F.  Copersito        3204 

A  Reel  for  Motion  Picture  Films  to  Umit  the  fire  risk  when  the  reel  is  not  in  use. 
A  flanged  metal  band  is  clamped  around  the  peripheral  edges  of  the  reel  so  as  to 
temporarily  form,  in  effect,  a  closed  metallic  container.  ^-^  ^ 

Digitized  by  LjOOQ IC 


AB8TEACT    BULLETIN  23 

2111955  W.  E.  Millar        3204 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  for  projecting  advertising  film  continuously,  the  film 
being  in  ^n  endlees  band.  The  film  is  wound  up  on  the  outside  of  a  roll  and  fed  oflf 
from  the  inside  of  the  roll  continuously. 

1212115        G.  H.  Scherflf,  Assigned  to  G.  H.  SchorflFA  Co.,  Inc.         3205 

An  Arrangement  for  Controlling  the  Illumination  in  Motion  Picture  Projection 
Apparatus.  Whenever  the  voltage  across  the  arc  departs  from  normal,  a  regulator, 
controlled  by  the  drop  in  voltage  across  the  arc,  operates  a  clutch  and  temporarily 
connects  the  carbon  feeding  means  with  the  moving  parts  of  the  film-feed  until  the 
carbons  are  at  the  proper  distance  apart. 

1212853  A.  F.  Victor        3205 

An  Adjustable  Condensing  System  for  Projection  Apparatus,  including  three 
lenses  so  arranged  that  the  rear  lens  can  be  moved  back  of  and  into  alignment  with 
either  of  the  other  two  lenses  to  change  the  focal  length  of  the  condenser,  thereby 
adapting  it  to  project  motion  pictures  or  the  relatively  larger  lantern  slides. 

1209755  N.  Power,  Assigned  to  Nicholas  Power  Co.         3208 

A  Tension  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Film  Reels.    The  wind-up  reel  is  driven  by 

a  belt  which  is  kept  in  operative  position  by  a  tightening  roller,  the  tightening  effect 

of  which  is  controlled  by  the  tension  of  the  motion  picture  film.    Thus,  if  the  film 

.  becomes  too  tight,  the  tension  of  the  driving  belt  is  diminished  until  it  slips  and  so 

reUeves  the  excess  tension. 

1212750  W.  E.  Eggleston  and  L.  L.  Chaimcey         3208 

A  Device  for  Rewinding  Motion  Picture  Film  comprising  a  fireproof  container 
having  observation  windows  for  watching  the  operation. 

1214208  H.  L.  Miller        3209 

A  Signal  for  Motion  Picture  Reels  which  will  warn  the  operator  when  the  film  is 
nearly  exhausted.  A  gravity  actuated  plunger  carries  rolls  at  the  bottom  which  bear 
upon  the  film  so  that  as  the  amount  of  film  on  the  reel  grows  less,  the  plunger  moves 
downwardly  until  an  electric  contact  is  made  just  before  the  film  is  exhausted.  Such 
contact  causes  a  signal  to  be  displayed. 

1210665  F.  W.  Matthews        323 

An  Apparatus  for  Producing  Synchronized  Motion  Pictures  and  Phonograph 

Sounds.    To  keep  the  phonograph  and  motion  picture  projector  close  enough  to  be 

'  operative,  they  are  mounted  on  the  same  standard  close  beside  the  projecting  screen 

and  the  picture  producing  rays  from  the  projector  are  passed  to  a  refiector  in  the  rear 

of  the  theater  and  thence  forwardly  to  the  screen  on  the  stage. 

1212424  W.  L.  Tillotson        324 

A  Concave  Motion  Picture  Screen  composed  of  a  canvas  facing  and  a  resilient 
backing,  the  curvature  being  adjustable  by  means  of  screw-threaded  rods  which  con- 
nect the  sides  of  the  screm.  r-^  t 

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^  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1211200  -*.  McCormick        324    067 

An  Arrangement  for  projecting  Motion  Pictures.  Its  object  is  to  increase  the 
illusion  by  flashing  a  hght  in  the  rear  of  the  screen  at  a  time  when  bright  hghts 
appear  in  the  motion  picture.  It  includes  a  set  of  lamps  behind  a  screen  and  a 
movable  mask  in  front  of  said  lights,  the  movement  of  the  mask  being  controlled 
electrically  in  synchronism  with  the  movement  of  the  motion  picture  film. 

1210960  L.  McCormick        324    067 

An  Arrangement  for  Increasing  the  Illusion  when  projecting  motion  pictures 
which  have  lights  therein  such  as  the  moon,  rockets,  lamps  on  approaching  vehicles, 
etc.  A  movable  light  is  mounted  to  travel  on  tracks  which  are  properly  positioned 
in  the  rear  of  the  screen,  the  light  being  moved  over  the  tracks  at  the  correct  moment 
by  means  of  an  electric  motor. 

1210961  L.  McCormick        324    067 

An  Arrangement  for  Increasing  the  Illusion  when  projecting  motion^  pictures,  by 
flashing  lights  at  the  proper  position  in  the  rear  of  the  screen  at  a  time  when  the 
pictures  projected  on  the  screen  are  supposed  to  show  a  bright  light.  It  includes  a 
bank  of  electric  lapps  in  the  rear  of  the  screen,  the  switches  of  which  are  controlle 
by  a  strip  of  paper  selectively  perforated  and  moved  in  synchronism  with  the"  motion 
picture  film. 

1210887  G.  Bettini        325 

A  Motion  PictAire  Apparatus  in  which  the  positive  plate  or  film  containing  the 
pictures  is  held  stationary  while  the  optical  parts  of  the  apparatus,  including  prisma 
for  bending  the  rays  and  the  projecting  lens,  are  moved  intermittently  to  project  the 
pictures  in  succession. 

1214636  W.  H.  Zinn        325 

A  Knockdown  Stroboscope.  It  is  a  toy  which  may  be  folded  flat  to  be  shipped 
in  an  envelope.  When  ready  for  use,  it  comprises  a  whirling  cylinder  carrying  a 
series  of  pictures  on  its  inner  face,  so  that  when  the  cylinder  is  revolved  and  the 
pictures  are  observed  through  slots,  a  motion  picture  efiect  is  produced. 

1210743  J.  T.  Wells,  Assigned  to  The  Edwards  Mfg.  Co.         341 

A  Machine  for  Printing  Motion  Picture  Positive  Film.  The  negative  and  positive 
films  are  moved  step  by  step  in  contact  across  a  suitable  exposure  opening. 

1212259  J.  A.  Ramsey        342 

A  Simplified  Machine  for  Printing  Motion  Picture  Positive  Film  and  designed  to 
hold  the  superposed  films  without  slipping  to  permit  a  high  rate  of  speed. 

1209696  L.  Gaumont,  Assigned  to  Soci^t^        358 

Etablissements  Gaumont 

An  Apparatus  for  Drying  Photographic  Films,  so  arranged  that  the  driving  motor 
therefor  will  be  stopped  and  a  signal  bell  rung,  when  the  film  breaks.  It  is  also  pro- 
vided with  an  automatic  device  for  moistening  the  emulsion  side  of  the  film  with  a 
fluid  to  prevent  cracking  of  the  surface  during  drying.  A  wiper  removes  the  ezom 
of  moisture  from  the  film  before  it  enters  the  drying  chamber.  ^-^  ^ 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 85 

1211895  J.  H.  Theiss        361 

A  Saj^dorting  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Oftmeru  comprinng  a  tum«Uble  on  ball 
bearings  by  means  of  which  the  camera  can  be  rotated  to  produce  panoramic  nega- 
tives. Upon  the  tomtable  is  an  angularly  adjustable  support.  All  the  parts  are 
arranged  to  take  up  wear  automatically  so  as  to  avoid  the  ''swaying  "  which  is  found 
in  motion  pictures  taken  on  tripod  heads  containing  worn  and  loose  parts. 

1214226  E.  Schneider        861 

A  Panoramic  Tripod  Head  for  Motion  Picture  Cameras.  The  camera  is  turned 
about  both  a  horizontal  axis  and  a  vertical  axis  by  means  of  two  worm  gears  which 
are  both  driven  from  the  same  worm. 


1211429  W.  Frank        384 

A  Machine  applying  paraffin  wax  to  the  edges  of  cine  film  strips  on  the  emulsion 
side.  The  film  is  drawn  through  rollers  and  strips  of  solid  paraffin  are  pressed  against 
the  edges  thereof. 

1209339  J.  W.  and  L.  P.  Schippers        386 

A  Splicer  for  Broken  Motion  Picture  Film  which  includes  a  pair  of  adjacent 
clamps  and  a  key  for  simultaneously  releasing  them. 


British  Patents 

13042-1915  H.  Workman        K3117 

Prism  Systems  for  Splitting  Light  beams  for  Three  Color  Work.  A  system  of  four 
prisms  with  partially  silvered  faces  or  with  faces  coated  with  a  reflecting  layer  arranged 
in  small  areas  or  narrow  lines  may  be  cemented  together  so  that  the  beam  is  divided 
into  two  or  more  separate  beams  by  means  of  it.     The  arrangement  is  described. 

101972-1916  W.  B.  Wescott        K/23 

Kinematograph  Apparatus  whereby  successively-exposed  pairs  of  images  are 
obtained,  each  pair  being  made  in  a  camera  on  a  film  by  simultaneous  exposure  from 
the  same  view-point.  The  images  are  arranged  upon  the  film  so  that  the  members 
of  each  pair  are  separated  by  a  space  which  is  occupied  by  members  of  other  pairs  of 
images,  which  pairs  of  images  may  be  either  kinematographic  or  color  reconls.  The 
images  are  obtained  by  means  of  a  single  lens  and  a  half-silvered  mirror,  which 
divides  the  light  beam  into  two  parts,  which  are  reflected  through  color  screens  onto 
the  film.  The  film  is  shifted  through  two  image  spaces  between  successive  exposures. 
Positive  films  produced  from  such  films  may  be  projected  by  a  projector  having  color 
screens  and  lenses  separated  so  that  both  images  of  each  pair  may  be  projected  between 
successive  film  shifts,  the  projection  being  either  simultaneously  or  successive.  The 
lenses  of  the  projector  are  adjustable  so  as  to  register  the  images  projected  on  to  the 
screen  and  to  correct  for  changes  in  the  film  due  to  temperature  shrinkage  or  ex- 
pansion. The  means  for  feeding  the  film  may  engage  the  part  of  the  film  between 
the  lenses.  ^  ^  ^  ^^  ^  GoOglc 


26  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

B102471.1916  W.  E.  AUen        084-2651 

Dark-Slides  for  Living  Portrait  N^gatiTes.  In  the  arrangement  for  moving  the 
ruled  screen  relatively  to  the  smsitive  plate^  the  screen  or  plate,  bat  preteably 
the  screen,  is  held  in  a  frame  which  is  moved  transversely  against  spring  action  by 
means  of  one  or  more  cam  sor&oes  upon  it  which  cooperate  with  a  slide  on 
the  plate  holder. 

12048-1916  U.  Benz        048-219 

Apparatus  for  Making  Designs  by  Photography.  A  roeette  or  other  design  is 
copied  in  a  copying  camera,  arranged  so  that  the  design  can  be  rotated,  and  photo- 
graphed in  a  number  of  positions  successively,  thus  producing  a  composite  design 
formed  from  the  original  simple  figure. 

18055-1915  T.  R.  Johnston        0713 

Improvements  in  Rotary  Photogravure  Printing  Machines.  Suggests  the  use  of 
flat  sheets  for  etching,  fastened  around  the  cylinder  with  a  rubber  blanket  underneath 
and  wiped  by  means  of  smooth  metal  roller  revolving  in  the  opposite  way  to  the 
cylinder. 

14101-1915  H.  Dreyfus        1513 

Cellulose  Acetates.  In  the  production  of  cellulose  acetates  insoluble  in  chloroform 
but  soluble  in  alcohol-chloroform,  employing  sulphuric  acid  as  condensing-agent,  the 
acetylating  mixture  is  subjected  to  prolonged  cooling  prior  to  the  introduction  of  the 
cellulose  and  the  temperature  during  acetylation  is  regulated  by  cooling;  the  aoetyla- 
tion  is  stopped  when  a  test  portion  shows  the  required  insolubility  in  chloroform  and 
solubility  in  alcohol-chloroform;  the  proportions  of  Specification  20,977/11.  If  glacial 
acetic  acid  is  used  as  diluent,  tlie  crystallization  produced  by  cooling  is  advantageous. 

101976-1916        M.Cantoni,  H.WalkkerandH.Cuchet      219    083    052 

A  Telephotographic  Camera  adapted  for  use  on  air  craft,  consisting  of  ti  square  box 
containing  two  mirrors  so  arranged  that  the  image  from  the  lens  is  reflected  twice 
before  reaching  the  plate,  thus  making  possible  the  use  of  long-focus  lenses. 

17810-1915  E.  A.  Thorberg        241 

Bromide  Printing  Box.  Small  box  intended  to  be  portable  and  used  with  a  small 
dry  battery  and  therefor  supplied  witli  a  switch  additional  to  the  automatic  switch  in 
the  camera  of  the  box  so  that  should  the  printing  box  be  left  closed  the  battery  will 
not  be  used  up  since  the  lamp  cannot  be  lighted  unless  a  special  key  be  inserted. 

102545-1916  J.  C.  Munro        2543 

Developing  Cut  Films.     C£.  Bull.  Dec.  1916. 

101900-1916  E.  Schieroni  and  I.  Ullmann        315 

Kinematograph  Apparatus  of  the  kind  having  multiple  row8  of  pictures  on  the 

film,  which  is  alternately  traversed  laterally  and  longitudinally.         r^^^^^T^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOv  IC 


Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


ApjJ ;  1917 


Is 5 u eel  hy  the  Research  Laboratory^ 

EASTMAN  KODAK  CCMPANY 

Rochester.  Nevt^York 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Digitized  by-LjOO^lC 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  3.  No.  2 


April,  1917 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Additions  to  the  Numerical  Classification: 


J5        Combination  Printing  from  Several  2671 

Negatives.         '  2672 

026      Tourist  Photography.  3107 

055      Photography  in  Unusual  Climates.  328 

0946    Motion  Photomicrography.  3208 

1685    Backings.  2109 
273      Studio  Reflectors  and    DifTusing 

Screens.  2833 


Telemeters  and  Focusing  Scales. 

Lens  Shades. 

Vignetters. 

Advertising  Projectors. 

Wind  Ups  and  Re-winders. 

Holders    for    Line   Screens    for 

'* Moving  Portraits' ' . 
Mounts  for  "Moving  Portraits". 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Photography 


The  Manufacture  of  Cine  Film  Stock  A1212 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  1111 
The  concluding  article  on  this  sabject. 

Remedies  for  Jammed  Stoppers  Gl 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  58 

Practical  article  on  different  methods  of  getting  out  stoppers  which  have  become 
set  in  the  necks  of  bottles. 

Development  of  Panchromatic  Plates  M.  Mayer        G5 

II  Corriere  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  3056 

Dr.  Mayer  notes  that  the  Dellaye  method  of  developing  screen  plates  by  red 
light,  in  which  they  are  desensitized,  before  developing,  by  a  bath  of  bromide  and 
bisulphite,  cannot  be  used  with  the  ordinary  panchromatic  plates. 

Tests  for  Hypo  G7 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  60 

As  a  result  of  a  comparison  of  the  sensitiveness  of  mercurous  nitrate  and 
potassium  permanganate  as  a  test  for  hypo,  iiainbridge  finds  potassium  permanga- 
nate to  be  the  more  sensitive  and  satisfactory. 

Direct  Positives  on  Bromide  Paper  G8 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  68 

Commimication  from  the  Publishing  Department  of  the  Eastman  Kodak 
Company.  Tiio  methods  are  given  by  which  direct  positives  can  be  obtained  on 
photostat  paper.  The  first  consisting  of  bleaching  in  permanganate  and  sulfuric 
after  development  and  then  re-developing  after  exposure,  the  other  of  developing  in 
the  usual  way,  sulphiding  the  unexposed  silver  bromide  and  then  removing  the  silver 
by  means  of  ferricyanide  sulphocyanide  bleach. 

Lantern  Slides  Direct  in  Camera  G8 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  79 

Reprints  from  Camera  Craft  and  B.  J.  describing  in  full  D.  Carnegie's,  H.  d' Arcy 
Powers'  and  W,  L.  G.  Bennett's  methods  of  producing  lantern  slides  by  reversal. 

Positives  anH  Negatives  by  Inversion  M.  Mayer        G8 

n  Corriere  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  3040 

Collection  of  the  formulae  used  for  transforming  a  negative  into  a  positive  by  the 
permanganate  and  bichromate  methods. 

Method  of  Titlmg  Negatives  H6 

II  Corriere  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  3056 

Putting  Sky  or  Figures  in  Landscapes  J5 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  83 


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30  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


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Color  Supplement  K21 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  5 

Decennia  Practica.  This  number  deals  with  types  and  designs  of  three-color 
cameras. 

A  New  Method  for  the  Coloring  of  Mounts  R.  Romanelli        L5 

II  Corriere  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  3062 

The  author  recommends  the  use  of  an  atomizer  containing  a  solution  of  aniline 
dye. 

The  Range  of  Contrast  from  Highlight  to  Shadow    C.  E.  K.  Mees  01 

Kodakery,  Mar.  1917,  p.  10 

Temperature  Coefficients  of  the  M.  Padoa  and  L.  Mervini         013 

Action  of  Monochromatic  Light 
on  Photographic  Plates  and  Papers 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1916,  (ii)  p.  592 

Over  an  interval  of  100°  C.  ( -86"^  to  15°)  the  temperature  coefficient  of  plates  is 
1.06  for  all  wavelengths.  For  print-out  images  on  citrate  paper,  on  the  other  hand, 
the  coefficient  varies  with  the  wavelength.  The  authors  claim  that  this  difference 
indicates  that  the  formation  of  a  latent  image  on  the  plate  is  not  due  to  a  photo- 
chemical decomposition  of  silver  halide  into  its  elements,  as  is  the  case  with  the 
print-out  image. 

The  Latent  Image  014 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  81 

Dr.  Homolka  of  the  Photographieche  Korrespondenz  discusses  a  theory  of  the 
latent  image  as  containing  silver  per-bromide  in  addition  to  sub-bromide.  He  finds 
that  if  bromide  paper  is  exposed  to  daylight  until  completely  changed,  as  far  as 
visible  change  is  possible,  and  is  (hen  treated  with  the  sodium  salt  of  phenylglycine 
it  can  be  printed  out  under  a  negative  and  will  give  prints  which  can  be  toned  in 
an  ordinary  gold  bath  while  with  a  short  exposure  the  paper  can  be  developed. 


The  Size  of  the  Image  019 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  54 

For  remembering  the  size  of  an  image  produced  with  different  focal  lengths  of 
lens  at  different  distances  of  object,  the  following  mnemonic  rule  is  proposed:  With 
a  10  inch  lens  and  a  10  foot  object  1000  feet  away,  the  size  of  the  image  is  1/10  of  an 
inch. 

Registering  Sitters  by  Photographing  A.  V.  Chandler        0311 

the  Number  on  the  Plate 

B.J.,  1917,  p.  84 

Suggestions  for  carrying  this  out  by  having  a  number  over  the  sitter's  head. 

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ABSTRACT     BULLETIN  31 


Reproducing  Stained  Negatives  041-057 

Studio  Light,  Feb.  1917,  p.  10 

Local  yellow  stains  such  as  silver  and  pyro  stains  may  in  most  cases  be  eliminated 
by  either  copying  the  negative  in  a  camera,  using  a  G  filter  over  the  lens,  or  by 
duplicating  the  negative  by  contact  printing  through  a  sheet  of  the  said  filter  using  a 
panchromatic  plate. 

Dyes  as  Sensitizers  of  Carbon  Tissue  and  Gum  Paper  /9    /82 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  96 

Translation  by  J.  C.  Warburg  of  an  article  by  H.  Waago  from  the  Danish 
Amator-Fotografen.  Dr.  Meisling  has  found  that  instead  of  a  solution  of  bichromatt* 
a  solution  of  erythosin  can  be  used  for  sensitizing  gelatine  or  gum.  A  paper  sensi- 
tized with  the  erythosin  has  the  advantage  of  keeping  in  good  condition  for  six 
months  ot  more.  The  process  is  worked  in  the  usual  way,  the  sensitizing  solution 
being  a  1  in  10,000  solution  of  the  dye. 

New  Platinotype  Paper  135 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  (50 

At  the  Croydon  Camera  Club,  ^Ir.  AV.  H.  Smith,  manager  of  the  Platinotype 
Company,  demonstrated  a  new  printing  pai)er  which  give.^  warm  sepias  by  cold  de- 
velopment, resembling  Sepia  Japnie  Platinotype. 

Developer  Standards  1531 

Studio  Light,  Feb.  1917,  p.  16 

An  article  describing  the  various  tests  carried  out  in  the  Research  Laboratory  in 
order  to  determine  the  desirability  of  any  particular  developing  agent. 

Palladium  Salts  as  Toning  Agents  1565 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  SO 

In  consequence  of  the  scarcity  of  platinum,  E.  Valenta  has  used  potaa*«ium 
chloro-palladinite  for  toning  silver  prints  in  combination  with  sodium  glycollate. 

Color  Sensitizing  Dyes  1581 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  8 

According  to  reprints  from  the  Photographische  Korrespondenz,  Dr.  Koenig  has 
produced  several  new  dyes  recently.  Of  these  pinachrome  blue  and  pinachrorae 
violet  are  known  to  us  but  pinacyanol  green  and  dicyanine  A  are  new.  Dicyanine  A 
is  considered  to  be  more  suitable  su^  a  sensitizer  for  the  infra  red  than  dicyanine. 

Ferro-Prussiate  Sensitizers  162/71 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  70 

E.  Valenta  finds  that  ferro-prussiate  paper  can  be  improved  by  the  use  of  a 
small  quantity  of  diglycollato-ferrate  of  ammonium,  this  giving  a  somewhat  quicker 
printing  paper  and  yielding  a  finer  color  of  image.  ^  t 

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32  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Croydon  Camera  Club  241 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  86 

Mr.  W.  H.  Smith  demonstrated  a  small  printing  cabinet  using  a  100  watt  nitro- 
gen tungsten  lamp  with  which  he  found  it  possible  to  print  out  silver  paper. 

Green  Safelights  for  Dark  Room  Work  C.  deAlbouret        2556 

II  Corriere  Fotografico,  p.  3055 
General  exposition  of  the  advantages  of  green  light  over  red. 

Shutter  Speeds  2623 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  53 

Attention  is  called  to  the  importance  of  possible  variations  in  the  speed  of  a 
shutter.  It  is  stated  that  very  often  a  shutter  set  to  a  slow  speed  will  open  slowly 
and  fail  to  close  properly  the  first  time  after  a  rest.  A  leasonable  degree  of  con- 
sistency is  considered  to  be  of  greater  importance  than  anything  else. 

The  Relation  Between  Rapidity  and  View- Angle    .  263 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  67 

The  author  calls  attention  to  the  effect  which  the  cutting  of  the  aperture  of 
the  lens  when  working  at  wide  angles  has  upon  its  rapidity.  The  effect  is  much 
greater  than  is  usually  realized,  for  instance,  with  a  five-inch  Goerz  Dagor  at  full 
aperture  a  3Ji  x  4^  plate  receives  at  the  corners  only  one-third  of  the  light  that 
reaches  it  in  the  center  and  since  the  exposure  must  be  regulated  for  the  least  lighted 
part  of  the  picture,  it  is  clear  that  the  lens  used  at  a  wide  angle  is  considerably 
slower  than  the  same  lens  used  to  cover  a  smaller  field. 

A  Retouching  Knife         '  E.  Hinge        275 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  85 

A  knife  can  be  made  by  fitting  a  fine  watch-spring  in  place  of  the  lead  in  a 
retouching  pencil  holder. 

Motion  Picture  Camera  Specifications  31 

Mot.  Pict.  World,  1917,  p.  839 

In  this  and  in  a  series  of  preceding  articles,  the  desirable  features  of  various 
motion  picture  cameras  are  indicated. 

The  Simplex  Precision  Motion  Picture  Camera  31 

Mot.  Pict.  World,  1917,  p.  1770 
A  new  camera  model  with  several  desirable  features. 

A  Dissolving  Attachment  for  use  with  the  Universal  Camera  3107 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  1112 

The  dissolving  or  '  'fading  out'  *  effect  is  secured  by  means  of  a  rotating  graded 
glass  disk  placed  in  front  of  the  lens.  The  apparatus  is  independent  of  the  working 
mechanism  of  the  camera,  and  is  so  arranged  that  by  pressure  of  a  button  the  glass 
disk  is  rotated  through  one  revolution  in  5  seconds.  ^  , 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  83 

Model  Lighting  System  in  the  Rothacker  J.  H.  Sandidge        374 

Studio 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  1274 

Setfi  of  Cooper-Hewitt  tubes  are  supported  on  a  traveling  crane,  which  may  be 
moved  to  any  desired  position  in  the  studio,  while  each  individual  set  of  tubes  may 
be  raised  or  lowered,  or  inclined  at  any  angle.  All  cables  are  suspended  above  the 
lights,  which  are  operated  from  a  small  switch  panel  near  the  camera  operator, which 
constitutes  part  of  the  moveable  outfit  so  that  the  services  of  an  operating  electrician 
may  be  dispensed  with. 

Royal  Photographic  Society 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  86 

In  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Royal  Photographic  Society  the  officers  and  council 
were  elected,  Mr.  8.  H.  Wratten  becoming  a  member  of  the  latter. 

The  Adaptation  of  the  Eye  to  Variations  of  the  P.  G.  Nutting 

Illumination 

II  (^orriere  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  3046 

Communication  from  the  Research  Laboratory  of  the  Eastman  Kodak  Company. 

II  Corriere  Fotografico 

January  and  February,  1917 

•  This  Italian  journal  contains  a  number  of  advertisements  of  English  and  Ameri- 
can firms.  The  advertisements  of  developing  agents  show  that  there  has  been  a 
shortage  of  these  in  Italy,  though  apparently  pyrcjgallol  and  hydrochinon  are  now 
being  manufactured  in  the  country. 


Photo-Engraving 

New  Color  Plate  Process  K07332 

Amer.  Printer,  Feb.  20th,  1917,  p.  57 

A"  note  on  the  method  introduced  by  E.  H.  Gamble  for  selectively  projecting 
colored  light  on  the  original  copy  while  it  is  being  photographed  in  order  to 
minimize  re-etching. 

Wet  Plate  Negatives  Unequal  in  Thickness  S.  H.  Horgan        041/63 

Inland  Printer,  1917,  p.  773 

A  relief  effect,  sometimes  called  "dry effect'*,  apparently  caused  by  excessive  re- 
daction and  intensification. 

The  Art  of  Making  Engravings  for  Me<iallions  R.  F.  Salade        07 

Inland  Printer,  1917,  p.  776 
Describes  the  process  of  production. 

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34  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Experiments  in  the  Half -Tone  A.J.  Bull  and  E.  L.  Turaer        07 

Process 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  8 

An  important  paper  read  before  the  R.  P.  8.  giving  the  results  of  a  preliminary 
series  of  experiments,  summarized  as  follows:  1.  The  gradations  secured  by  the  use 
of  round  or  square  stops  are  practically  identical;  2.  Wet  collodion  plates  and 
gelatine  dry  plates  yield  different  gradations ;  3.  The  differences  produced  by  the 
various  systems  of  stops  for  negative  making  are  smaller  than  is  often  believed ;  4. 
The  type  of  dot  formation  and  rendering  of  gradation  do  not  alter  with  changes  in 
size  of  image  (magnification)  provided  that  the  aperture  ratio  is  kept  constant. 

The  Development  of  Rotary  Photogravure  0713 

Inland  Printer,  1917,  p.  775 

A  report  of  a  talk  by  the  manager  of  the  rotary  gravure  department  of  the 
American  Lithographic  Company,  states  that  their  present  presses  deliver  sheets 
38"  X  50"  printed  on  both  sides  at  a  rate  of  4,800  per  hour. 

English  Pound  Notes  Printed  by  Photogravure  0713 

Inland  Printer,  1917,  pp.  772,  773 

Waterlow  Brow.  &  Layton  are  using  a  machine  photogravure  process  to  print 
the  new  treasury  notes  in  many  colors.  They  are  said  to  be  non-counterf citable  by 
photography. 

How  to  make  Photographs  for  Half-Tone  07331 

Reproductions 

Amer.  Printer,  March  5th,  1917,  p.  85 

Good  advice  to  catalogue  producers  by  Qatchel  &  Manning,  engravers  of 
Philadelphia. 


Physics 

Physical  Investigation  Work  in  X-Ray  Tubes  W.  D.  Coolidge 

and  Accessories 

Amer.  Journal  of  Roentgenology,  1917,  p.  56 

The  writer  reviews  the  present  status  of  the  manufacture  of  Coolidge  X-ray  tubes ; 
he  also  describes  a  tentative  all-metal  tube  which  will  have  in  addition  to  the  ad- 
vantages of  compactness  and  of  adaptability  to  close  range  work  the  added  factor  of 
perfect  absorption  of  useless  radiation.  The  tube  would  be  a  great  advance  in  X-ray 
science. 

Measuiements  in  Frictional  Electricity  N.  R.  French 

Phys.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  151 

The  author  has  investigated  the  relationship  of  electrostatic  charge  to  the  absolute 
humidity  of  the  surrounding  air;  he  has  found  that  this  charge  decreases  with  increas- 
ing humidity  for  the  same  amount  of  excitation ;  the  theory  is  discussed.  He  has  also 
found  that  the  rate  of  discharge  is  dependent  on  the  mixture  ratio  of  air  and  water 
vapor  of  the  surrounding  medium. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  35 


Photochemistry 


Electrochemical  Analogies  of  Photochemistry  W.  R.  Mott 

Phys.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  89 

Mott  considers  that  the  Grotthus  electrochemical  analof?y  can  be  made  more  con- 
crete and  of  prognostic  value  if  the  photochemical  analogues  of  current  and  voltage 
be  taken  as  intensity  and  frequency y  and  that  high  frequency  of  vibration  of  light 
plays  the  same  role  as  decomposition  voltage  in  electrolysis.  (This  analogy  has  al- 
ready been  indicated,  as  a  consequence  or  expression  of  the  principle  of  photo- 
chemical accommodation,  e.  g.,  in  phototropic  substances.  See  Sheppard,  "Photo- 
chemistry*' p.  246,  p.  339.  Light  intensity  Is  more  precisely  analogous,  as  flux 
density,  to  current  density  in  electrolysis). 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Nickel  Plating 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  1917,  p.  284 

A  patented  process,  1,211,218,  Jan.  2,  1917,  which  permits  of  direct  plating  on 
steel  and  the  use  of  a  much  higher  voltage  than  can  be  ordinarily  employed  without 
danger  of  burning.  It  consists  in  treating  the  article  in  a  hot  solution  containing  3 
lbs.  of  manganese  dioxide  and  half  a  gallon  of  phosphoric  acid  in  100  gallons  of  water. 

Making  Metal  Rust-proof 

Brass  World,  1917,  p.  44 

Process  patented  by  W.  H.  Allen  of  Detroit.  Consists  in  immersing  iron  from 
1  to  3  hours  in  a  nearly  boiling  bath  of  manganese  phosphate  dissolved  in  phosphoric 
acid  and  diluted  to  an  acidity  of  about  0.1%. 

Blackening  Metals 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  69 

Various  methods  of  blackening  metals  have  been  published  in  the  German 
journals  since  the  beginning  of  the  war. 


Analytical  Chemistry 


A  Method  for  the  Detection  of  Calcium  in  the  Presence  P.  N.  Raikow 

of  Strontium  and  Barium. 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1916,  ii,  646 

Advantage  is  taken  of  the  fact  that  of  the  alkali  earth  carbonates,  only  calcium 
carbonate  is  decomposed  in  an  open  porcelain  dish  heated  with  a  Teclu  burner.  The 
resulting  lime  is  detected  by  phenolphthalein. 

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36  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

A  CJolorimetric  Method  for  the  Estimation  of  Acetylene  A.  Schulze 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1916,  ii,  649 

Acetylene  may  be  estimated  by  the  red  color  produced  in  ammoniacal  cuprous 
solutions,  containing  a  little  gelatine.  In  a  gaseous  mixture,  as  little  as  0.001  cc.  of 
acetylene  can  be  detected. 

Characteristic  Reactions  of  Perchlorates,  Periodates,  Per-  A.  Monnier 

sulphates,  Percarbonates  and  Perborates 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  426 

Precision  in  Chemical  Weighing  W.  N.  Rae  and  J.  Reilly 

Chem.  News,  1916,  pp.  187,  200 


Colloid  Chemistry 


The  Effect  of  Centrifugal  Force  on  Colloidal  E.  E.  Ay  res 

Solutions 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  1917,  p.  190 

The  author  first  review's  the  work  of  Perrin  and  others  on  the  distribution  of 
colloid  or  suspended  particles  in  a  liquid  under  a  uniform  force,  e.  g.,  gravitation, 
which  gives  a  law  expressing  the  subsidence  (or  separation)  as  a  function  of  the 
particle  size  and  density.  Perrin's  distribution  formula  is  then  applied  to  separation 
of  suspended  particles  by  centrifugal  force,  and  an  analogous  expression  obtained  in 
which  the  "gravitational  modulus' '  a  =  mgk,  where  k  is  a  constant  equal  to 
Avogadro  constant  divided  by  R  T  (gas  const,  x  abs.  temp.),  g  =  gravitational 
constant,  m  =  mass  =  volume  times  absolute  density,  is  replaced  by  a  * 'centrifugal 
modulus"  b  =  mkfog,  where  the  symbols  retain  their  meaning  but  f©  =  revolutions 
per  minute.  It  is  shown  that  separation  is  good  when  b  =  10  and  practically  perfect 
when  b  =  100.  A  farther  calculation  is  given  to  obtain  the  time  necessary  for  ad- 
justment of  centrifugal  equilibrium  in  a  suspension,  hence,  for  a  possible  separation. 
Practically,  the  advantages  of  a  continuous  centrifuge  over  the  non-continuous  are 
emphasized.  The  Sharpies  centrifuge,  exerting  a  force  40,000  times  gravity,  is 
capable  of  removing  particles  at  the  lower  ultra-microscopic  limit  from  water  in 
thirty-three  hours. 


Organic  Chemistry 

The  Manufacture  of  Picric  Acid  from  the  Medical  Standpoint     F.O.  West 
J.  Ind.  p:ng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  303 

An  article  by  the  resident  surgeon  on  a  chemical  plant,  describing  the  treatment 
of  nitric  acid  *  *  fume ' '  poisoning  casea  For  all  cases — even  the  mildest  indications — 
a  lungmotor  aspirating  oxygen  or  air  containing  small  quantities  of  ammonia  is  em- 
ployed.   Treatment  for  acid  burns  and  their  prevention  are  also  mentioned. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  37 

New  Paper-making  Materials 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  320 

Spinach  stems  contain  46  per  cent  of  cellulose,  and  are  stated  to  yield  paper  of 
good  quality.  It  is  also  stated  that  the  grass  named  ''Lalang/'  occurring  on  the 
coast  of  Malaga,  shows  similar  possibilities. 

Direct  lodination  R.  L.  Datta,  with  N.  R.  Chatterjee  and  N.  Prosad 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  See.,  1917,  pp.  436,  441 

Benzene  and  its  homologues  yield  iodo  derivatives  on  treatment  with  iodine  and 
nitric  acid.  A  75-80%  yield  of  iodobenzene  is  obt^nable  from  benzene ;  with  increas- 
ing substitution  the  yield  falls  off. 

Phenolic  and  acetylenic  compounds  can  be  iodinattd  by  means  of  nitrogen  iodide 
(or  a  mixture  of  iodine  and  ammonia);  with  certain  other  substances  oxidation  or 
the  formation  of  iodoform  takes  place. 

The  Ethyl-Sulphuric  Acid  Reaction  P.  N.  Evans  and  J.  M.  Alberton 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soe.,  1917.  p.  456 

Absolute  alcohol  and  95%  nilphuric  acid,  when  mixed  in  equi molecular  propor- 
tions, attain  an  equilibrium  of  nearly  60%  of  complete  reaction  at  temperatures 
between  20^  and  IW  C.  Equilibrium  is  reached  in  somewhat  over  two  hours  at  20°, 
and  in  under  ^ye  minutes  at  100°.  Above  70^  the  velocities  of  secondary  reactions, 
chiefly  the  formation  of  ether,  become  appreciable.  It  is  surmised  that  a  small  pro- 
portion of  ethyl  sulphate  is  formed  on  prolonged  standing  in  the  cold,  but  no  direct 
evidence  on  this  point  is  brought  fon^'ard. 

"  Nitron  "  in  Analysis  of  Explosives  W.  C.  Cope  and  T.  Barab 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soe.,  1917,  p.  504 

A  review  of  the  advantages  and  limitations  of  this  reagent  for  the  determination 
of  nitrates.  Directions  are  given  for  the  estimation  of  the  nitrogt'n  in  nitrocellulose, 
nitrostarch,  nitromannitol  and  nitroglycerine.  It  is  necessary  to  conduct  the  alkaline 
hjrdrolysis  in  the  presence  of  excess  of  hydrogen  peroxide.  Picric  and  perchloric 
acids  may  likewise  be  estimated  by  means  of  their  insoluble  * '  nitron ' '  salts. 

Management  of  the  Beater  Room  A.  B.  Green 

Paper,  Feb.  14th,  1917,  p.  19 
A  scientific  study  of  changes  in  the  beater  so  that  ''the  management  can  give  to 
the  beater  man  and  liis  helpers  definite  duties  to  perform,  which  can  be  understood 
and  measured  by  a  competent  person  not  himself  doing  the  work,  the  result  of  which 
will  be  greater  uniformity  in  the  treatment  of  the  stock.*'  The  study  was  made  in 
the  open  tub  beater  of  the  Hollander  type  with  single  roll  and  bed  plate,  the  roll 
being  driven  at  constant  speed.  Chemical  wood  and  rag  stock  were  used.  Care  was 
taken  that  the  same  kind  of  stock  and  the  same  amount  of  stock  and  water  were  used 
and  that  the  roll  was  maintained  in  tne  same  position,  lender  these  conditions  the 
following  six  variables  were  studied:  (1)  The  surface  slope.  This  is  measured  from 
end  to  end  of  the  midfeather  on  the  open  side  and  from  end  of  the  midfeather  to  curb 
covering  roll.  (2)  The  texture.  This  is  the  appearance  of  the  mass,  the  change  from 
lumps  and  fissures  to  a  smooth  pulp.  (3)  Speed.  Time  of  travel  from  back  fall 
around  to  roll.  (4)  The  working  of  the  stock  in  itself.  (5)  The  *'  feel.'*  (6)  The 
**flow.''  This  is  measured  by  a  dray.  The  paper  gives  the  methods  of  studying 
these  variables,  with  charts  and  tables  of  results  obtained.  ^-^  , 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


38  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Patent  Abstracts 

U.  S.  Patents 

1217027  L.  Lilienfeld        B124     1514 

A  Film  Base  containing  cellulose  ethyl  ether  made  supple  by  the  addition  of 
tricresylphosphate. 

1217391  C.  N.  Bennett         K31     K/23 

A  Process  of  Multi-Color  Motion  Picture  Photography.  When  applied  to  three- 
color  work,  if  successive  picture  spaces  on  the  film  be  numbered  1,  2,  3,  and  so  on,  the 
first  set  of  negatives  will  be  on  spaces  1,  5,  9;  the  second  set  will  be  on  4,  8,  12;  the 
the  third  set  on  spaces  7,  11,  15,  etc.  The  taking  apparatus  includes  spaced  lenses  or 
equivalent  optical  means  for  forming  the  three  images  suitably  spaced  apart. 

1216493      C.  Raleighand  W.  V.D.  Kelley,  Assigned  to  Prizina  Inc.      K/24 

A  Motion  Picture  Color  Photography  Film.  Each  exposure  is  made  through  an 
appropriate  color  filter  plus  a  small  amount  of  white  light  so  that  each  negative  will 
correspond  to  a  particular  color  sensation  plus  a  faint  white  l^ght  impression. 

1217425     C.  Raleigh  and  W.V.D.  Kelley,  Assigned  to  Priznia  Inc.       K/24 

A  Process  for  Producing  Multicolor  Motion  Pictures.  The  successive  color  sensa- 
tion negatives  are  made  through  a  set  of  color  screens  provided  with  adjustable  aper- 
tures which  permit  the  passage  of  small  amounts  of  white  light;  consequently  each 
picture  represents  a  combination  of  colored  light  and  white  light.  This  is  the  process 
patent  corresponding  to  product  patent  No.  1216493. 

1216695  R.  John        063 

A  Method  of  Making  Motion  Pictures  which  show  an  artist  drawing  a  picture  or 
cartoon  upon  an  easel.  A  photographic  enlargement  is  bleached  so  as  to  be  invisible 
to  the  camera  but  visible  to  the  eye.  The  artist  traces  over  the  lines  of  the  image  to 
render  them  visible  while  motion  pictures  are  taken  of  him. 

1216026  H.  W.  Webb        064 

A  Method  of  Producing  Opaque  Motion  Picture  Strips  bearing  pictures  on  opposite 
sides  which  are  adapted  to  be  projected  by  reflected  light  instead  of  the  customary 
transmitted  light.  An  ordinary  motion  picture  negative  is  cut  up  into  sections  which 
are  plaad  side  by  side  so  that  the  first  picture  of  each  row  is  the  successor  of  the  last 
picture  on  the  preceding  row.  A  mechanical  printing  plate  is  produced  from  such 
negative  and  sheets  of  paper  printed  therefrom.  The  sheets  are  folded  into  cylindrical 
form  and  the  overlapping  transverse  edges  are  pasted  together,  so  that  the  pictures 
will  run  on  the  cylinder  in  succession  in  a  helical  line.  By  cutting  along  the  helical 
line  the  final  picture  band  is  obtained. 

1216318  Wm.  C.  Huebner        07005 

Photographic  Printing  Apparatus,  for  photo-mechanical  work,  which  is  portable, 
so  that  a  sensitized  plate  can  be  fastened  in  and  afterwards  carried  to  the  printing 
frame  proper  and  adjusted  in  position  on  the  negative.  ^-^  , 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  39 


1217722  PL  Dreyfus         1518 

A  Process  of  treating  cellulose  acetate  which  is  insoluble  in  chloroform  so  that  it 
becomes  soluble  m  either  chloroform,  alcohol-chloroform,  acetone,  alcohol-benzene, 
or  dilute  alcohol.     It  is  said  to  be  especially  good  for  films. 

1217028  L.  Lilienfeld         1514 

An  Artificial  Silk  Filament  composed  of  cellulose  ethyl  ether  in  admixture  with 
an  ester  of  a  phenol. 

1216581        W.  G.  Lindsay,  Assigned  to  The  Celluloid  Co.         1613     B122 

A  Process  of  Making  a  Plastic  Acetyl-Cellulose  Compound  which  consists  in 
mixing  tetrachlorethylacetanilide  and  ethyl  alcohol  with  an  acetone-soluble  cellulose 
acetate  and  heating. 

1213135  E.  E.  Underwood  and  F.  H.  Reynolds,         215 

Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co. 

A  Folding  Roll  Film  Camera,  the  body  of  which  has  integral  film  chambers  at 
both  ends.  Between  the  chambers,  and  closing  the  inner  sidc«  thereof,  is  a  rectangular 
detachable  frame  carrying  the  bellows,  bed,  track,  and  lens  front.  The  camera  is 
loaded  by  removing  the  frame  with  its  attached  parts,  thus  opening  up  tlie  film 
chambers  for  the  insertion  of  the  spools. 

1216543  C.  Bommann  and  E.  C.  Clark,  Assigned  to  Ansco  Co.  215 
A  Roll  Film  Photographic  Camera  provided  with  a  quick  winding  mechanism  for 
rapidly  bringing  successive  portions  of  the  film  into  the  exposing  position.  The  wind- 
ing shaft  is  driven  by  a  spring  motor  controlled  through  a  chain  of  gearing  and  an 
escapement.  An  indicator  for  showing  the  number  of  exposures  that  have  been  made 
is  adjustably  connected  with  the  shaft  of  the  winding  roll,  so  that  it  w  ill  indicate 
correctly  the  number  of  exposures  whether  the  winding  shaft  be  turned  by  the  motor 
or  by  hand. 

1216631  C.  Voigt        215 

A  Circiilar  Scale  adapted  to  be  attached  to  the  side  of  a  roll  film  camera  concentric 
with  the  winding  key.  By  providing  very  accurately  positioned  marks  on  the  scale 
it  is  possible  to  utilize  for  picture  purposes  the  spaces  on  a  roll  of  film  which  are 
generally  left  between  pictures  to  allow  for  inaccuracies  in  winding. 

1217444  A.  Hardy        215 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  special  winding  device  which  indicates  by 
means  of  an  audible  signal  when  the  right  amount  of  film  has  been  wound  into 
position.  When  the  film  is  wound  up,  a  spring  upon  the  shaft  carrying  the  unwind- 
ing roller  is  put  under  tension.  By  releasing  certain  catches  this  spring  may  be 
utilized  to  wind  back  sections  of  the  film. 

1217653  C.  F.  Speidel,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2158 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  the  back  of  which  is  provided  with  an  opening  through  which 
characters  may  be  written  upon  a  film  provided  with  carbon  paper,  etc.  The  opening 
^  the  camera  back  is  closed  by  a  pivoted  door  carried  upon  a  longitudinally  movable 
sMe.  When  the  slide  is  moved  to  release  the  door  and  uncover  the  opening,  a  clamp 
for  the  film  is  automatically  cammed  into  position. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


40 ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1216440  J.  S.  Greene,  Assigned  to  Commercial  Camera  Co.         2172 

A  Commercial  Copying  Camera  of  the  type  that  uses  a  continuous  web  of  sensi- 
tized paper,  which  after  exposure  is  severed,  and  the  severed  section  developed  in  the 
rear  part  of  the  apparatus.  The  exposed  section  of  paper  is  partially  fed  into  a 
horizontal  developing  tank  by  a  pair  of  rolls  and  is  brought  to  a  central  position  in 
the  tank  by  means  of  flexible  paddles  or  arms  mounted  on  transverse  rotary  shafts  in 
the  cover  of  the  tank.  A  tray  is  provided  for  lifting  the  developed  print  out  of  the 
tank  for  transfer  to  the  fixing  bath.  The  paddles  not  only  feed  the  paper  and  keep 
it  submerged  in  the  developer  but  suitably  agitate  the  latter. 


1218278     A.  Kiss,  Assigned  one-half  to  M .  Rusz,  Cincinnati,  Ohio         219^ 

A  tintype  camera  in  which  a  pack  of  sensitive  cards  is  pressed  forward  in  a 
magazine  toward  the  focal  plane.  A  combined  shutter  and  feed  slide  when  moved  in 
one  direction  exposes  the  foremost  card,  and  when  moved  in  the  other  direction 
pushes  the  exposed  card  into  a  slot  from  whence  it  drops  into  a  developing  tank. 


1215412  W.  A.  Riddell,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2101 

A  Folding  Bed  for  Roll  Film  Cameras.  It  is  provided  with  a  sliding  hinge  which 
permits  the  use  of  a  relatively  long  bed  in  proportion  to  the  general  dimensions  of 
the  camera  and  consequently  a  greater  focusing  range  is  obtained.  The  hinge  arrange- 
ment also  permits  tlie  lens  carriage  to  be  easily  transferred  from  the  track  on  the  bed 
to  the  other  track  in  the  bellows  chamber,  the  two  tracks  being  practically  continuous. 


1217728  W.  Ehrlich        210^ 

A  Focusing  Hood  for  ordinary  plate  cameras.  It  consists  of  a  triangular,  foldable 
pocket  fastened  in  the  rear  of  the  ground  glass  and  containing  an  inclined  mirror  in 
which  the  operator  sees  the  image  formed  on  the  ground  glass  right  side  up. 

1218118     W.  L.  Patterson,  Assigned  to  Bausch  &  Lomb  Optical  Co.     221 

A  Projection  Apparatus  adapted  to  throw  images  of  either  transparent  or  opaque 
objects.  The  main  casing  is  provided  on  its  front  wall  with  an  optical  system  for 
transparent  projection,  and  on  its  upper  wall  with  an  optical  system  for  opaque  pro- 
jection. A  lamp  house  and  condenser  are  pivoted  to  the  rear  of  the  casing,  so  that 
in  one  position  they  co-operate  for  projecting  lantern  slides  and  in  the  other  position 
for  the  projection  of  opaque  objects.  The  connection  between  the  casing  and  lamp 
house  is  light  trapped. 

1215()94  J.  M.  Osborne        2235 

A  Projecting  Machine  for  automatically  displaying  in  succession  a  series  of  lantern 
slides  for  advertising  purposes.  The  lantern  slides  are  mounted  in  two  groups,  one 
above  and  one  below  tlie  projecting  part  of  the  machine.  The  front  slide  in  the  upper 
group  is  pulled  down  into  projecting  position,  while  the  rear  slide  of  the  lower  group 
is  transferred  to  the  upper  group  so  as  to  keep  the  number  of  slides  in  each  group 
the  same. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  41 


1215975  G.  L.  W.  Palmer        2235 

A  Projecting  Apparatus  for  automatically  displaying  a  gocoeflsion  of  lantern 
slides  for  advertising  purposes.  The  slides  are  mounted  upon  a  set  of  parallel  rotary 
discs  which  are  intermittently  rotated  to  bring  the  slides  into  displaying  position,  the 
projecting  light  being  automatically  extinguished  while  changing  from  one  slide  to  the 
next.  The  discs  are  provided  with  holes  so  as  not  to  obstruct  the  light  when  the 
slides  on  other  discs  are  being  8ho\i^. 

1216948  L.  J.  E.  Colardeau  and  J.  Richard        227 

An  Apparatus  for  successively  viewing  a  series  of  small  stereoscopic  transparencies. 
Instead  of  completely  cutting  off  the  light  while  changing  from  one  transparency  to 
another,  a  translucent  shutter  is  employed  to  minimize  eye-strain. 

1217026  G.  A.  Uy        231 

An  Electrical  Ignition  Apparatus  for  flashlights  proxided  with  a  testing  circuit 
which  includes  a  small  incandescent  lamp.  The  resistance  of  this  test  circuit  is  high 
enough  to  prevent  the  flow  of  sufficient  current  to  ignite  the  powder;  yet  it  permits 
the  lamp  to  glow  when  the  parte  of  the  apparatus  are  in  proper  adjustment. 

« 
1216696     R.  John,  Assigned  to  Inconochrome  Co.  of  America,  Inc.     2322 

An  lUuminant  for  Photography,  especially  when  using  panchromatic  plates.  It 
consists  of  a  bank  of  nitrogen-tungsten  lamps  provided  with  reflectors  which  are 
colored  so  as  to  reflect  controlled  amounts  of  red  and  yellow  rays.  The  objeet  is  to 
provide  a  light  having  the  blue,  green,  yellow  and  red  rays  in  proportions  correspond- 
ing to  the  sensitiveness  of  the  panchromatic  plates,  ao  that  orthochromatic  rendering 
may  be  obtained  without  the  use  of  filters. 

1217005  E.  Johnson,  Assigned  one-half  to  J.  D.  McCarthy         242 

A  Photographic  Printing  Frame  comprising  upper  and  lower  hinged  sectionn. 
The  lower  section  is  provided  with  a  countersunk  glass  plate  and  the  upper  section 
contains  the  usual  presser  back. 

1216748  P.  M.  Taylor        261 

A  Water  Bath  Heater  for  maintaining  photographic  toning  batlis  at  tlie  i)roper 
temperature. 

1214700  P.  J.  Marks,  Assigned  (o  E.  K.  Co.         2626 

A  Cable  Release  for  Studio  Shutters  having  a  catch  member  for  holding  the 
shutter  in  open  position. 

1216021  G.  T.  Twinting        2626 

A  Shutter  Actuating  Device  comprising  a  lever  and  link  arrangement  adapted  to 
be  operated  from  a  distance  by  pulling  a  thread,  so  that  the  oi)erator  may  include 
himself  in  the  picture. 

1217493  H.  N.  Parsons        2626 

Another  Clock-Work  Mechanism  for  operating  a  shutter  release  after  a  prede- 
termined interval  to  permit  the  operator  to  include  himself  in  the  pictui^.  j 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


^  42  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1215647  R.  E.  Green         2671 

A  Range  Finder  mounted  on  the  side  of  a  camera.  It  is  of  tlie  type  wherein 
the  observei  sights  at  the  feet  of  a  person  to  be  photographed  and  a  gravity  actuated 
pointer  moves  across  a  scale  to  indicate  approximately  the  distance  to  said  person. 

1215170        C.  W.  Laurell,  Assigned  one-half  to  J.  C.  Strauss         283     Nl 

A  Process  of  Mounting  Photographs.  The  photograph  is  trimmed  to  accurately 
fit  in  bordering  pieces,  which  in  turn  fit  within  a  marginal  pit»ce.  The  print  and 
these  pieces  are  then  mounted  upon  a  single  large  backing  piece.  Such  an  arrange- 
ment is  said  to  be  cheaper  than  the  ordinary  method  of  tinting  a  wide  integral  margin 
around  the  print,  because  said  integral  margin  is  made  from  the  relatively  expensive 
sensitized  paper.  The  product  is  also  more  compact  ^han  some  of  the  multiple  mounts 
now  in  use. 

1215534  A.  S.  Howell,  Assigned  to  Bell  &  Howell  Co.         3104 

A  Film-Magazine  for  Motion  Picture  Cameras.  The  film  passes  from  the  magazine 
to  the  camera  and  from  the  camera  into  the  receiving  end  of  the  magazine  through 
openings  lined  with  velvet.  These  openings  are  provided  with  spring-pressed  closures 
which  automatically  shut  Vhenever  the  side  door  of  the  main  camera  is  open. 

1216835  L.  G.  Morris        320 

A  Projection  Apparatus  in  which  the  intensely  bluish  rays  of  the  projection  arc 
are  modified  by  reflection  from  a  gold  or  copper  mirror  so  as  to  provide  a  "golden 
mellow"  tone. 

1214786  H.  M.  Hill,         3201 

Assigned  to  Educational  Motion  Picture  Machine  Film  Co. 

A  Worm  Gearing  for  intermittently  actuating  the  feed  mechanism  of  a  motion 
picture  machine.    The  feature  of  the  device  is  the  particular  shape  of  the  gear  teeth. 

12158S7  A.  D.  Standeford         3203 

A  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Machines,  two  of  the  three  segments  of  which  are 
adjustable  in  width  to  minimize  flicker.  These  adjustable  sectors  are  composed  of 
overlapping  leaves  which  may  be  relatively  adjusted  while  the  machine  is  in  operation 
by  means  of  sliding  collars  carrying  inclined  slots. 

121506()  R.  Shipraan         3208 

A  Rewinding  Device  for  Motion  Picturt*  Film.  It  is  geared  up  to  wind  rapidly 
an<l  has  a  device  which  facilitates  attachment  and  rt»moval  of  the  reels. 

1215364  J.  F.  Gilmore        3208 

A  Rewinding  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Machines.  A  pair  of  vertical  reels  are 
located  in  the  upper  chamber  of  the  machine  and  a  second  pair  in  the  lower  chamber. 
The  film  to  be  exhibited  passes  from  one  of  the  upper  reels  to  one  of  the  lower  reele, 
while  an  exhibited  film,  which  is  to  be  rewound,  passes  from  the  other  lower  reel  to 
the  other  upper  reel.  The  gearing  is  such  that  the  driving  mechanism  for  operating 
the  machine  also  operates  the  rewinding  reels.  ^-^  , 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  43 


1216967  J.  R.  Dunavant        3208 

A  Clasp  for  attaching  the  end  of  a  motion  picture  film  to  the  hub  of  a  winding 
reel.  The  clasp  is  made  of  spring  wire  in  such  a  way  that  injury  to  the  film  is  un- 
likely and  is  conveniently  operated  from  the  outside  of  the  reel. 


1217598  W.  Heinze        3208 

A  Rewinding  Dexnce  for  motion  picture  films  adapted  to  be  driven  in  unison  with 
the  mechanism  of  the  motion  picture  projector.  The  reel  bearing  the  film  to  be  re- 
wound is  mounted  upon  the  same  shaft  as  the  receiving  reel  of  the  projecting  appara- 
tus and  the  reel  on  which  the  film  is  rewound  is  mounted  on  a  shaft  driven  by  a 
crctfised  belt  from  the  first  named  shaft. 


1215770  G.  D.  Brady        3209 

A  Motion  Picture  Machine  provided  with  a  safety  device  which  automatically 
puts  out  the  light  and  stops  the  motor  whenever  the  film  breaks  ofi*  or  becomes  slack. 
A  crank  arm  carries  a  roller  which  bears  against  the  film  and  turns  abnormally  when 
the  film  breaks.    Such  abnormal  turning  sets  the  safety  device  in  operation. 


1216154  E.  G.  Meadway,         324 

Assigned  to  The  British  Patent  Surbrite  Co.,  Ltd. 

A  Screen  for  Motion  Pictures.     It  consists  of  a  fabric  coated  with  a  mixture  of 
nickel  powder,  naphthalene  crystals  and  rubber  solution. 


1216380  J.  F.  R.  TroeRer        324 

An  Exhibition  Screen  for  Projection  Work  which  is  translucent  so  that  the 
pictures  thereon  may  be  viewed  by  the  spectators  from  the  side  opposite  the  projecting 
lantern.  It  consists  of  a  sheet  of  translucent  fiber  embeded  in  flexible  translucent 
fire-proof  material  of  a  gelatinous  nature,  the  surface  of  which  is  provided  with 
corrugations. 


1217979  J.  R.  Millward        328 

An  Advertising  Projection  Apparatus  for  Displaying  Motion  Pictures.  An  endless 
film  is  used,  the  views  on  which  show  a  complete  phase  of  movement,  such  as  the 
breaking  of  a  wave:  consequently,  the  repeated  use  of  the  film  gives  the  efl*ect  of  a 
series  of  waves. 


1218342  •  M.J.  Vinik         364 

A  Finder  for  Motion  Picture  Cameras.  It  consists  substantially  of  a  semicircular 
rotating  mirror  inclined  at  46°  to  the  axis  of  the  lens  and  located  between  the  lens 
and  the  film.  It  intermittently  throws  an  image  on  to  a  co-operating  ground  glass 
which  is  at  the  same  optical  distance  as  the  film  from  the  lens. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


44  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

British  Patents 

B14526-15  A.  G.  Henderson,  A.  Gilmour,  W.  Andrews        2236 

Optical  Projection  Apparatus.  The  apparatus  described  in  Specification  28, 172/13 
for  the  production  of  moving  pictures  for  advertising  and  other  purposes  is  modified 
so  that  a  stationary  image  is  projected  on  a  screen,  another  image  is  slowly  advanced 
on  to  and  reciprocated  on  the  screen,  and  a  third  image  is  suddenly  projected  on  the 
screen  and  suddenly  and  simultaneously  withdrawn  with  the  second  image. 

B14620-15  J.  N.  Stern        227-043 

Stereoscopic  Apparatus.  Two  stereoscopic  negatives  in  proper  position,  or  the 
same  negative  in  two  difierent  positions,  are  actinically  printed  on  to  a  plane  surface 
to  be  serrated  subsequently  or  on  to  a  serrated  surface,  each  cell  of  the  serrations 
being  bounded  by  sides  which  are  radial  to  one  or  the  other  of  the  assigned  positions 
for  vision,  so  that  to  each  eye  there  are  presented  only  the  appropriate  parts  of  the 
picture  surface. 

B102739  H .  Guggenbuhl        2626 

Shutter  Operator.    A  shutter  release  operated  by  means  of  a  fuse. 

B100699  O.  Hoel        2652 

Auxiliary  Plate  Storage  Box  with  Changing  Attachment.  A  plate  storage  maga- 
zine made  so  that  the  plates  can  be  transferred  to  the  plate  holders  without  a  dark 
room. 

B102872  G.  L.  Harvey        2681 

Exposure  Meter.  Relates  to  exposure  meters  of  the  type  in  which  a  movable 
chart  card  is  used  in  conjunction  with  another  member  having  suitable  index  marks 
and  data  for  light  conditions,  exposure  times,  etc. 

B102929  J.  M.  F.  Pons        2833 

Relates  to  apparatus  for  imparting  animated  efi*ects  to  photographs  by  means  of 
a  superposed  relatively  movable  line  screen,  and  comprises  constructions  of  such 
apparatus  in  which  the  effects  are  produced  by  a  rubbing  action  between  the  thumb 
and  finger  holding  the  apparatus.  A  card  on  which  the  photograph  is  mounted  is 
provided  with  long  slotB,  and  the  card  carrying  the  screen  has  tongues  which  are  a 
a  little  shorter  than  the  slots  and  are  passed  through  them  and  folded  over  at  the 
back  of  the  card. 


Italian  Patents 

458/218-1916  L.  A.  Pineschi  and  S.  V.  Santon        K/23    K/24 

A  Method  for  Taking  Color  Picture  Projections  with  Two-color  Screen. 

456/137-1916  G.  Battistini        K/42 

A  Process  for  Natural  Color  Photography  on  Paper. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  46 


459/125  Ferrete        034-2651 

Improvement  on  Plate  Holders  for  Cameras. 

459/124-1916  Ferret^        084 

A  Device  for  Producing  Moving  Portraits. 

457/231-1916  J.  Ferriter  and  P.  Thomas        045 

Improvement  on  Transparent  Plates  and  Process  of  Manufacture. 

451/217-1915  H.  B.  Stocks        069 

Apparatus  for  the  Reproduction  of  Sounds  by  Photography. 

461/168  T.  W.  Hutchins         1533 

Improvement  on  Procfess  for  the  Production  of  Sodium  Bisulphite. 

461/149-1916  C.  Grosso        2106 

A  Frame  for  Ground  Glass  Focusing  Screen. 

461/227  A.  Sandrins         2108 

Multiple  Camera. 

460/39-1916  A.  De  Girolami        24 

Apparatus  for  Photographic  Prints  on  Bromide  Paper. 

456/201-1916  D.  Saville        24    048 

A  Method  and  Apparatus  for  Taking  Exaggerated  and  Deformed  Pictures. 

460/54  F.  Rochester         3203 

A  Shutter  Device  for  Cinematograph  Taking  Camera. 

450/160-1915  E.  H.  Riegel         386 

Improvement  on  Apparatus  for  Joining  Photographic  and  Cinematographic  Films. 


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'in 


Si 


Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


May.  1917 


Issued  hy  the  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  CaviPANY 

Rochester,  Ne>^York 


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if 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  47 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 

Vol.  3.  No.  3 

May,   1917 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  49 


Photography 


The  Removal  of  Hypo  by  Washing  with  Water  A.  V.  Elsden        G7 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  90 
The  aothor  afisumes  that  the  hypo  remaining  in  a  plate  after  a  given  amount  of 
washing  will,  if  the  plate  is  placed  in  a  fresh  quantity  of  water,  distribute  itself 
equally  throughout  the  whole  quantity  of  water,  and  proceeds  to  test  the  conclusions 
from  this  experimentally.  He  finds  ( 1 )  the  rate  of  removal  of  h3rpo  from  thin  gela- 
tdne  films  by  washing  with  water  follows  the  rule  which  he  has  assumed ;  namely, 
that  the  hypo  is  distributed  evenly  between  the  gelatine  and  the  water;  (2)  retention 
of  hypo  in  the  case  of  a  thin  gelatine  film  by  adsorption  is  very  small;  (3)  plates  can 
be  washed  free  of  hypo  for  all  practical  purposes  by  four  successive  washings  of  two 
minutes  each  with  comparatively  small  volumes  of  water  with  intervening  draining. 
The  author's  conclusions  would  seem  to  show  that  it  is  very  easy  to  wash  a  completely 
fixed  plate  or  film  free  from  hypo  in  a  short  time.  It  must  be  noted,  however,  that 
he  used  two  fixing  haths,  so  that  any  silver  carried  over  from  the  first  bath  would  he 
removed  in  the  second  bath.  It  was  thus  not  necessary  to  remove  silver  in  the 
washing,  only  the  hypo  being  left  in  the  film  after  fixing. 

The  Washing  of  Plates  G7 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  119 
Ajticle  commenting  on  Mr.  A.  V.  Elsden' s  paper  abstracted  in  this  issue  of  the 
Bulletin, 

Pinholes  with  Mercury  Intensifier  L.  T.  W.         H2 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  156 

To  avoid  pinholes  the  author  uses  his  mercury  and  ammonia  solutions  half  the 
usual  strength,  rubs  the  film  lightly  with  cotton  while  bleaching,  washes  as  usual,  and 
tiien  places  in  the  ammonia  to  blacken,  being  very  careful  not  to  touch  the  film  either 
with  cotton  or  the  fingers  during  blackening  or  washing  until  the  negative  is  dry,  as 
he  finds  that  touching  the  film  at  this  stage  produces  pinholes. 

A  Method  of  Developing  and  Toning  Positives  Simultaneously  J87 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  April,  1917,  p.  2216 

An  article  drawing  attention  to  the  method  of  toning  motion  picture  film  during 
development  by  adding  to  the  developer  substances  which  become  coupled  with  the 
oxidation  products  of  the  developer  forming  insoluble  and  colored  deposits  along 
with  the  silver  image.  This  method  of  toning  film  has  been  investigated  in  the  Re- 
search LaboVatory,  but  oiling  to  the  uncertainty  of  the  results  obtained  and  the 
instability  of  the  substances  involved,  it  is  doubtful  if  this  method  will  have  any 
immediate  technical  application  to  the  production  of  positive  film. 

Colour  Vision  and  Colour  Photography  C.  Welborne  Piper        KOI 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  March,  1917,  p.  9 
A  discussion  of  the  spectrum  and  the  Young-Helmholtz  theory. 

Decennia  Practica  K21 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  March,  1917,  p.  11 

This  installment  concludes  the  series  of  abstracts  on  exposure  with  one-exposure 
three-color  cameras  and  with  other  devices,  such  aa  the  '*  Ives  Tripak  ",  for  securing 
the  three-color  sensation  negatives  at  one  exposure.  ^-^  , 

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60  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Color  Prints  on  Opal  Le  Mee         K/42 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  154 

Opal  coated  with  bromide  emulsion  gives  the  blue  filter  image  and  is  * 'toned*'  to 
lead  chromate.  The  red  and  green  filter  images  are  printed  as  pinatypes  on  glass 
one  on  top  of  the  other.  The  opal  and  the  glass  images  are  then  bound  together  in 
register  and  viewed  by  reflected  light. 


The  Influence  of  Time  on  the  Latent  Image  H.  J.  Channon        014 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  72 

The  author  has  investigated  over  long  periods  of  time  the  keeping  power  of  ex- 
posed plates.  His  most  striking  experiment  consisted  of  thirteen  Ilford  Ordinary 
plates  exposed  in  1894,  developed  at  intervals  first  of  two  years  and  then  of  four 
years,  a  regular  decrease  of  density  as  the  time  of  storage  increased  being  obtained 
until  at  the  end  of  twenty  years  quite  a  tliin  image  appears  in  place  of  the  vigorous 
and  dense  one  of  1894;  nevertheless,  this  plate  developed  twenty  yeacs  after  exposure 
shows  a  respectable  negative  which  will  still  give  a  fair  if  somewhat  flat  print.  The 
loss  of  image  appears  to  decrease  as  time  goes  on,  the  loss  in  the  last  twelve  years  be- 
ing very  small,  and  it  appears  as  if  the  image  would  have  had  many  years  to  run. 
Different  plates  are  found  to  differ  very  greatly  in  their  behavior. 

The  author  refers  to  a  paper  by  J.  Barker  (British  Journal  Almanac,  1904,  p.  749), 
who  divided  a  quantity  of  plain  bromide  gelatine  emulsion  into  five  parts,  added 
certain  salts  to  four  of  them,  coated  plates  with  all  the  varieties,  gave  equal  ex- 
posures, stored  them,  and  developed  them  eight  years  later.  The  plain  emulsion 
plate  developed  perfectly ;  one  containing  one  grain  of  potassium  iodide  to  the  ounce 
had  the  latent  image  practically  destroyed,  but  eflfects  also  followed  from  the  addition 
of  one  grain  per  ounce  of  potassium  bromide  or  of  ammonium  chloride.  It  was  found 
that  bromides  obliterated  the  detail  in  all  but  the  strongly  lighted  parts  and  chlorides 
disintegrated  the  gelatine  and  obliterated  the  finer  details  of  the  latent  image. 

The  author  deduces  from  tliis  work  of  J.  Barker's  that  the  retention  of  the  latent 
image  may  depend  very  much  on  the  prest^nce  of  traces  of  salts  in  the  emulsion.  He 
considers  the  following  results  to  be  established  from  his  work :  ( A )  Loss  of  the  latent 
image  occurs  when  plates  are  kept,  but  the  extent  of  the  loss  varies  according  to  the 
make  of  the  plate;  it  is  most  apparent  in  a  weakening  of  the  greater  densities;  (B) 
Plates  kept  for  a  very  long  time  show  the  development  of  fog  during  storage.  Dark 
edges  also  appear,  especially  on  the  uncut  edges  of  the  plates;  (C)  With  the  appear- 
ance of  general  fog  there  is  generally  an  increase  of  the  lowest  densities,  sometimes 
showing  distinct  images  of  impressions  which  would  be  invisible  if  developed  shortly 
after  exposure.  The  author  has  made  a  number  of  experiments  on  the  conditions 
under  which  the  plates  were  kept ;  his  results,  however,  do  not  lend  themselves  to 
summary.     The  whole  paper  should  be  read  by  those  intere.^^ted  in  the  subject. 


Prevention  of  Fogging  of  Photo-  Liippo-Cramer        014-041 

graphic  Plates 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  306 

The  fogging  action  of  terpenes,  resins,  papers,  woods,  etc.,  due  to  the  formation 
of  hydrogen  peroxide,  can  be  prevented  by  interposing  a  layer  of  finely-divided  man- 
ganese peroxi<le,  such  as  a  sheet  of  paper  soaked  in  permanganate  solution  and  dried. 
Manganese  peroxide  has  already  been  used  for  this  purpose  in  the  laboratory. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  51 


Plate  Speeds  0.  Bloch        015 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  51 

The  author  undertook  this  work  to  determine  the  speeds  of  dififerent  types  of 
emulsion  to  dififerent  developers  in  order  to  find  whether  the  developer  had  an  efifect 
upon  the  speed  obtained.  Owing  to  the  use  of  an  intensity  scale  consisting  of  a 
graduated  wedge,  he  found  that  some  plates  show  great  divergencies  in  apparent 
speed  according  to  the  intensity  of  the  light,  this  being  due  to  the  efifect  known  as 
^lure  of  the  ** reciprocity''  law.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  he  finds  no  selec- 
tive absorption  in  his  transparent  wedge.  ( This  is  probably  due  to  the  color  of  the 
light  used  for  exposure — metallic  filament  lamp— since  neutral  tint  wedges  usually 
show  strong  selective  absorption  in  the  extreme  violet  and  ultra  violet. ) 

The  method  of  exposure  finally  selected  was  to  use  a  sector  wheel  driven  at  very 
low  speed  so  that  the  exposure  was  made  with  a  single  revolation  of  the  wheel.  The 
effect  of  retrogression  due  to  bromide  was  investigated  for  the  develope^rs  used.  Wide 
differences  were  found  between  the  different  types  of  platen ;  on  the  whole,  the  effect 
of  different  developers  upon  the  H.  &  D.  speed  was  small,  hydroquinone  and  glycin 
giving  low  speeds  and  ortol  high  speeds,  esi)ecially  with  one  special  plate. 

New  Ceramic  Effect  047 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  139 

At  the  Croydon  Camera  Club,  Mr.  A.  C.  Braham  of  the  Autotype  Company, 
introduced  a  novelty  in  the  shape  of  a  plaque  made  as  follows:  A  carbon  print 
iQsde  with  a  vignette  is  developed  on  the  concave  side  of  a  slightly  convex  oval  glaas 
which  is  then  backed  up  with  white  dental  plaster,  forming  a  paste  which  sets  hard. 
The  result  closely  resembles  a  ceramic. 

Using  the  Correct  Color  Filters  056 

Abel's  Phot.  Week.  1917,  p.  226 
(As  taught  by  the  Eastman  v^hool. ) 

CiDeraatographic  Bibliography  06 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  2216 

A  review  of  works  on  cinematography  omitted  in  the  bibliography  given  in  the 
Mot.  Kct.  Ne^^  of  Dec.  23,  1916,  p.  4062. 

Change  in  Speed  of  Eastman  Negative  Film  0632 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  2054 

A  note  drawing  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  speed  of  Eastman  motion  picture 
negative  film  above  emulsion  No.  6200  has  been  materially  increased,  and  that  the 
time  of  development  should  be  increased  accordingly  in  order  to  obtain  the  usual 
contrast.  It  is  stated  tiiat  the  new  film  takes  a  somewhat  longer  time  to  fix  than  the 
old  batches. 

Kodura  Extra  Slow  Gaslight  Papers  136 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  Ill 

Three  grades  of  extra  slow  Kodura  have  been  put  on  the  market  by 
Kodak  Ltd.  ^  . 

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52  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Negatives  by  Use  of  Transferrotype  Paper  V.  E.  Beynon         1375 

Amat.  Phot.,  1917,  March  12,  Supplement,  p.  2 

The  writer  tells  how  he  made  excellent  negatives  in  the  camera  and  transferred 
these  to  glass. 

Flashlight  1592 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  105 

An  Ex-Cathedra  note  points  out  that  a  mixed  flash  powder  may  deteriorate  on 
keeping. 

Developers  for  Negatives  —  Pyro  with  Metol  L.  T.  Woods        163 

Substitutes  —  Diamidophenol 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  148 

The  author  has  tried  combinations  of  various  British  substitutes  for  metol  with 
pyro  and  gives  formulae.  He  also  gives  formulae  for  the  use  of  diamidophenol,  which 
he  finds  to  be  a  satisfactory  negative  developer. 

Mercury-Intensified  Negatives  1651-H2 

B.  J.,  1917,  117 
The  impermanency  of  such  negatives  is  discussed. 

A  Note  on  the  Hypochlorite  A.  H.  Nietz  and  K.  Huse        1656 

Reducer 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  143 

A  note  from  the  Research  Laboratory.  The  authors  find  that  the  hypochlorite 
reducer  is  very  similar  in  behavior  to  Deck's  persulphate-permanganate;  that  is,  it 
forms  a  nearly  proportional  reducer,  though  its  action  is  somewhat  more  vigorous 
on  the  lower  densities. 

Non-Cockling  Glue  Mountant  H.  Baker         1697 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  115 
H.  Baker  gives  a  method  of  making  up  such  a  mountant. 

Non-Cockling  Glue  Mountants  1697 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  127 
Correspondence  on  this  subject  by  W.  E.  Debenham  and  W.  M. 

A  Shutter  Testing  A.  H.  Hitchings  and  F.  B.  Gilbert        262 

Machine 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  64 

The  authors  test  the  speed  of  shutters  by  placing  the  shutter  in  front  of  a  narrow 
sht  on  which  an  image  is  thrown  by  a  lens  on  a  drum  rotated  by  a  high-speed  motor 
with  a  tachometer  attached,  and  in  front  of  the  drum  is  rotated  a  slotted  wheel  which 
serves  to  divide  the  image  of  the  shutter  up  into  equal  time  intervals.  The  instrument 
gives  an  indication  of  efficiency  but  does  not  show  the  actual  way  in  which  the 
shutter  opens. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  6S 

M.  Edouard  Lumifere,  a  younger  brother  of  MM.  A.  and  L.  Lumi^re,  has 

been  killed  while  on  active  aviation  service  with  the  French  army. 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  110 

Kodak's  Professional  Showrooms 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  110 

Kodak  Ltd.  have  moved  their  professional  showrooms  to  the  ground  floor  of 
their  premises  in  Kingsway.     An  illustration  of  the  new  showroom  is  g:iven. 

Rise  in  Plate  and  Paper  Prices 

B.  J„  1917,  p.  127 
Letter  complaining  of  the  cost  of  materials  from  a  * 'Country  Photographer". 

Plate  Prices 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  129 

Editorial  on  the  cost  of  materials  in  England. 

The  Rise  in  Plate  and  Paper  Prices 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  141 

Number  of  letters  evoked  by  the  letter  from  **Country  Photographer*'  referred  to 
above,  expressing  different  views  as  to  the  cause  of  the  rise  in  prices. 

A.  Simpson,  of  Leeds  states  that  Royal  Standard  Extra  Rapid  plates  give 
him  complete  satisfaction. 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  141 

Registered  Trade  Marks 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  146 

The  British  Journal  commences  the  recording  of  applications  for  trade  marks  as 
well  as  the  notifications  of  their  having  been  placed  upon  tlie  register  and  also  of 
those  trade  marks  which  are  removed  from  the  register.  The  index  of  the  Journal 
will  therefore  constitute  a  complete  record  of  trade  marks  in  the  future. 


Physics 

Interferometer  Measurements  of  Wave- Lengths  in  the  Red      K.W.  Meissner 

Ann.  Phys.,  1916,  p.  95 

The  lines  of  neon  and  argon  in  the  region  5852  to  8424  A.  U.  were  measured  to 
an  accuracy  of  0.002  A.  U. 

The  Use  of  a  Spectrophotometer  with  a  Jamin  Interference        V.  Posejpal 
Refractometer 

Ann.  Phys.,  1916,  p.  419 

The  interference  fringes  are  focused  on  the  slit  of  a  spectrophotometer,  instead  of 
a  spectroscope.     The  accuracy  of  setting  on  a  minimum  is  increased  tenfpl^.  , 

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64  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


A  Qualitative  Determination  of  the  Reflection  Coefficients        L  C.  Gardner 
of  Some  Metals  in  the  Schumann  Region 

Astrophys.  J.,  1917,  p.  30 
Of  ten  metals,  silicon  is  the  best  reflector  in  the  region  1030-1600  A.  U. 

A  Clock  of  Precision  C.  0.  Bartrum 

Proc.  Phys.  Soc,  1917,  p.  120 

A  slave  clock  is  controlled  electromagnetically  by  a  master  pendulum. 

Wheatstone  Bridges  and  Some  Accessorj^  Apparatus  for         E.  F.  Mueller 
Resistance  Thermometry 

Bull.  Bur.  Stand.,  1917,  p.  547 

A  Variable  Self  and  Mutual  Inductor        H.  B.  Brooks  and  F.  C.  Weaver 
Bull.  Bur.  Stand.,  1917,  p.  569 

The  design  of  a  new  variable  inductor  having  a  variation  of  over  one  millihenry, 
a  high  time  constant,  and  a  linear  scale. 

A  System  of  Remote  Control      P.G.  Agnew,  W.H.  Stannard,  J.L.  Fearing 
for  Electric  Testing  Laboratory 

Bull.  Bur.  Stand.,  1917,  p.  581 

Large  rheostats,  of  wire  wound  on  tubes,  control  current  and  voltage.  The 
sliding  contacts  are  operated  by  small  motors ;  coarse  and  fine  adjustment  are  secured 
by  two  motor  speeds.  The  phase  adjustments  on  a.  c.  generators  are  also  operated 
by  small  two-speed  motors. 

The  Fundamental  Principles  of  Good  Lighting  P.  G.  Nutting 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  287 

Curves  are  given  for  threshold  sensibility,  discriminating  power  and  sensation, 
glare  sensibility,  dark  adaptation  and  effect  of  size  and  brightness  of  spot  on  sensi- 
bility, together  with  the  application  of  these  data  to  practical  lighting. 

A  Specific  Gravity  Balance  for  Gases  J.  D.  Edwards 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  349 

The  balance  beam  is  suspended  on  two  needle  points  in  an  air  tight  case.  One 
end  carries  a  large  globe,  the  other  a  small  counterweight.  The  density  of  a  gas 
introduced  into  the  case  is  detennined  by  the  pressure  required  to  produce  a  balance. 

The  Quality  of  Light  from  an  Illuminant         E.P.Hyde  and  W.E.  Forsythe 
as  Indicated  by  its  Color  Temperature 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  353 

The  temperature  at  which  a  black  body  color  matches  the  illuminant  is  given  for 
sixteen  illuminant*?.  ^  I 

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ABSTRACT    BILLETIN 


The  Reflectivity  of  Tungsten  in  the  Inf ra-Red     W.  Weniger  and  A  .H .  Pfund 
J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  354 

The  reflectivities  of  tungsten  an*  given  for  the  wave-length  interval  0.59u  to  4.0u, 
and  for  several  temperatures  up  to  2056^  K. 

The  Rotation  of  a  Constant  Deviation  Prism  W.  E.  Forsythe 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  355 

If  such  a  prism  be  rotated  about  the  line  of  intersection  of  the  bisector  of  the 
ninety  d^ree  angle  of  the  prism  and  the  reflecting  face,  the  prism  \inll  remain  in  the 
position  of  mininiuui  deviation  for  all  wave-lengths. 

The  Fundamental  Scale  of  Pure  Hue  and  Retinal  Sensi-  L.  A.  Jones 

bility  to  Hue  Dififerenees 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  500 

Curves  are  given  for  the  retinal  sensibility  to  hue  difference,  and  for  tlie  hue 
scale.      The  paper  includes  the  colorimetric  analyses  of  the  Ridgway  color  standards. 

The  Lumen  as  a  Measure  of  Illuminating  Power 

111.  Eng.,  1917,  Vol.  X,  No.  1 

A  discussion  by  several  authors  of  the  advantages  of  rating  illuminating  power  in 
lumens  instead  of  candlepower. 

Roentgen  Rays  from  Sources  other  than        W.D.  Coolidge  and  C.N.  Moore 
the  Focal  Spot  in  Tubes  of  the  Pure  Electron  Discharge  Type 
Gen.  Elect.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  272 

The  part  played  by  extraneous  radiations  from  the  electrodes  of  the  Coolidge 
x-ray  tube  is  too  small  to  warrant  methods  for  minimizing  it. 

Measuring  Flux  Density  and  Permeability  A.  Hund 

Elect.  World,  1917,  p.  518 

The  use  of  differential  measuring  system  for  determining  flux  density  and  perme- 
ability up  to  any  desired  density. 

A  New  Method  for  the  Determination  of  the  Refractive  A.  Ledoux 

Indices  of  Liquids 

Compt.  Rend.,  1917,  p.  305 

A  thin  quartz  plate  is  placed  in  the  liquid  beti^et^n  crossed  niools  and  the  inci- 
dence angle  varied  to  produce  extinction,  or  a  violet  color.  The  index  is  calculated 
from  this  angle  by  a  formula. 

A  Precision  Method  of  Uniting  R.  G.  Parker  and  A.  J.  Dalladay 

Optical  Glass 

Phil.  Mag.,  1917,  p.  276 

Pieces  of  glass  in  good  optical  contact  may  be  permanently  imited  by  heating 
slowly  under  pressure  to  about  60°  to  80°  below  the  annealing  temperature,  maintain- 
ing this  temperature  for  about  an  hour,  and  then  slowly  cooling. 

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66  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Metabisulphites  of  Potassium  and  of  Sodium  1532 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  125 

Extract  from  the  **Repertoire  Pharmaceutique* '  with  regard  to  the  chemistry  of 
metabisulphites. 

The  Preparation  of  Chemicals  for  Laboratory  Use  W.  Rintoul 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  247 

An   appeal   for  co-operation  in  research   between   industrial   and   academic 
laboratories. 

The  Training  and  Work  of  the  Chemical  Engineer 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  276 
A  collection  of  the  views  of  various  experts  and  others  in  England. 

Chemistry  in  War  Time  R.  B.  Pilcher 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  411 
Article  by  the  Registrar  of  the  British  Institute  of  Chemistry. 


Analytical  Chemistry 


Detection  of  Hydrocyanic  Acid  G.  W.  Anderson 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  195 

The  sensitiveness  of  the  various   methods  used  to  detect  hydn)cyanic  acid  are 
tested  and  guaiacol  proves  to  be  the  most  sensitive  (1 :2,450,000). 

Microchemical  Estimation  of  Small  Quantities  M.  Van  Breukeleveen 

of  Platinum  in  Presence  of  Gold  and  Silver 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  220 

Determination  of  Aluminum  as  Oxide  W.  Blum 

Bull.  Bur.  Stand.,  1917,  p.  515 
The  paper  for  tlie  most  part  confirms  the  work  of  previous  investigators. 


Organic  Chemistry 

Experimental  Studies  in        E.K.  Mansfield  and  J.N.  Stephenson       B1411 
Beating  Pulp 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  887 

Sodium  carbonate  and  certain  other  materials  accelerate  the  beating  process.  By 
the  addition  of  one  to  five  per  cent  of  sodium  carbonate,  a  stronger  paper  is  produced 
in  a  given  length  of  beating. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  67 

Plastic  CeUuloid  1512 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  408. 

Celluloid  can  be  made  plastic  by  soaking  in  ether ;  in  this  state  it  can  be  moulded 
to  any  form.     This  process  is  applicable  to  surgery. 

A  New  Celluloid  Cement  1512-1698 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  408 

A  celluloid  cement  suitable  as  an  adhesive  for  leather  can  be  made  as  follows : 
Pure  acetone  100  parts;  cellulose  20-30  parts,  and  oxalic  acid  >^-2  parts,  are  stirred 
together  in  a  closed  vessel  at  normal  temperature  until  thoroughly  mixed.  Such  a  solu- 
tion is  less  viscous  than  pure  acetone  solutions  of  the  same  celluloid  content. 

Manofactore  of  Oxalic  Acid 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  870 

A  full  abstract  giving  an  excellent  idea  of  the  existing  processes  and  those  which 
might  be  technically  feasible. 

Presentation  of  the  Perkin  Medal  to  Dr.  Ernst  Twitchell 
J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  178 

An  interesting  collection  of  accounts  of  Dr.  Ernst  TwitchelVs  scientific  and 
technical  contributions  to  the  fat  industries. 


Patent  Abstracts 

U.  S.  Patents 

1219332  W.  W.  Kirby        0722 

Another  patent  covering  the  well-known  Vandyke  Process  of  photo-lithography. 
The  features  stressed  by  the  inventor  of  washing  out  the  image  with  potassium  hydrate 
and  afterwards  with  alcohol  have  long  been  practised  in  the  trade. 

1219739  A.  E.  Jacobson         137 

A  Sensitive  Photographic  Paper  consisting  of  a  support  of  Japanese  tissue  which 
is  impregnated  with  a  silver  emulsion  distributed  upon  both  sides  so  as  to  form  an 
integral  whole. 

1219801  C.  Bornmann,  Assigned  to  Ansco  Co.         2104 

A  Light-Trapped  Air  Vent  for  Folding  Bellows  Cameras.  At  the  forward  end  of 
the  bellows  are  two  slightly  separated  plates  having  concentric  series  of  perforations 
in  staggered  relation,  the  perforations  of  the  outer  plate  being  located  behind  the 
shutter  casing. 

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58  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1219672  T.  R.  Schoenleber    •    215 

A  Film  Feeding  Device  for  Roll  Film  Cameras.  The  \vinding  shaft  and  the  un- 
winding shaft  are  connected  by  a  chain  and  sprockets.  A  handle  which  slides  in  a 
slot  upon  the  side  of  the  camera  carries  a  pawl  which  intermittently  engages  the  chain 
so  that  movement  of  the  handle  will  actuate  the  chain,  sprockets,  and  spools  to  wind 
a  fresh  area  of  film  into  place.  The  extent  of  movement  of  the  handle  is  progressively 
shortened  according  to  scale  to  compensate  for  the  increasing  diameter  of  the  film  on 
the  winding  roll. 

1218082  E.  Hall,  Assigned  to  Jersey  City  Printing  Co.         221 

An  Advertising  Device  for  Displaying  Pictures  Successively.  A  red  picture  is 
formed  on  one  side  of  a  transparent  screen  and  a  blue  picture  on  the  opposite  side. 
The  color  of  the  light  in  back  of  the  screen  is  changed  at  intervals  by  means  of  a 
color  filter  in  the  form  of  an  endless  belt.  With  blue  hght  it  is  stated  that  the  red 
image  appears,  wliile  with  the  red  light  the  blue  picture  is  brought  into  prominence. 

1218928  C.  C.  Clement,  Assigned  i  to  H.  B.  Kingsbury         2235 

An  Advertising  Fade-Out  Stereopticon  in  which  the  picture  slides  are  carried  by 
a  pair  of  rotary  discs  driven  by  clock-work. 

1220325  C.  A.  Ellsworth,  Assigned  i  to  H.  C.  Rubicam        231 

A  System  for  Releasing  a  Camera  Shutter  at  the  moment  of  maximum  iUumina- 
tion  given  by  a  fiash  powder.  The  arrangement  is  such  that  the  heat  of  the  flash 
burns  a  thread  which  releasas  a  spring,  the  latter  actuating  the  shutter  cable  release. 

1221063  C.  A.  Lare         231 

A  System  for  Electrically  Igniting  Flash  Powder.  The  electric  circuit  includes 
two  normally  open  sections  which  an*  closed  only  when  the  camera  shutter  is  open 
and  when  a  plate  holder  is  in  position  in  the  camera  with  the  slide  f^lly  drawn. 

1219944     F.  H.  Hoffman,  Assigned  to  Williams,  Brown  &  Earle,  Inc.     247 

A  Blue-Printing  Machine  in  which  an  endless  belt  carries  the  tracing  and  blue 
print  paj)er  over  a  curved,  transparent  window  in  the  field  of  printing  lamps. 

1219129  G.  W.  Miller        264 

A  Photographic  View  Finder  comprising  a  rectangular  casing  having  a  lens  in 
front,  an  image  screen  in  the  top  and  an  image  screen  in  one  side.  The  image  screens 
are  rectangular,  the  upi)er  one  having  its  longer  side  extending  longitudinally,  while 
the  long  side  of  the  other  screen  extends  laterally.  A  pivoted  mirror  throws  the 
image  from  the  lens  upon  either  screen,  as  desired.  Thus  the  finder  shows  a  correct 
image  whether  the  camera  be  held  upright  or  on  its  side. 

1219588     A. A.  Ruttan  and  C.E.  Hutchings,  Assigned  to  E.K.Co.        2655 

A  Photographic  Film  Pack  stamped  out  of  sheet  metal.  The  casing  consists  of 
two  telescoping  parts  which  are  locked  together  by  a  clip  at  the  top.  The  partition 
in  the  pack  has  a  forwardly  projecting  flange  which  extends  through  a  slot  in  the 
spring- pressed  follower,  so  that  the  latter  is  properly  guided  when  it  presses  the  films 
forward  into  the  focal  plane. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  59 

1218946  C.  Laing        2682 

An  Actinoiiieter  of  the  Photometer  type  in  which  the  light  from  a  Fmall  incan- 
descent lamp  is  compared  with  the  light  to  be  measured.  Peculiar  shaped  shutters 
independently  regulate  the  light  both  from  the  lamp  and  from  the  source  to  be  tested. 

1221515  J.  F.  Davidson         3208 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  in  which  the  film  is  fed  from  the  unwinding  chamber 
and  into  the  winding  chamber  by  sprockets  driven  continuously  by  a  handle.  The 
intennediate  portion  of  the  film  is  fed  intermittently  past  the  exposure  or  projection 
opening  by  means  of  sprockets  driven  from  a  spring  motor  which  is  alternately  stopped 
and  started  by  an  escapement  mechanism.  When  the  film  is  wound  up  in  the  appar- 
atus a  steel  tape  is  wound  upon  auxiliary  reels  in  an  opposite  direction  so  that  sub- 
sequently the  rewinding  of  the  tape  will  rewind  the  film. 

1219221  W.  Bauersfeld,  Assigned  to  C.  Zeiss         322 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  in  which  the  film  is  inove<l  continuously  and  the 
projected  image  from  the  film  held  stationary  by  optical  means.  This  optical  means 
includes  stationary  reflectors  in  front  and  in  back  of  the  moving  film  together  with  a 
series  of  double  reflecting  prisms  carried  on  the  periphery  of  a  rotary  wh(»el. 

1219403  W.H.  &  F. A.  Selby,  Assigned  to  Selby  Patents  Co.         322 

A  Motion  Picture  Machine  in  which  the  film  moves  continuously  while  the  image 
is  held  stationary  by  compensating  optical  means.  This  optical  means  comprises  an 
annular  prism  carried  on  a  rotating  disc  and  having  a  twist  or  spiral  pitch  through- 
out its  length. 

1219682         '  W.  B.  Vansie         323 

A  System  for  Making  Synchronized  Motion  Pictures  and  Sound  Records.  Each 
actor  is  provided  with  a  wireless  telephone  transmitting  station  which  includes  a 
trident-shaped  antenna  above  the  head  and  wires  extending  to  the  feet  where  they 
connect  with  the  grounded  metal  platform  constituting  the  stage.  The  microphone 
transmitter  is  placed  upon  the  chest  of  the  actor.  At  the  wiR'less  nveiving  station 
electro-magnetic  impulses  are  produced  to  correspond  with  the  original  sounds.  These 
impulses  are  recorded  upon  moving  piano  wire  which  is  actuatcxl  synchronously  with 
the  morion  picture  camera. 

1221407  E.  H.  Amet         323 

An  Apparatus  for  Taking  Phonograph  Records  and  Motion  Picture  Itecords  in 
Synchronism.  The  two  mechanisms  are  located  side  by  side  upon  a  common  support 
ami  synchronously  driven  through  a  direct  shaft  connection.  The  shaft  bears  a 
coapling  adapted  to  prevent  the  transmission  of  sound  from  the  motion  picture  machine 
to  the  phonograph  and  the  phonograph  is  supported  upon  inflated  rubber  balls  further 
to  prevent  the  sounds  of  the  motion  picture  machinery  from  being  rtn-orded. 

1221677  W.  A.  P.  Cathcart         361 

A  Support  for  Motion  Picture*  Cameras.  It  comprises  a  tripod  bearing  gimbals 
at  the  top  which  hold  the  camera  level  when  taking  pictun^s  from  a  ship.  ^  t 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1218137  J.  R.  Vose  and  W.  J.  Owens        387 

An  Apparatus  for  Cleaning  Motion  Picture  Films.  The  film  passes  through 
brushes  and  under  a  cleaning  bath  and  thence  through  other  brushes,  over  a  partition 
into  a  rinsing  bath.  It  is  finally  passed  through  an  air  blast,  which  quickly  dries 
the  volatile  cleaning  fluid. 


British  Patents 

B16810-1915    F.Twyman,J.S.Higham,&H.  Workman      K3117    K363 

Color  Cinematography.  Relates  to  optical  systems  for  cameras  for  color  photog- 
raphy or  cinematography,  comprising  a  block  consisting  of  two  prisms  having  partly 
transmitting  and  partly  reflecting  hypotenuses  and  a  reflecting  prism,  the  prisms 
being  placed  before  lenses  to  produce  two  images  in  the  same  plane.  According  to 
one  feature  of  the  invention,  the  focal  length  of  one  lens  is  greater  than  that  of  the 
second  lens  and  the  first  is  placed  farther  from  the  image  than  the  latter  so  that  the 
images  of  objects  at  a  determined  distance  are  of  equal  size.  The  second  feature  of 
the  invention  consists  in  displacing  the  block  formed  by  the  prisms  perpendicularly 
to  the  optic  axis  of  the  second  lens  and  in  the  direction  away  from  the  first  lens  and 
providing  a  flat  lateral  extension  on  the  first  prism  to  which  the  second  prism  is 
cemented,  or  with  which  it  is  integral.  The  hypotenuse  of  the  second  prism  may 
meet  the  extension  at  a  distance  from  the  front  of  the  block  or  the  hypotenuses  may 
make  an  angle  of  less  than  45  degrees  with  the  optic  axes  of  the  lenses. 

B16811-1915      F.  Twyman,  J.S.  Higham&H.  Workman      K3117     K363 

Color  Cinematography.  Relates  to  optical  systems  for  cameras  for  color  photog- 
raphy, comprising  a  block  consisting  of  two  prisms  having  partly  transmitting  and 
partly  reflecting  hypotenuses,  and  a  reflecting-prism,  the  prisms  being  placed  before 
lenses  to  produce  two  images  in  the  same  plane.  According  to  the  invention,  lenses 
which  produce  images  of  equal  size  when  correctly  placed  between  an  object  and  a 
plane  in  which  the  image  is  to  be  produced  are  used,  and  the  positions  of  the  lenses 
are  adjusted  so  that  images  of  equal  size  of  objects  close  to  the  camera  or  at  the 
shortest  distance  from  it  for  which  the  camera  is  to  be  used,  are  obtained. 

B16812-1916      F.  Twyman,  J.S.  Higham&H.  Workman      K3117    K363 

Color  Cinematography.  Optical  systems  for  cameras  for  color  cinematography 
comprising  a  prism  system  in  front  of  two  or  three  lenses  for  producing  in  the  same 
plane  color  records  simultaneously  taken  from  the  same  point  of  view,  are  fixed  by 
pins  or  otherwise  in  a  standard  position,  and  the  lenses  are  capable  of  being  adjusted 
relatively  to  one  another  and  locked  in  standard  positions  so  that  films  with  records 
in  standard  positions  are  obtained,  re-adjustment  of  the  projection  lenses  when  pro- 
jecting films  taken  by  two  or  more  such  systems  being  thus  rendered  unnecessary  . 

B4703-1915  L.  H.  and  C.  W.  MeUor        048 

Designs  on  Ivorine.  The  Ivorine  after  thorough  cleaning  is  coated  with  bichro- 
mated  fiish  glue,  developed  and  dyed  up  with  aniline  black.  After  dyeing,  the  plate 
is  treated  with  chromic  acid,  exposed  to  light,  and  washed.  Then  the  whole  surface 
of  the  Ivorine  is  painted  over  with  a  saturated  solution  of  spirit  soluble  dye  in  acetone, 
this  penetrating  into  the  surface  of  the  Ivorine  except  where  it  is  protected  by  the 
resist,  which  is  then  washed  off"  with  caustic  potash,  and  the  Ivorine  tablet  dried  and 
polished.    The  finished  appearance  is  that  of  inlaid  ivory  letters.         ^  , 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 61 

B15999-1915  J.  IvanoflF  and  A.  I^amine        063 

Cinematography  Apparatus.  The  camera  for  taking  pictnres,  adapted  subsequently 
to  give  images  in  relief  by  projection  upon  a  screen,  ia  moved  during  exposure  in  a 
curved  path  concave  to  the  objects,  etc. ,  the  radius  of  which  is  the  mean  of  the 
distance  from  the  objective  to  the  rear  and  front  planes  of  the  objects  viewed.  The 
axis  of  the  objective  passes  continuously  through  a  point  in  space  midway  between 
the  objective  and  the  background.  Upon  subsequent  projection,  the  effect  produced 
upon  the  observer  simulates  the  solid  effects  obtained  by  monocular  vision  accompanied 
by  a  slight  shifting  of  the  eye.  The  camera  is  mounted  upon  rails  supported  by 
trestles  in  recesses  of  the  trestle  beams,  and  displaced  by  hand  or  automatically  at  a 
suitable  speed ;  or  it  may  have  an  oscillatory  movement. 

B103407-1916  C.  H.  Verity        069 

Synchronizing  Photographs  and  Cinematographs.  In  recording  a  play  or  an 
opera,  the  pictures  are  first  taken  by  means  of  a  cinematograph  camera,  and  the 
words  or  other  sounds  are  subsequently  recorded  by  the  actors  speaking  into  a  phono- 
graph horn  whilst  watching  their  own  movements  as  portrayed  on  the  picture  screen ; 
and  during  the  recording  of  the  sounds,  or  during  a  combined  reproduction,  the  speed 
of  the  photograph  is  adjusted  into  synchronism  by  the  operator  watching  a  tape  which 
bears  a  series  of  marks  corresponding  to  marks  on  the  picture  film. 

B103309-1916  Addition  to  17233/15        Siemens  &  Halske  Akt.-Ges.     089 

Photography.  Enlarging,  Copying  and  Reducing.  Apparatus  of  the  type  described 
in  the  patent  specification  for  printing  type-characters  and  other  matter  photo- 
graphically is  modified  by  the  substitution  of  one  source  of  light  only  for  the  number 
of  spark  gaps  employed  in  the  construction  described  therein. 

B102471-1916  W.  E.  Allan         2109 

A  Plate  Holder  with  means  of  moving  a  ruled  screen  relatively  to  the  negative 
between  succesBive  partial  exposures  so  that  on  passing  a  ruled  screen  over  a  print 
from  the  negative,  the  subject  will  appear  to  be  animated. 

317196-1915  L.  J.  E.  Colardeau  and  J.  Richard         227 

Stereoscopes.  The  apparatus  is  for  viewing  ordinary  stereoscopic  pictures  or 
colored  pictures  which  need  not  be  cut  in  two  and  inverted  to  be  seen  in  relief,  but 
especially  radiographic  pictures,  and  comprises  means  for  viewing  them  directly 
through  lenses  in  the  usual  way  or  also  through  a  second  optical  combination  as 
described  in  Specification  26,265/11,  so  that  inversion  is  obtained,  right  becoming 
left,  and  rear  planes  front  planes,  giving  the  effect,  in  the  case  of  radiographic 
pictures,  of  the  patient  having  been  turned  over.  The  apparatus  consists  of  a  box 
with  a  hinged  ground-glass  screen,  guides  for  the  picture,  lenses,  eyepieces,  combin- 
ations of  a  prism,  and  tetrahedron.  The  lenses  and  parts  above  them  can  be  adjusted 
vertically  by  a  rack  and  pinion.  The  eyepieces  and  the  prisms  and  tetrahedra  are  on 
slides  operated  by  a  handle,  and  link-work  is  arranged  between  the  slides,  so  that 
when  the  prisms,  etc.,  are  pulkd  out  the  eyepieces  are  centralized.  The  distance 
between  the  eyepieces  may  be  adjusted,  the  optical  parts  below  them  moving  corre- 
spondingly. For  large  radiographic  pictures,  diverging  prisms  are  used  in  place  of 
tiie  lenses  and  the  screen  is  dispensed  with. 

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62  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

B103511-1916  H.  R.  Evans        3201 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  In  pin  feed-mechanisms  for  cinematograph  appara- 
tus, gripping-members  are  provided  in  combination  with  the  pins  so  as  to  avoid  tear- 
ing of  the  film  at  the  perforations ;  the  invention  may  also  be  applied  to  film-registering 
devices. 


German  Patents 

DRP-295602  Chem.  Fabr.  vorm.  Schering        D13 

Films  free  from  damp  spots  can  be  coated  on  baryta  bases  by  applying  a  substratum 
of  albumin  (J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  307.) 

DRP-295236  K.  Pape        163 

Renewal  of  the  activity  of  photographic  developers  by  the  addition  of  alkali  or 
alkali  carbonate.     (J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  238). 


Austrian  Patents 

72219    72220    72221—1916  Elektro  Osmose  A.  G.         1421 

Purification  of  gelatine  for  photographic  purposes  by  treatment  with  an  electrical 
current  between  diaphragms.     (Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  pp.  898-899). 

72215-1916  Ver.  Glanzstoff-Fabr.  A.  G.         1615 

Lustrous  Fibers  from  Crude  Viscose  by  Means  of  Warm  Mineral  Acids. 
Thoroughly  ripened  viscose  (8  days  or  more  at  15-2(f )  is  forced,  after  several  filtrations, 
into  20%  sulphuric  acid  at  40"",  spooled  and  washed  with  warm  water,  and  finally 
dried  and  desulphurized  under  tension.     (Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  891.) 


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Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


June. 1917 


Issued  hy  the  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COMPANY 

Rochester,  Nev^York 


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<  .1/ 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  63 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol  3.  Na  4 


June,  1917 


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Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Photography 


Numbers  on  Exposed  Plates  F2 

B.  J..  1917,  p.  229 
Description  of  method  of  numbering  plates  in  a  dark  room  by  means  of  a  print- 
ing machine. 

Partly  Exposed  Spools  of  Film  06 

Amat.  Phot.  Week.,  1917,  p.  364 
Tells  how  to  remove  exposed  portions  of  spool  for  de^opment. 

DouUe  Fixing  06 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  167 

The  editor  strongly  recommends  two  fixing  baths  used  in  succession. 

Pinholes  ¥^ith  Mercury  Intensifier  F.  Vaughan  and  E.  J.  M.         H2 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  210 
Correspondents  give  methods  of  preventing  these  pinhotes  occurring. 

Pinholes  with  Mercury  Intensifier  R.  P.         H2         1661 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  227 
Letter  from  a  correqiondent,  summarizing  methods  of  avoiding  these  pinholes. 

Choosing  a  Printmg  Paper  C.  E.  K.  Mees        J-13 

Kodakeiy,  Apr.,  1917,  p.  18 

This  article  explains  how  it  is  necessary  to  choose  a  printing  paper  with  a  scale 
corresponding  to  that  of  the  n^ative  in  order  that  the  final  print  may  represent  cor- 
rectly the  various  tones  of  the  original  object. 

Appliances  for  Printing,  Enlarging,  etc..  Which  Save  Money,       J222-241 
Labor  and  Space 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  159 

These  include  an  arc  light  enlai^ger  without  condenser,  an  artificial  light  vertical 
enlarger  (chiefly  for  dealing  with  small  negatives  and  enlargements),  and  a  series  of 
printing  boxes  for  the  making  oi  Tignetted  prints  from  portrait  negatives,  for  the 
speedy  printing  of  amateon'  film  negatives^aud  for  printing  by  daylight  on  slow  gas- 
i%ht  paper.  A  pattern  of  electrical  switch  for  printing  boxes  is  described,  as  also  a 
simple  arrangement  for  hastening  the  drying  of  negatives  by  gas  heating,  and  a  plan 
of  fixing  two  backgrounds  in  the  comer  of  the  room. 

Making  Printe  C.  E.  K.  Mees        J3 

Kodakery,  May,  1917,  p.  18 

Wh«i  making  prints  ft  is  recommended  to  classify  the  negatives  into  weak, 
normal  and  dense.  It  ist^ien  ample  to  determine  exposures  by  refer»ice  to  a  standard 
negative.  An  inteiesting  point  illastrattd  by  curves  is  the  fact  that  although  with 
fifans  and  plates  the  ecmtrast  of  the  image  is  dependent  on  the  time  of  development, 
the  contrast  increasing  asdevelo^nent.is  continued,  with  Velox  paper  the  contrast  is 
fixed  by  tbe  maker.  Alter  a  few  seconds  the  developer  does  not  change  the  contrast 
oltbeprmt^botdtilyaffK^ta  the  density  of  the  deposit. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Palladimn  Toning  H.  Schmidt        J81        1665 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1093 

With  the  substitution  of  potassium  chloro-pAlladinite  for  potassium  chloro- 
platinite  a  slightly  stronger  acid  is  needed.  A  toning  bath  is:  Water,  1  liter; 
potassium  chloro-palladinite,  1  gram ;  oxalic  acid,  15  grams,  used  like  a  platinum 
bath.— Phot.  Chronik,  1916,  p.  265. 

Theory  and  Practice  of  Palladium  F.  Formstecher        J81         1695 

Toning 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1093 

The  yellow  stain  often  produced  consists  of  palladium  sulphide  due  to  iiremovable 
adsorbed  silver  nitrate  which  produees  paUadium  nitrate,  which  is  converted  to 
palladium  sulphide  in  the  hypo  bath.  Sodium  chloride  may  be  used  in  the  toning  bath 
to  convert  all  soluble  silver  salts  into  silver  chloride.  After  toning,  an  ammonia  bath 
is  desirable  to  prevent  acids  entering  the  fixing  bath. — Phot.  Chronik,  1916,  p.  337. 

Palladium  as  Substitute  for  Platinum  E.  Florence        J81         1666 

in  Celloidin  Processes 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1094 

In  the  toning  bath  potassium  chloro-palladinite  is  substituted  for  platinum ;  acetic 
acid  may  be  used  as  the  acid.  The  dnished  print  contains  less  silver  than  a  similar 
platinum^toned  one,  whk;h  makes  for  increased  stability  <^  the  hnage.  In  general, 
the  tones  are  brown ;  but  if  a  paper  be  used  which  gives  a  dark  brown  image  after 
simple  fixing,  the  palladium  toning  bath  will  produce  a  nearly  black  image.  The 
addition  of  a  small  quantity  of  potassium  ohloro-piatinhe  greatly  reduces  the  tendency 
toward  brown  tones.  For  black  tones,  about  1  g.  of  potassium  chloro-palladii^te  is 
needed  per  litre  of  bath ;  50^'  more  water  for  warm  tones.  The  final  tone  appears 
only  after  the  print  dries. — Phot.  Chronik,  1916,  p.  169. 

Development  for  Sulphide  Toning  H.  Baker        J94 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  173 

Various  notes  on  producing  toned  bromides  by  bleaching  with  salt,  sulphuric 
acid  and  potassium  bichromate  and  redeveloping. 

The  CommerGial  Aspect  of  Color  Cinematography  K06 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  2384 

An  interesting  discussion  on  the  subject  between  the  editor  and  a  skeptical 
correspondent. 

Taking  and  Projecting  Filters  for  Two-Color  A.  S.  Cory        K266 

Cinematography 

Mot.  Pict.  News,. 1917,  pp,  1442,  1590,  1736 

In  this  series  of  articles  the  author  endeavors  to  summarize  the  available  inlorma- 
don  regarding  filters  that  have  been  used  for  the  two-color  process.  Quotations  fsom 
the  work  of  Benaett  on  the  taking  filters  used  in  the  Klnemaeoloi'  process  are  given. 
He  states  that  tlie  best  comlmiation  is  a  green  filter,  ti'ausmitking  also  a  narrow  btiie 
bflmd  but  cutting  out  the  blue^^reen,  and  an  orange-red.  iNo  4)uantita^ie  data  on  these 
filters  is  given.    Spectrophotoraetrie  curves  of  the:  Wrattra  A  and  B,  fiiten  are  givan 

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ABSTRACT    BTLLETIN  67 


and  (he  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  this  pair  for  taking  filters  aiv  diflcoflBed  in 
detail.  The  author  concludes  that  this  pair  is  not  correct  for  work  in  which  blues  are 
to  be  reproduced.  Curves  of  the  Wratten  filters  E,  and  P  are  then  shown  and  dis- 
cusBed,  the  opinion  being  expressed  that  this  pair  represents  the  best  combination  for 
both  the  additive  and  subtractive  processes.  The  subject  of  projecting  filters  for  the 
additive  process  is  discussed.  Curves  of  Wratten  filters  No.  26  and  No.  44  art*  given 
and  their  merits  as  two-color  projecting  filters  are  considered;  the  author  concluding 
that  this  pair  of  filters,  which  are  almost  complementary  to  each  other,  is  very  satis- 
factory for  the  purpose. 

Achromatism  and  the  Uae  of  Apochroinatic  A.  8.  Cory        K363 

Lenses  in  Color  Cinematography 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  2536 
An  ardHe  explaining  the  nature  of  achromatism  and  its  significance  in  color 
photography. 

The  Prizma  Process  of  Color  Cinematography  A.  S.  Cory        K/24 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  1890 
A  detailed  description  of  the  Prizma  proceesy  which  appears  to  be  a  modification 
of  Kinemacolor.  An  attempt  has  been  made  to  avoid  the  "stripping'*  effect  of 
Kinemacolor  by  reducing  the  pull  down  interval  to  a  minimum,  and  to  improve  the 
color  rendering  by  the  use  of  lour  filters  instead  of  two,  namely,  red-orange,  blue- 
freen,  yellow  and  blue,  t^e  effect  of  this  modification  is  that  in  tlie  case  of  a 
strongly  red  or  green  object,  tlie  color  is  emphasized  only  after  every  fourth  picture. 
The  pulsating  eflfect,  as  a  result  of  this,  is  minimized  by  the  use  of  the  "wide  banded'  * 
filters.  The  Prizma  camera  takes  about  twenty-six  pictures  per  seoohd  on  panchro>> 
matic  film,  worked  by  the  Creneiva  and  sprocket  intermittent.  This  movement  ap- 
pears the  only  one  capable  of  giving  steady  results  when  working  at  the  above  speed. 
The  article  contains  an  illustration  of  the  Simplex  machine  fitted  with  a  Prizma 
attachment,  which  is  so  arranged  that  tlie  filter  gearing  may  be  readily  dis- 
connected and  the  machine  used  for  ordinary  black  and  white  projection.  The  author 
describes  the  screen  results  as  follows:  **The  results  by  this  process  are  characterized 
by  extreme  delicacy  of  color,  and  subdued  shades  are  moet  admirably  rendered.  By 
reason  of  the  extensive  spectral  overlaps  in  the  taking  filters,  all  details  of  the  objects 
photographed  are  recorded,  to  some  extent,  in  all  of  the  four  respective  sensation 
images  of  a  Prizma  series,  and  the  screen  results  are,  therefore,  characterized  by  a  wide 
nmge  of  photographic  gradations.  Tlie  blue-green  element  of  the  projecting  filter  ap- 
pears to  favor  the  blue  rather  than  the  green,  and  as  a  result,  skies  and  water  are 
well  reproduced.  We  have  not  noticed  anything  approaching  a  true  green  in  any  of 
the  subjects  so  far  exhibited,  although  this  is  probably  by  reason  of  the  fact  that  no 
prominent  greens  existed  in  the  subjects  photographed.  Yellow  is  not  in  evidence 
in  the  current  Prizma  films,  although  a  wide  variety  of  warm  tones  are  apparent, 
ranging  from  chestnut-brown  to  a  deep  red-orange.  Colors  in  full  saturation  are 
hardly  within  the  scope  of  this  process." 

The  Agfa  Scrmi  Plate  K/;^ 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1093 
Photomicrographs  show  dark  zones  between  the  color  particle*',  due  to  {mrtial 
overlapping  interpenetration ;  hente  there  is  a  certain  loss  of  light  in  transmission 
*ven  though  no  black  material  is  used  to  fill  the  interstices.  The  sensitiveness  of  the 
'^^''wt  plates  has  been  increased  so  that  the  exposure  is  only  ten  times  as  much  as 
^  an  ordinary  plate.— Phot.  Chronik,  1916,  p.  253.  ^  t 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Decennia  Practica  K/42        K/44 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  14 

Color  Photography— Three-Color  Prints  on  Paper.  This  has  special  reference  to 
the  Pinatype  process,  three-color  diachrome,  and  the  use  of  toned  silver  prints  as  color 
components. 

Decennia  Practica— Color  Photography  K/42         K/41         K2116 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  18 

Three-Color  Prints  on  Paper.  These  include  the  carbon  process  and  the  methods 
of  Ives  and  Hamburger,  as  also  others  dependent  on  Uie  fixation  <rf  dyes.  Two 
references  deal  with  one-exposure  color  cameras  designed  to  correct  distortkui. 

A  Modification  in  the  Raydex  Process  H.  E.  Rendall        K/84 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  13 

It  is  suggested  that  the  color  positives  can  be  improved  by  treatment  with  a  dye 
which  is  absorbed  to  the  pigment  and  will  intensify  the  color  prints, 

A  Modification  of  the  Raydex  Process  V.  P.  Davis        K/84 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  17 

The  author  does  not  consider  that  the  suggestions  made  by  Rendall  are  advan* 
tageous  and  thinks  that  the  process  is  more  satisfactory  without  the  addiiional  dydn^ 
of  the  relief  prints. 

Reproducing  Broken  Negatives  L2 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  224 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Croydon  Camera  Cluli,  Mr.  Salt  demonstrated  in  full  detail 
the  method  employed  by  him  of  reproducing  broken  negatives. 

On  the  Relationship  Between  the  Size  of  the  Particle         C.  Jones        018 
and  the  Color  of  the  Image 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  158 

In  April,  1911,  a  paper  by  C.  Jones  gave  measurements  of  the  silver  grains 
present  in  various  warm-toned  images.  He  has  now  corrected  these  measurements 
for  the  irradiation  which  affects  micrometric  measurements  in  a  microscope  and  finds 
that  his  corrected  readings  agree  with  the  law  that  light  is  scattered  by  particles  of  a 
diameter  equal  to  half  the  wavelength  of  the  scattered  light. 

yj       Explanation  of  the  Formation  of  the  R.  Formhals        014 

Latent  Image 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1092 

(Cf.  Chem.  Absts.,  1916,  p.  564)  In  the  preparation  of  silver  bromide  gelatine 
emulsions,  colU)idal  silver  bromide  is  first  formed,  whose  particles,  though  ultra- 
microscopic,  differ  in  size.  The  larger  ones  are  further  agglomerated  in  the  treat- 
Tnent,  the  smaller  ones  remain  dissolved  in  the  emulsion.  The  finished  emnlfiion 
contains  these  agglomerated  particles,  which  determine  the  grain  of  the  anulsion, 
distributed  uniformly,  also  colloidal  silver  bromide  of  extreme  fineness  and  very 
sensitive  to  light,  dissolved  throughout  the  mass.  If  it  be  asiumed  that  these 
colloidal  particles  are  approximately  of  molecular  size  and  that  silver  bfomide  is  in  its 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Donnal  state  strongly  diasociated,  it  follows  that  the  colloidal  form  is  subject  to 
internal  stress;  hence,  dissociation  will  be  effected  by  even  a  slight  stimalus  of  the 
appropriate  kind,  as  light  or  other  radiation.  Light  does  not  alter  the  degree  of 
disBociation;  it  establishes  an  equiGbriam  depending  on  concentration,  temperature 
and  other  factors.  By  strong  lighting,  the  formation  and  hence  the  concentration  of 
the  dissociated  silver  bromide  may  be  so  increased  that  the  dissociation  is  reversed, 
which  offers  an  ^cplanation  of  solarization.  In  development,  the  dissociated  silver 
bromide  is  attacked  first;  the  resulting  silver,  in  combination  with  the  reduction 
products  of  the  developer,  then  attacks  the  surrounding  excess  silver  bromide  and 
redoes  it.— Obem.  Ztg.,  40,  p.  1001. 

Using  Focusing  Cameras  as  Fixed  Focas  Cameras  019-216 

Kodakery,  May,  1917,  p.  21. 
An  article  and  reference  table  gfving  the  necessary  instructions  for  converting 
fbcwing  Kodaks,  Premos,  and  Brownies,  making  pkstures  83^  x  AM  or  aroaller  into 
fixed  focus  camanis. 

Exposure  and  Size  of  Plate  in  Wide  Angle  Work  019-051 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  202 
A  curve  is  given  showing  the  rule  which  governs  the  falling  off  of  light  from  the 
center  to  the  corners  of  a  plate  in  the  use  of  a  wide  angle  lens.  From  the  data  it  will 
be  seen  that  up  to  an  angle  of  little  less  than  70°  the  exposare  at  tba  edge  of  the  iSeU 
is  only  about  half  that  at  tlie  center;  at  wider  angles  the  difference  beconoes  much 
fiwter.  It  is  afsnmed  that  there  la  no  cutting  off  from  the  ]6»s  mount,  the  affieet 
being  due  only  to  the  increased  angle  at  which  the  light  is  faUing  upon  the  emulsion 
tod  the  smaller  proportion  of  light  therefore  which  enters  it. 

Landscape  Photography  021 

Phot.  Min.,  1917,  No.  160 
*'A  friendly  guide  for  those  who  want  to  make  pictures  with  the  camera  out-of- 
doors,  instead  of  mere  photographs.    Profusely  illustrated.'' 

The  Use  of  a  Mirror  in  Portraiture  A.  F.  Catharine        0313 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  217 
Mr.  Catharine  makes  use  of  a  mirror  for  portraiture  in  comparatively  small 
rooms,  the  mirror  making  it  possible  to  employ  a  lens  of  conniderable  focal  length, 
since  by  the  use  of  the  mirror  equidistant  from  the  camera  and  eitter  the  effidctive 
length  of  the  room  can  be  doubled. 

Firelight  Effects  by  Studio  Electric  Light  H.  E.  Corke        0314 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  232 
The  author  is  well  known  for  his  firelight  effects  in  portraiture ;  he  gives  methods 
of  using  electric  light  for  producing  the  effect  instead  of  daylight. 

Coinniercial  Photography  032 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  1G4 
Tlie  beginning  of  a  series  of  articles  on  this  subject  by  **Prai*ticu8.'*  The  article 
•dvifles  the  commercial  photographer  to  try  to  make  business  by  offering  his  services 
to  firms  who  can  utilize  it.  The  article  deals  with  apparatus,  sets  forth  the  large 
field  of  possibilities  and  gives  advice  on  special  branches  of  commercial  work,  such  as 
interiors,  houses,  gardens,  store  fronts,  and  paintings.  ^.^.^.^^^  ^^  GoOqIc 


70  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Commercial  Photography  032 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  179 

This  inBtallment  deals  with  the  photography  of  furniture,  of  miscellaneoua  small 
articlefi  such  as  jewelry  and  leather  goods,  and  of  machinery. 

Commercial  Photography  032 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  191 

This  installment  deals  with  the  photography  of  motor  vehicles,  of  silver,  china, 
and  glass  goods,  dress  materials  and  lace,  and  also  mth  the  making  of  photographs 
for  advertising  purposes. 

Commercial  Photography  032 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  208 

The  last  poHion  of  the  article  by  **Practicu8'*  deals  with  such  special  branches  of 
work  as  flashlight  and  the  making  of  panoramic  prints,  the  working  op  of  negatfres 
and  of  prints  for  catalogues  and  the  question  of  prices. 

Filter  Factors  and  Orthochromatic  Plates  0461 

Studio  Light,  April,  1917,  p.  10 

An  ariicie  explaining  the  function  of  orthochromatic  filters  and  the  meamn^  of 
the  term  * 'filter  factor.'* 

Orthochromatic  Photography  A.  Swan  and  A.  L.  Cobum        0561 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  150 

General  remarks  on  the  use  of  orthochromatic  and  panchromatic  plates  with 
filters. 

Flashlight  in  Portraiture  0681 

Phot.  J.  Amer,,  1917,  p.  211       . 

An  article  from  the  Eastman  Kodak  Publicity  department. 

Installing  Half- Watt  Lamps  for  H.  E.  Corke        0583-2322 

Portraiture  Studio 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  169 

Practical  article  pointing  out  various  methods  of  utilizing  the  nitrogen  tungsten 
lamps  for  studio  work. 

The  Society  of  Motion  Picture  Engineers  E.  K.  Gillett         06 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  2700 

The  society  waa  initially  formed  with  a  view  to  effecting  a  standardization  of  aU 
apparatus  used  in  motion  picture  photography.  The  author  of  the  article,  who  is 
also  secretary  of  the  society,  is  hopeful  that  the  society  will  be  a  means  of  removing 
much  of  the  ignorance  which  at  present  exists  regarding  the  scientific  principles  in- 
volved in  motion  picture  taking  and  projecting. 

Fire  Prevention  in  Motion  Picture  Studios  061 

Motion  Pict.  World,  1917,  p.  1117 

An  article  condensed  from  a  bulletin  issued  by  the  Company  90  the  subject!  p 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  7X 

The£ex  Film  Renovator  I.  G.  Sh^majQ        0649 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1817,  p.  2580 

A  description  of  tlie  Rex  film  renovator.  It  is  claimed  that  bjr  treating  old  film 
with  the  Rtix  renovating  fluid  (presumably  an  oil  dissolved  in  a  suitable  solvent)  aU 
dirt  ifi  removed  and  a  greater  part  of  the  scratches  eliminated*  In  the  case  o£  new  qr 
"green"  film,  the  life  is  increased  by  virtue  of  a  diminution  of  the  brittleness,  and 
the  prevention  of  the  formation  of  an  incrustation  of  gelatine  on  the  tension  springs 
iDd  aperture  plate  tracks. 

The  Fohner  and  Schwing  Finger  Pfint  Camera  081-219 

Studio  Light,  April,  1917.  p.  4 

A  camera  so  constructed  that  the  front  may  be.preceed  firmly  against  the  object 
on  which  the  finger  prints  have  been  made,  the  illumination  being  furnished  by  four 
electric  lainps  directly  inside  the  front  of  the  camera  but  not  in  line  with  the  lenses. 
Aside  from  its  use  in  criminal  investigations,  the  camera  may  be  used  for  quickly 
obtaining  records  of  signatures  on  checks,  receipts,  and  for  photographing  details  of 
patents,  trade  marks,  labels  or  bits  of  printed  or  written  matter  not  larger  than  tlie 
front  opening  of  the  camera,  the  reproduction  made  being  in  actual  size. 

Topics  of  the  Week  083 

Amat.  Phot.,  1917,  p.  194 

German  air  photography :     Describes  cameras  used  on  Zeppelins  and  aeroplanes. 

New  Aeroplane  Camera  Perfected  by  Eastman  Kodak  Co.  083-219 

Amat,  Phot.  Week.,  1917,  p.  367  and 
Abel's  Phot.  Week.,  1917,  p.  848 

Kodaking  the  Birds  C.  I.  Reid        098 

Kodakery,  May,  1917,  p.  8 

An  article  showing  what  can  be  done  in  this  line  of  work  with  a  Kodak  fitted 
^'^  a  portrait  attachment. 

The  Electric  C^irrent  ija  Burd  Pbotofpraphy  G.  A.  Bailey        09ft 

Phot.  Era,  1917,  p.  218  ' 

*^ribeg  an  electric  shutter  contrived  out  of  parts  of  an  ordinary  electric  bell., 

The  Photography  of  Wild  Animals  in  Captivity        D.  Seth-Smith        098 
Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  146 

^<>te8  on  the  Bromoil  Process  S.  Brmn  do  Canto        /89 

B.  J.,  X917,  p.  218 

The  author  deals  with  dev^q»iiig  and  bleachisg  iormuAs^  whMl  lie  has  foondr 
^^is^actory,  and  discusses  pigmenting  at  considerable  length. 

'^^  Soda  and  Other  Developers  H.Baker        168 

B.  J.,1917,  p.  284       * 
General  artkte  on  devek>pers  by  w«ll  kmwm  v^oimm^      Digitized  b^  GoOglc 


/ 


r2  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Stable  Iron  Developer  163 

Chera.  Abfit.,  1917,  p.  1098 

Solution  A  is  30^  potassium  oxalate  solution;  solution  B  30%  ferrous  sulphate 
slightly  acidified  with  sulphuric  acid ;  solution  G  20%  Rochelle  salt.  Mix  five  volumes 
of  B  with  IX  of  C  and  pour  rapidly  into  17K  volumes  of  A.  (I*hot.  Chronik,  1916,  p.  220). 

Rodinal  Developer  for  Positives  E.  Florence        168 

Chem.  Abst.,  1^17,  p.  1094 

Rodinal  is  less  rapid  feluui  metol.  The  luldition  of  potassium  bromide  retards  fog, 
but  is  without  influence  on  the  density  of  the  image,  which  is  controlled  by  the 
concentration.  A  concentration  of  1  part  rodinal  to  20  water  is  the  maximum  usually 
taken,  and  gives  maximum  contrast;  increased  dilution  reduces  contrast  and  prolongs 
time,  of  development.  The  color  of  the  deposit  ranges  from  pure  black  or  blue-black 
to  brownish  black.  All  these  qualities  are  most  favorable  to  the  use  of  rodinal  for 
positives,  especially  for  bromides ;  the  indiflference  of  rodinal  to  temperature  changes 
being  a  further  advantage.  Gaslight  papers  require  a  more  dilute  developer  than 
bromides,  and  some  emulsions  require  an  addition  of  potassium  bromide.  (Phot. 
Chronik,  1916,  p.  153. ) 

Note  upon  Hypo  sulphite  of  Soda  C.  de  Albroit        164 

II  Corriere  Fotografico,  p.  3075 

The  author  deals  with  the  alteration  undergone  by  a  fixing  bath,  with  the  silver 
hypo  sulphite  formed,  the  affinity  of  the  hypo  sulphite  for  gelatine,  and  the  effect 
of  developer  in  the  fixing  bath. 

%/       Ammonium  Persulphate  1657 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1093 

A  new  Andresen  formula  for  the  persulphate  reducer  is:  persulphate  2  g. ;  water 
100  cc. ;  2  g.  ammonia  (0.91);  hypo  2  g.  This  gives  clear  whites  and  continuous 
gmdation.  Reduction  ttiay  require  1  hour  al  18*20P,  but  the  bath  will  keep  clear  tot 
this  length  of  time.  A  solution  of  2  g.  persulphate  in .  100  cc.  water  with  1  cc.  1% 
hypo  added,  allowed  to  act  30-60  minutes,  cuts  away  the  highlights  ^lithout  notice- 
ably afl^ecting  the  shadows,  and  is  especially  suitable  for  under-exposed,  over-developed 
plates.     Phot.  Chronik,  1916,  p.  244. 

Orthochromatic  Plates  and  Uncorrected  Lenses  \\\  D.  2631 

Phot.  Focus,  1917,  p.  286 

Ortho  plates  and  color  screens  tend  to  remove  the  difficulty  caused  by  the  chem- 
ioal  and  visoel  foei  not  OeiiicidiKg* 

Rftjr  Screens  Used  in  Multiple  ,}y.  Hopd      -  2661 

Camera  Craft,.  J917>  pm  143 


The  writer's  reasoniag^is  beiiefttott  fAllAcies.'' 


^Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BFLLETIW n 

The  Akeley  Camera  31 

Mot.  Pict.  World,  1917,  pp.  797,  969 

A  detailed  description  of  a  motion  picture  camera  cooBtrooted  on  entirely  new 
lines.  The  camera  itself  is  barrel  shaped  and  is  suspended  as  if  from  a  derrick,  so 
that  it  automatically  sets  itself  plumb,  although  it  may  be. damped  firmljr  in  any 
position  desired.  The  panoramic  attachment  likewise  constitutes  a  new  departure, 
this  being  geared  to  a  governor  so  that  a  steady  motion  is  assured,  the  camera  being 
rerolved  by  merely  pushing  with  the  hand  instead  of  by  turning  a  crank.  The  pan- 
oramic attachment  being  fixed  to  the  camera,  the  latter  may  be  operated  without  a 
tripod  if  necessary,  and  is  therefore  particularly  useful  when  photographing  animals 
and  wild  birds,  and  for  emergency  work  generally. 

The  Daveco  Professional  Kino  C.  I..  Gregory        31 

Mot.  Piot.  World,  Apr.,  1917,  p.  424 
A  motion  picture  camera  in  the  form  of  a  square  box  in  which  the  fihn  magaxines 
are  plaeed  side  by  mde, 

A  Possible  Static  Reducer  H .  G .  Hall        3100 

Camera  Craft,  1917,  p.  169 
Recommends  metal  roller  light  traps  in  film  magazinen  inntead  of  usual  velvet 
fricdon  traps. 

Screen  Surfaces  E.  K.  GiJlett        324 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  pp.  3027,  3173 
An  article  illustrating  why  the  nature  of  the  projection  screen  surface  should  be 
chosen  to  suit  given  conditions  in  any  motion  picture  theater.  It  is  explained  why 
t  long  and  narrow  house  with  a  perfectly  horizontal  throw  should  have  a  highly 
Bpecularly  reflecting  screen,  in  order  that  the  picture  may  be  clear  from  every  part 
of  the  house.  In  the  case  of  a  square  house  with  greater  reflet-tive  angles,  the  surface 
should  not  be  so  specularly  reflecting  in  order  that  the  distribution  of  light  as  viewed 
hrom  any  point  in  the  audience  shouUI  be  as  nearly  unifonn  as  possible  over  the 
entire  surface  of  the  screen. 

A  Precision  Tripod  324 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  p.  3035 
A  description  of  a  precision  ball  bearing  motion  picture  tripod. 

A  Photographic  BiUiosraphy 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  1917,  pp.  2708,  3035,  3180 

Rothacker  Issues  a  Booklet 

Mot.  Pict.  World,  April,  1917,  p.  262 
A  review  of  a  booklet  indicating  the  possibility  of  the  niotirm  picture  as  a  means 
of  advertising. 

On  March  20,  Dr.  J.  H.  Smith  died.  For  many  years  Dr.  Smith  manu- 
factured plates  and  paper  at  WolHshofen,  near  Zvirieh,  where  he 
developed  tfee  *'Utocolpr''  bleach  out  paper  for  making  direct  color 
|adiits.  In  1908  he  went  to  Paris  to  carry  on  the  manufacture  of 
'XJtocolor'*  paper  tHere.  Dr.  Smith  discovered  the  thiosinamine 
group  of  sensitizers  for  bleach  out  dyes 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  182  ^  . 

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74  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Photo  Engraving 

Note  on  **  Value  of  Chinese  White  and  Process  White  07001 

Process  Work,  Feb.  1917,  p.  83 

Note  on  **Cold  Enamer*  07004 

Process  Work,  Feb.  1917,  p.  88 

Note  on  ** Lithographic  Rollers''  J.  Goodnoaa         0721 

Proc«8  Work,  Feb.  1917,  p.  82 

The  Photographic  Production  of  a  Lithographic  J.  I.  Crabtree  07211 
Key  on  Zinc  and  Aluminum 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  208 
Communication  No.  48  from  the  Research  Laboratory.     By  preparing  the  zinc 
with  a  1%  solution  of  citric  acid  and  the  aluminum  with  a  l^b  solution  of  oxalic 
acid  an  image  can  be  obtained  by  sensitizing  with  a  mixture  of  ferric  ammoniom 
citrate  and  potassium  ferricyanide. 

The  Progress  of  the  Offset  Press  0723 

Photo  Engr.  Bull.,  April,  1917,  p.  23 
An  article  from  the  * 'National  Lithographer,**  which   states  there  are  nearly 
1,000  offnet  machines  in  the  United  States.     If  this  must  be  discounted  as  mix^h  as 
other  statements  in  the  article,  there  are  considerably  fewer. 

The  Recent  Rise  of  the  Woodcut  W.  A.  Bradley         0731 

Printing  Art,  March,  1917,  p.  25 
Shows   how   photography  can   be  employed  in  wood  engraving,  though   it  is 
objected  to  by  some  artistic  cngravirs. 

American  Collodion  Emulsion  Ace  Chemical  Co.         162 

Amer.  Photo  Engr.,  April,  1917,  p.  218 
An  advertisement  for  collodion  emulsion  at  $8.00  per  quart  and  50  cents  per 
ounce  for  sensitizers  stating  tliat  negative  making  will  l^e  only  one  half  to  one-quarter 
as  expensive  as  with  dry  plates. 

Simultaneous  Exposure  Process  Camera  C.  Jones         216 

Photo  Engr.  Bull.,  March,  1917,  p.  13 
An  accx>unt  of  a  new  triple  camera  with  exact  focusing  scales  aad  similar  time 
saving  devices. 

The  Copper  Situation  in  England 

Amer.  Printer,  May,  1917,  p.  37 
The  British  Government  requiring  all  copper,  the  photo-engrayers  could  only 
procure  it  on  condition  that  they  retiime<i  an  equivalent  weight  of  used  copper,  00 
that  all  engravings  are  now  sold  on  condition  that  they  be  returned  within  one 
month  unkfB  an  equal  weight  of  copper  can  be  exchanged  for  them.  Failing  this, 
balf-t^tna  engravings  are  made  on  zinc  instead  of  cop{isr. 

**Proce88  Work'*  announces  that  on  account  of  the  war  it  will  henceforth 
be  published  only  quarterly,  apd  ^bat  the  publication  of  the  "^rocees 
Year  Book"  is  indefinitely  postponed . 

Process  Work,  Feb.,  J9t7,  p.  81 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  7^ 


Physics 

The  Theory  of  Vibrations  E.  Charron 

Ann.  de  Phys.,  1917,  p.  5 

Principles  are  set  forth  by  which  the  writer  is  able  to  explain  the  mechanism  of 
the  maintenance  of  vibrations  and  also  their  characteristics,  in  very  varied  cases. 

The  Initial  Phase  of  the  Discharge  in  A.  Righi 

a  Magnetic  Field 

Aim.  de  Pbys.,  1917,  p.  97 

An  abridged  translation  by  the  author,  considering  previous  work  on  the  subject 
•8  well  as  his  own  recent  work. 

The  Law  of  Photo-EIectric  Photometry  J.  Kuna 

Astrophys.  J.,  1917,  p.  69 

The  author  shows  that  in  the  older  forms  of  photo-electric  cell,  the  current  iiB 
not  proportional  to  the  light  intensi^.  Changes  in  oonstmctiofi  are  described  which 
Kive  strict  proportionality.    Talbot's  law  is  found  to  hold. 

The  Cause  of  the  So-Called  Pole-Eflfect  T.  Royds 

in  the  Electric  Arc 

Astrophys,  J.,  1917,  p.  112 

The  writer  believes  that  Kne  displacements  in  the  arc  are  due  not  to  temperature 
gradients  but  to  difference  of  vapor  density. 

The  Effect  on  the  Eye  of  Varying  Degrees  J.  Kerr 

of  Brightness  and  Contrast 

lU.  Eng.,  1917,  p.  41 

The  author  sets  forth  some  fundamental  aspects  of  the  physiology  of  vision 
dealing  principally  with  adaptation,  convergence  and  accommodation.  He  then 
proceeds  to  examine  practical  paroblems  in  ilinmination  and  discusses  desirable  con-» 
ditkms. 

The  Lumen  A.  P.  Trotter  and  A.  Blondel 

lU.  Eng.,  1917,  pp.  59  and  61 

Two  articles  which  take  the  form  of  a  discussion  largely  for  the  |>urpo8e  of 
defining  the  lumen. 

On  the  Measurement  of  Visual  L.  T.  Troland 

Stimulation  Intensities  i 

J.  of  Bxper.  Psychology,  1^7,  p.  1   • 

This  paper  is  a  review  of  facts  and  problems]  written  primarily  for  the  exper- 
imental .iwychologist  thongh  of  broad  general  interest.  The  author  treats  the 
significance  and  usefulness  of  photometric  as  compared  with  radiometric  measure- 
ments, then  defends  1^  iise  df  a  flitUer  photometer  and  dfacuases  the  influence  of 
pvpiUify  999'  W«l»'  vifi^  atjpwlua  intenmti, ,  .Tl^.author  daflnefi  a  new  tanx^^  P^^on, 
and  justifies  its  use  as  the  standard  unit  of  ^vi^ual.  sttnmlus  intensity^  ,  ^ 

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76  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Visual  Discrimination  of  Rectangular  Areas  Illuminated  G.  F.  Arpe 

by  Varying  Degrees  of  Achromatic  Light 

J.  of  Exper.  P^chology,  1917,  p.  41 

The  author  studies  the  efficiency  of  diacrimination  in  the  perception  of  differences 
in  area  and  analyses  the  factors  involved  in  such  judgments. 

A  Theory  of  Color  Vision  R.  A.  Uouatoun 

Sci.  Progress,  1917,  p.  377 

The  author  describes  graphically  how  a  eoBtpound  pendulum  forces  a  simple 
pendulum  in  the  same  system  to  vibrate  and  then  applies  the  curves  to  the  explan- 
ation of  the  selective  action  of  the  eye.  The  compound  pendulum  represents  the 
energy  of  a  light  wave  and  the  retina  contains  a  large  number  of  vibrators  which 
perform  the  function  of  the  simple  pendulum.  The  explanation  is  rather  ingenious 
but  does  not  do  much  toward  settlement  of  the  difRcuItfes  involved  m  a  theory  of 
color  vision. 

Notes  on  the  Change  of  Resistance  of  C^ertain  T.  W.  Case 

Substances  in  Light 

Phys.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  305 

The  author  has  been  making  a  systematic  search  for  substances  which  show  a 
change  of  electrical  resistance  when  exposed  to  light,  and  has  found  several  new  light 
active  substances.  A  brief  description  of  the  apparatus  used  is  given,  and  a  very 
extensive  list  of  substances  together  with  the  observed  effect  of  light  on  their 
conductivity. 

Glasses  for  Protecting  the  Eyes  W.W.  Coblentz  and  W,  B.  Emerson 

from  Injurious  Radiations 

J.  Franfe.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  629 

The  data  deals  with  an  extensive  group  of  glasses  available  for  protecting  the 
eyes  from  (1)  the  ultra-violet,  (2)  the  visible,  (3)  the  infra  red.  For  protection 
from  the  ultra^oftet,  black,  amber,  greenisli  yellow  and  red  gliases  are  efficient  wfaila 
for  shielding  from  the  infra-red  deep  black,  yellowish  green  and  gold  plated  gliflies 
are  good.  Gold  plated  glasses  transmit  only  1%  of  the  infra-red  rays  emitted  by  a 
furnace  at  nOO^  C. 

A  Polarization  Flicker  Photometer  and  Some  Data  H.  E.  Ives 

of  Theoretic  Bearing  Obtained  by  It 

Phil.  Mag.,  1917,  p.  360 

'  This  comprises  a  combination  of  a  double-image  prism  with  k  rotating  Nieol 
prism,  in  which  the  transition  from  one  field  to  the  otber  is  gradual,  following  a 
cosine  law.  With  it  predicdoos  of  the  author's  previfus^y,  published  theory  have 
been  accurately  verified. 

Recent  Progress  in  Spectroscopy  E.  p.  Lewis 

.   i^ature, ; April,  1917,  pp,  tlp.aad  1*4.  ,  .   . 

An  address  bef<$re  the  physics  section  of  the  Amerlekn  A«s6ttiatioti '  f»r  Hm 
Advancement  of  flrtertee  In  Kew  Yortt,  Dec.  1W«.  ^  *    '■     i    <  .    ^*  '^>  : 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  77 

General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Action  of  Potassiuin  Permanganate  with  Metals  W.  Foster 

Ch«n.  News,  1917,  p.  73 

Dilate  solutions  of  potasdnin  pennanganate  are  reduced  'by  finely  divided  metals 
indiidiDg  platinum  and  gold. 

Reducing  Matter  Extraetable  from  R.  S.  McBride  and  J.  A.  Scherrer 

Filter  Paper 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  928 

Varioos  tests  as  applied  to  different  makes  of  filter  papers  showed  that  the  amount 
of  permanganate  reduced  by  extracted  matter  is  appreciable  and  caa  be  readily 
aToided  if  the  filter  paper  is  given  a  preparatory  washing  with  25  cc.  of  the  reagent. 
The  redocing  substance  extracted  from  the  filter  papers  as  shown  by  A.  S.  McDaniel 
is  furfural  or  a  closely  related  substance. 

Pervaporation,  FerstiUation  and  Percrystallization  P.  A.  Kober 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  944 

Certain  well  known  and  often  recorded  facts  of  transpiration  through  membranes 
are  here  treated  under  the  above  pertentious  and  persumptuous  titles. 

Metabisulphites  of  Potassium  and  of  Sodium  P.  Carles 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  289 

The  author  comments  upon  the  stability  of  sodium  metabLsulfite  and  the  prt-sence 
of  iron. 

New  Method  of  Precipitating  Platinum  Sulfide  and  V.  N.  Ivanov 

Analysis  of  Platinised  Asbestos 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  1917,  Ind.,  p.  290 

Magnesium  chloride  is  added  to  prevent  the  fonnation  of  a  8tal)Ie  colloid  of 
platinum  sulfide. 

A  Simple  and  Efficient  Gas  H.  D.  Richmond  and  E.  Hembrough 

Absorption  Apparatus 

J.  See.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  317 
An  apparatus  for  absorbing  dilute  gases  in  limited  volumes  of  liquid. 


Analytical  Chemistry 

Improvements  in  the  Copper  Method  for  Estimating  P.  A.  Kober 

Amino  Acids 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  501 

A  Study  of  the  Determination  of  Potash  Chiefly  Con-  P.L.  Hibbard 

cemed  with  the  Lindo  Gladding  Method 

J.  Ind.  Eilfe/Ohem.,  1917,' t).  504 
^Rie  pifetinciiil  lotoihod  U  reeomuiendiM  acnd  detilils  of  n^ahipnlation  ate  givea.    A 
complete  labliography  of  the  subject  is  appended.  ^-^^^  ^*  GoOqIc 


78 ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

The  Estimation  of  SmiJl  Quantities ^f  Cobalt  A*  D.  Powell 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  273 

Determination  of  Free  Alkali  Hydroxide  in  Soap  V.  A.  Izmailski 

J.  Soo.  Cfaem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  295 

The  errors  as  obtained  by  the  alcohol  method  or  the  barium  chloride  method  are 
pointed  out.     A  modified  barium  chloride  method  is  offered. 


Colloid  Chemistry 


Osmotic  pressure  of  Gelatine      W.  Biltz,  G.  Bugge  and  L.  Mehler        1421 
J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  297 

The  absolute  value  of  the  molecular  aggregates  of  technical  gelatiiie  decreaees 
with  their  technical  value.  The  viscosity  of  gelatine  increases  with  increase  in  the 
me  of  the  particles,  while  the  '^gold  number*'  decreases  under  same  conditions. 

Protein  **  Bodies  '*  and  **  Anti-Bodies  ''  as  Products  M.  A.  Rakuzin 

of  Adsorption 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  302 

Tlie  selective  adsorption  of  proteins,  enzymep,  etc,  by  precipitated  aluminum 
hydroxide  is  regarded  as  analogous  to  the  separation  of  toxin  and  anti-toxin  when 
serums  are  treated  with  adsorbents. 

Theory  of  cold  Vulcanization 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9168 
A  theory  for  the  constitution  of  cold  vulcanized  rubber. 

The  Possibility  of  Regenerating  Vulcanized  Rubber  A.  Dubosc 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9173 

Critical  review  of  recent  work  by  Harries.  The  problem  is  still,  fundamentally 
unsolved.  Harries  concludes  that  caoutchouc  in  course  of  vulcanization  undergoes  a 
modification  of  the  molecular  aggregate  volume.  Dubosc  considerB  it  estaUished 
that  vulcanization  involves  two  phases:  in  the  first  the  caoutchouc  undergoes  an  inner 
structural  change  in  step  with  adsorption  of  sulphur;  in  the  second,  this  structure 
change  is  reversed  and  the  caoutchouc  combines  with  sulphur  to  saturation  of  its 
double  linkages. 

Isolation  and  Characterization  of  the  Insoluble  Spence  and  Kratz 

Components  of  Raw  Rubber 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9174 
These  substances  appear  to  be  gluco-proteins. 

Viscosimetric  Testing  of  Waxea 

Caou^houc,  1917»p,  0178     ' 

Xbe  Italian  engineer  Fiibris  nsec^  the  ymcumts.  ot  M%  ¥i\oiif>n  of  tiM  wnx  in 
nitrobenzene  to  test  purity.  ■  -  .    /,   Y^  i  i  , 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  79 


Organic  Chemistry 


studies  on  Paper  Pulps  W,  H.  Smith         141 1 

Paper,  May  2nd,  1917,  p.  11 

Original  Technologic  Papers  of  the  Bureau  of  Standards,  Xo.  88.  ( 1 )  Chemical 
characteristics.  Methods  of  analysis.  (2)  Susceptibility  tests  (to  oxidation  and 
hydrolysis).     (3)  Deterioration  tests.    Tables  of  results  are  given. 

Electrolytic  Preparation  of  Aminophenols         Son,  Chim.  Basle        15314 
Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  (i)  p.  197 

The  yield  of  aminophenol  over  amine  is  favored  by  the  use  of  a  catliode  of  two  or 
more  metals.  The  amount  of  acid  may  be  reduced  to  very  little  more  than  that 
neeesBary  to  combine  with  the  resulting  base.,  Cathodes  of  copper  with  |ead  and 
arsenic  in  the  solution,  and  lead  cathode  with  bismuth  in  the  electrolyte  are 
mentioned,  also  copper- mercury  and  copper-tin-arsenic.     (Brit.  Pat.  18081-1915). 

Preparation  of  Monalkylated  Aromatic  Amines  G.  T.  Morgan 

Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  (i)  p.  197 

The  primary  aromatic  amine  and  formaldehyde  are  added  slowly  and  concurrently 
^  a ampension  of  dnc  diist  in  alkali.     (Brit.  Pat.  102884). 

A  New  Test  for  8iae  fatness  '  8.  A.  Okell 

*  Paper;  Apn],  11th,  1917,  p.  20 

An  application  of  Kc^lrausch's  method  of  determining  Qonductivities.  Drawings 
showing  modi£u2ations.an4  chart  of  curves  obtained  are  given. 

Action  of  Bromine  Water  on  Ethylene     *       J.  Read  and  M.  M.  Williams 
Trans.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  240 

The  main  product  is*  ethylene  bromohydrin,  together  with  some  ethylene 
dibromide. 

TrimethJ^lglucose  from  Cellnlose  W.  S.  Denham  and  H.  Woodhouse 

Trans.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  244 

Continuation  of  the  elucidation  of  the  constitution  of  cellulose  by  a  study  of  the 
products  of  hydrolysis  of  methylated  cellulose. 

The  Determination  of  Alcohol  and  Water  in  Ether  R.  L.  Perkins 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  521 

Specific  gravity  charts  for  mixtures  up  to  4%  alcohol  and  to  1%  water.  In 
analysis,  the  s.  g.  of  the  ether  is  determined  at  25°/26''.  From  100  -  2(X)  cc.  are  then 
dehydrated  with  potassium  carbonate  and  the  s.  g.  again  determined.  By  comparison 
with  the  charts,  the  per  cent  alcohol  and  water  can  be  obtained. 

Methyl  Alcohol  and  Acetone  from  Soda  A.  H.  White  and  J.  D.  Rue 

Pulp  Industry 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  383 

The  waste  liquors,  on  concentration  and  destructive  distillation,  yield  methyl 
alcohol,  acetone,  and  a  tar  containing  about  50%  of  phenols.  Digitized  byGoOQlc 


80  ABBTRACT    BULLETIN 

Patent  Abstracts 

U.  S.  Patents 

1222925  P.  D.  Brewster        K1212 

A  Film  for  Colored  Motion  Pictures.  It  includes  two  color  sensitive  films  saper- 
posed  upon  each  other  with  the  sensitive  surfaces  outward,  the  films  being  spaced 
-  along  one  edge  by  a  narrow  tape  which  is  sewed  or  riveted  between  them.  When 
color  sensation  impressions  are  made  upon  this  film  in  a  suitable  two-color  camera, 
an  opaque  strip  is  inserted  between  the  bodies  of  the  films  to  prevent  conflict  in  the 
light  action.  The  exposed  films  are  separated,  developed,  and  then  reassembled  with 
their  spacing  tape.  The  positive  double  coated  film  is  then  placed  betweea  the 
superposed  negative  films  and  printed, 

1223881  L.  Gaumont,  AssiRned  to  E.  K.  Co.        K82    K9S8 

An  Optical  System  for  Three-Color  Motion  Picture  Projection.  It  includes  three 
objectives  provided  with  five  adjustments,  so  that  the  fflzes  of  the  different  colored 
images  may  be  made  the  same  and  the  images  exactly  superposed,  there  being  farther 
provision  to  allow  for  varying  spacing  of  the  images  on  the  film. 

1221457  I.  Kiteee        K/33 

A  Method  for  Making  tJtm  Colored  Elenents  of  a  Sereea  Plate.  Three  eavdhoaid 
supports  of  equal  area  are  surfaced  with  gum  arabic.  When  dry,  colored  ceUuloid 
fihns  are  flowed  over  the  gum  coatings,  the  celluloid  on  one  support  being  colored 
blue- violet,  upon  another  green,  tmd  upon  the  third  red.  When  dry,  these  cellaloid 
films  are  subdivided  by  lateral  and  longitudinal  cross  cuts  1/600  of  an  inch  apart. 
The  films  are  then  soaked  in  water  so  as  to  dissolve  away  the  gmn  and  separate  the 
minute  colored  film  piece^i,  which  are  mixed  and  assembled  on  a  screen  plate  fn  the 
regular  way. 

1223664  P.  D.  Brewster        K/43     K35 

An  apparatus  for  Treating  Cine  Film.  It  indudes  a  tank  having  a  slot  in  its 
upper  face,  across  which  the  film  is  carried  in  closely  fitting  guides  so  that  d^e  solu- 
tion from  the  tank  will  be  thro^-n  by  rotary  paddles  against  the  under  face  of  the  film 
without  spreading  to  the  upper  face.  A  vacuum  is  created  in  the  tank  below  the  film 
and  a  blast  of  air  blown  on  the  upper  face  of  the  film  so  as  to  further  insure  agahist 
spotting  the  upper  surface. 

1219965  H.  G.  Leisenring        X42S 

A  Plate  Holder  for  X-Ray  Exposures.  It  consists  of  a  metal  casing  or  shield 
whksh  is  50%  longer  and  509^  w^er  than  the  frame  in  which  the  plate  is  fastened. 
In  the  center  of  the  casing  is  an  aluminum  window  equal  to  a  quarter  of  the  area  of 
the  plate.  The  plate  is  rapidly  manipulated  to  bring  each  quarter  thereof  under  the 
aluminum  window  so  that  four  pictures  of  one  part  of  a  patient  may  be  rapidly  made 
without  moving  him. 

1223255  W.  G.  Chapman         082 

An  Electrical  Protecting  Syntem  designed  to  automatically  scKJure  a  photograph  of 
a  burglar  or  vandal. 

1221902  N.  Pedersen,  Assigned  to  A.  Brock,  Jr.         088 

A  Mounting  for  holding  a  camera  in  a  vertical  position  on  an  aeroplane.  The 
camera  is  mounted  in  gimbals,  the  oscillations  of  which  are  dampen^  ^^^hpots. 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  81 


1220245  C.  H.  Little        /7l 

A  Dmfdng  Material  deogned  to  replace  tlie  ordinary  traeing  cloth.  It  comprises 
a  sheet  of  paper  or  tracing  cloth ,  upon  which  is  a  layer  of  kaolin  and  glue.  Above 
this  18  a  coating  of  dark  brown  pigment  and  glue.  If  necessary,  tlte  reverse  side  of 
the  paper  may  be  given  a  waterproof  ooating.  In  use,  lines  are  cut  through  the 
upper  coatingH  by  a  stylus  and  the  drawing  so  made  constitutes  a  negative  for  blue 
printing. 

1221825  J.  £.  Brandenberger,  Asaigned  to  I^  Society  dite        123 

**I^  Cellophane" 
A  Photographic  Film  comprising  a  sensitive  layer  eantlwiohed  in  between  two 
protecting  layers,  at  least  one  of  which  is  constructed  of  cellulose  and  is  both  trans- 
parent and  permeable  to  liquids.^ 

1221301  W.  F.  Poltner,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2181 

A  Reflecting  Camera  which  is  provided  whh  a  safety  curtain  for  protecting  the 
plale  except  when  the  mirror  is  in  its  raised  position  where  it  seals  the  focusing 
apertoie.  The  shaft  of  the  mirror  carries  a  segment  which  en^iges  a  gear  upon  th« 
winding  roller  of  the  safety  curtain. 

1222310  M.  Lichtman        2132 

A  Photographic  Camera  of  a  relatively  simple  type.  In  the  rear  of  the  exposure 
chamber  are  vertical  guides  into  which  the  plate  to  be  exposed  is  slid  from  a  bag-like 
plate  holder. 

1221558  H.  B.  Meredith        2152 

A  Qnick  Winding  Mechanism  for  roll  film  cameras  operated  by  a  spring  motor. 
When  the  shutter  release  is  actuated,  it  first  makes  the  exposure  and  second  releases 
^  motor  to  wind  up  a  fresh  section  of  flhn.  Hie  arrangement  is  such  fhat  when 
^  initial  lead  ^rip  of  black  paper  is  being  wound  up  during  the  loadii^  of  the 
camera,  the  spring  motor  will  be  automatically  put  under  tension. 

1221847  A.  B.  Elmstrom  and  J.  A.  McDonald        2152 

A  Device  for  preventing  doubte  exposure  in  roll  film  cameras,  the  film  being  of  a 
special  type  which  has  a  series  of  perforations  along  one  edge  and  slots  between  the 
^'^^^^ve  exposure  areas.  When  an  exposure  is  made  the  shutter  lever  is  locked 
*?*infit  further  actuation  until  the  winding  of  a  fresh  section  of  film  releases  the  lock. 
^6  perforations  are  engaged  by  a  gear  connected  with  the  unlocking  device. 

1228858  J.  A.  Desjardins  and  C.  T.  Desjardins        2152 

A  Koll  Film  Camera  provided  with  an  arrangement  to  prevent  double  exposure. 
After  the  shutter  lever  is  pressed  to  make  an  exposure  it  is  maintained  in  an  inoper- 
^^ve  position  until  a  fresh  section  of  film  is  wound  up,  the  winding  of  the  film  acting 
throngh  a  glide  and  cord  to  release  the  shutter  lever  for  further  actuation. 

1222531  S.  C.  Cooper        2153 

An  Attachment  for  Roll  Film  Cameras  to  enable  titles  or  other  data  to  be  printed 
upon  the  film.  It  consists  of  a  shell  which  slips  over  tlie  camera  body  and  contains 
*  ^b  of  paper  on  which  the  writing  is  done  through  one  window.  It  is  then  moved 
^"^'  a  second  window,  where  tlie  writing  is  printed  through  an  opening  in  the 
^^^J*  hack  onto  the  film.  ^  t 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1222596  G.  C.  Beidler  2172 
A  Combined  Camera  and  Developing  Apparatus  of  the  type  in  which  ttie  photo- 
graphs are  taken  npon  a  band  of  paper  f^  from  a  roll  through  an  exposure  ebamho- 
Into  a  developing  tank  and  thence  to  a  fixmg  tank.  A  special  device  is  provided  for 
submerging  the  paper  beneath  the  fixing  bath. 

1222597  G.  C.  Beidler        2172 
A  Copying  Camera  and  Developing  Device  for  paper  in  which  the  latter  is  fed 

from  a  roll  through  the  exposure  chamber  and  into  a  vertical  developing  tank.  From 
thence  the  developed  paper  is  drawn  horizontally  into  a  fixing  bath,  the  developed 
portion  being  severed  in  conjunction  with  such  horizontal  mov^nent. 

1224686  A.  Frisch,  Assigned  to  A.  Frisch  &  Co.        219 

A  Meter  Reading  Camera  in  which  the  month,  day  and  hour  are  photographically 
recorded  simultaneously  with  the  meter  reading. 

1221418  E.  L.  Clark,  Aseigned  to  National  Carbon  Go.        2231 

An  Incandescent  Light  for  Projection  Apparatut.  The  int^-ior  of  the  globe  is 
silvered  almost  entirely  except  for  a  small  transparent  window  in  one  side,  the  sin 
of  which  is  equal  to  the  area  of  the  plate  or  film  to  be  projected.  By  thtis  providing 
a  small  exit  for  nearly  all  of  the  reflected  light  a  nine-fold  intensity  is  alleged  to  be 
produced. 

1222766  W.C.  Huebner,  Assigned  to  Huebner  Bleistein  Patents  Co.  2321 
A  Lighting  iSystem  for  automatically  varying  the  period  of  photographic  exposure 
in  accordance  with  variations  in  the  intensity  of  the  light  due  to  fluctuation  in  the 
lighting  current,  86  as  to  give  a  definite  ultimate  amount  of  light  energy.  The 
mechanism  Includes  an  electric  lamp  and  an  ekctric  motor^  the  speed  of  w)iich  varies 
with  changes  in  the  lamp  current,  a  controlling  device  being  driven  by  the  motor  and 
being  set  initially  for  the  required  exposure. 

1223214  F.  L.  Stober        241 

A  Printing  Machine  comprising  a  box  carrying  a  pivoted  printing  frame  in  its 
top  and  having  one  light  mounted  within  it  and  another  placed  above  it.  When  the 
frame  is  turned  face  inwardly,  the  inner  lamp  is  automatically  operated  and  when 
the  frame  is  turned  upwardly,  the  outer  lamp  is  automatically  turned  oa.  A  clock 
miechaniflin  serves  to  turn  off  the  lamps  after  a  predetermined  interval. 

1223057  L.  F.  Libby        251 

A  Plate  Holder  or  Back  for  use  in  developing.  It  comprises  a  frame  made, out  of 
spring  wire  and  bearing  three  hooks  which  can  be  easily  sprung  apart  when  inserting 
a  plate. 

1222654  S.  A.  Mischansky,  Assigned  i  to  S.  Lniski        2511 

An  Apparatus  for  developing  roll  film  in  daylight.  It  includes  a  box  having  a 
fixing  chamber  at  one  end  and  a  developing  chamber  at  the  other,  the  two  chambers 
being  connected  by  a  narrow  slot  or  passage.  Spaced  rubber  tapes  are  mounted  to  be 
wound  from  a  reel  in  the  fixing  tank  to  a  reel  in  the  developing  tank  and  vice  versa. 
The  film  spool  is  placed  in  a  special  box  and  the  film  end  attached  to  the  tapes, 
whereupon  when  the  tapes  are  wound  up  in  the  developing  box,  the  film  will  be  coiled 
up  with  its  convolutions  spaced  apart  by  the  tapes.  After  developing,  the  rear  end 
of  the  film  is  attoched  to  the  tapes  and  the  latter  wound  into  the  fixing  chamber^  thus 
carrying  the  film  into  the  fixing  bath.  A  slot  is  provided  for  the  removal  of  the  pro- 
tecting paper  prior  to  development.  ^->.  j 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  8S 

1223807  R.  B.  Leavitt        2626 

AShntter  Actuating  Mechaniam  for  enabling  the  operator  to  include  himself  in 
the  picture.    It  is  driven  by  clock-work  and  actuates  the  pneumatic  release  of  the 

shutter. 

1220957  N.  B.  Conway        269 

A  Carrying  Cilse  for  both  a  roll  llhn  camera  and  reserve  spools  of  film.  It  con- 
fiistB  of  an  extra  long  ease  divided  by  a  transverse  strap  into  an  upper  compartment 
for  the  camera  and  a  lower  compartment  for  the  film.  Access  is  had  to  the  lower 
compartment  through  a  side  flap. 

1220354  E.  N.  Lodge        288 

A  Photographie  Mount  having  embossed  pockets  integrally  formed  at  each  of  the 
comers  thereof  so  that  the  comers  of  the  print  can  be  slipped  therein. 

1223332  C.  E.  Akeley,  Assigned  to  Akeley  Camera,  Inc.         3104 

A  Film  Box  for  Motion  I^icture  Cameras  particularly  designed  for  use  with  Mr. 
Akeley's  recently  developed  camera.  It  includes  two  telescoping  sections  adapted  to 
be  adjusted  to  open,  and  close  the  film  aperture  and  it  also  contains  details  relating 
to  the  rotation  of  the  film  spool. 

1223341  C.  Kessi^s        319 

A  Motion  Pictun*  Camera  intended  to  take  pictures  upon  a  continuously  moving 
tmperforated  film  strip.  The  latter  is  driven  by  a  set  of  rollers  and  the  lens,  shutter 
and  exposing  slide  are  all  vertically  movable  in  suitable  timed  relation. 

1220195  S.  Cocanari        3201 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  for  minimizing  the  wear  and  tear  of  the  film.  It 
inchidea  two  narrow  endless  metal  bands  bearing  perforations  which  register  with 
those  of  the  film.  The  teeth  of  the  driving  sprocket  pans  through  the  film  and  engage 
the  perforations  of  the  bands  whereby  the  latter  receive  most  of  the  wear  and  stresses. 

1223147  A.  and  L.  Chronik        3203 

A  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Cameras  in  which  the  sector  disk  is  provided  with 
wpplementary  leaves  which  may  be  moved  to  vary  the  width  of  the  shutter  slit  while 
^  machine  is  running. 

1222506  W.  ().  Worman         3208 

A  Kewinding  Device  for  Motion  picture*  film.  It  is  driven  by  an  electric  motor 
and  provided  with  an  automatic  switch  which  is  opened  to  stop  the  motor  when  the 
flhn  is  rewound. 

1222626  H.  Hess        823 

An  Apparatus  for  synchronizing  a  motion  picture  projector  and  a  phonograph. 
The  two  are  driven  from  a  common  source  of  power  and  the  speed  of  the  projer  s 
automatically  varied  by  means  of  a  specially  calibrated  helical  cam. 

1223447  J.  E.  Thornton,  Assigned  to  J.  Owden  O'Brien        346 

^  Printing  Apparatus  lor  Motion  Picture  Film  of  the  slow  printing  type.  The 
filni  is  carried  around  a  rotary  drum  provided  with  padded  grooves  surrounding  which 
are  cur\'ed  mercury  vapor  lamps. 

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84  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1219712        C.  DeMoos,  Assigned  to  Motion  Picture  Properties  Co.  .      387 
An  Apparatus  for  Cleaning  Motion  Picture  Film.   The  surface  of  the  film  is  wiped 
by  a  wick  saturated  with  alcohol  and  tlien  passed  over  a  set  of  rotary  felt  buffers 
which  dry  and  polish  it. 

1221704  E.  Ducher        887 

A  Wiper  for  Motion  Picture  Film.    Tlie  film  is  drawn  over  two  curved  wiping 
surfaces  arranged  in  zigzag  relation  upon  a  pivoted  arm. 


British  Patents 

B103069-1916  Gartlgruber  (n^e  Assmann)        K048 

Pictures.  The  images  of  stereoscopic  or  non-stereoeoopic  pairs  of  pictures  are 
colored  mechanically,  one  image  being  colored  in  one  color  and  the  other  in  one  or 
more  colors,  so  that  when  viewed  stereoscopically,  the  images  blend  and  appear  as  a 
complete  colored  picture.  The  color  or  one  of  the  colors  of  one  image  may  be  com- 
plementary to  the  color  of  the  other  image. 

(Note.     This  method  is  well  known,  but  does  not  work. ) 

B104162-1916  D.  F.  Comstock        K32 

Optical  Projection  Apparatus.  Apparatus  having  two  or  more  projection  lenses 
for  obtaining  (Hctures  in  register  has  a  transparent  refracting  body  mounted  in  the 
axis  of  one  or  more  of  the  lenses  ho  as  to  be  capable  of  angular  movement  to  displace 
the  virtual  position  of  the  <ibject  of  which  the  image  is  to  be  projected. 

B16201-1915  C.  W.  R.  Campbell  and  F.  G.  A.  Roberts        K322 

Color  Cinematography.  The  invention  is  broadly  similar  to  that  of  Specificadon 
No.  16,200,  1915,  but  includes  also  means  for  using  color  filters  in  conjunction  with 
the  small  lenses,  and  so  adapting  the  system  for  the  taking  (and  projection)  of 
animated  photographs  in  colors. 

B103890-191G  J.  H.  Christensen        K/44 

Photomechanical  Printing  Surfaces;  Color  Photography;  Toning  and  After- 
Treatment.  Porous  silver-sensitize*!  films  are  treated,  after  exposure  and  develop- 
ment, with  substances  which  react  with  the  unahered  silver  compounds  to  produce  a 
substance  capable  of  tilling  the  i)ore8  of  the  film;  the  resulting  film,  which  varies  in 
porosity  in  pro|)ortion  to  the  light  action,  may  l)e  used  to  produce  pictures  or  photo- 
mechanical prmtiiig  surfaces.  The  sensitive  film  may  be  a  dry  collodio-silver- 
bromide  film  rendered  porous  by  the  presence  of  glycerine,  benzoic  ackU  pyro- 
catechin,  or  other  soluble  substance,  or  a  gelatine  film,  and  may  be  treated  with 
solutions  of  alkaline  sulphides  containing  an  excess  of  sulphur,  sniphostannates, 
tichlippe's  salts,  or  similar  substances  which  readily  give  off  sulphur,  or  iodides  or 
sulphocyanides.  The  sulphur  compounds  may  be  mixed  with  a  solvent  for  silver 
salts  such  as  a  sulphocyanide,  with  broiuides  or  bichromates  to  increase  the  pore- 
filling  efi*ect,  or  with  iodides  or  banic  reacting  substances  to  reduce  it.  Printing  plates 
for  producing  color  photographs  from  separate  color  record  or  multicolor  screen 
negatives  may  l)e  prepared  witli  colloid  films  containing  dyes  upon  which  coHodio- 
silver-brouiide  films  are  dejMwited.  After  development  and  treatment,  the  plates  are 
used  to  print  superposed  color  images  im  paper  or  transparent  film  by  means  of  the 
dyes  contained  in  them.  Alternatively,  the  plates  may  be  inhially  free  from  dye 
and  be  soaked  in  dye  previous  to  being  used  for  printing.  Correct  register  in  the 
production  of  prints  from  nuilricolor-screen  natives  may  be  obtained  by  placing  the 
printing  plates  in  frames  having  holes  into  whiih  project  pins  on  frames  contaming 
the  negatives  and  the  material  to  be  printed  on.  The  films  may  1k»  used  as  etching 
resists  in  the  production  of  photomechanical  printing  surfaces.  Specification  26419/13 
is  referred  to.  r^  1 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  86 

B17657-1915  S.  T.  Coulson        2181 

Lamps,  Projecting  Lanterns,  etc.  An  approximately  ellipsoidal  lamp  reflector 
has  the  form  traced  out  by  the  revolution  of  part  of  an  ellipse  about  a  line  near  to, 
and  parallel  or  slightly  inclined  to,  the  major  axis.  The  reflector  may  be  used  in 
coDJiinction  with  a  converging  lens  beyond  the  second  focus,  at  a  distance  equal  to 
the  local  Ittigth  of  the  lens,  or  a  diverging  lens  between  the  foci.  Such  arrangements 
may  be  employed  in  optical  lanterns,  cinematographs,  and  motor  vehicle  and  like 
lampe.  An  additional  reflector  of  parabolic  or  elUpeoidal  form  may  be  employed, 
for  instance  in  search  lights  and  signalling  lamps,  and  also  in  optical  lanterns  and 
dnematographs,  in  which  case  the  second  reflector  is  ellipsoidal  and  the  lens  and  the 
second  reflector  are  arranged  to  bring  the  light  to  a  focus  at  the  same  point. 

B100363-1915  Neff  &  Lumley,  Inc.         241-253 

Automatic  Printing  Machines.  The  invention  consists  of  a  machine  of  elaborate 
oonsftmction,  in  which  fluid  pressure,  under  electric  or  other  motive  power,  is  em- 
ployed to  control  the  time  of  exposure,  and  at  the  same  time  to  effect  the  removal  of 
the  exposed  paper  and  its  replacement  by  a  fresh  section.  The  apparatus  couHists  in 
principle  of  a  large  pair  of  reels,  from  one  of  which  (on  to  the  other)  the  sensitive 
paper  is  wound.  In  printing,  the  negative  lies  on  a  bed  placed  between  the  reels, 
the  dweU  ol  the  paper  against  it  and  the  maintenance  of  electrical  circuit  through  a 
series  of  lamps  being  timed  by  the  operation  of  a  water-fllled  extensible  chamber.  In 
enlaiging,  the  n^^ative  is  retraced  by  clear  glass,  and  the  apparatus  then  used  as 
an  enlarging  easel. 

B102613-1916  B.  J.  Hall        281 

Trimming  Prints.  The  invention  relates  to  tlie  hinged  desk  pattern  of  trimmer. 
The  desk  is  fitted  with  mechanism,  by  which  the  upper  blade  is  drawn  down  and  the 
card,  etc.,  clamped,  whilst,  at  the  same  time,  the  table  is  held  rigid  until  the  trim- 
ming operation  bains'. 

B102363-1916  R.  W.  James  for  Film  Fire  Prevention  and        3209 

Motion  Picture  Equipment  Corp. 
Cinematograph  Mechanism.  A  safety  shutter  for*  fire  prevention  based  on  the 
passage  of  the  film  band  in  contact  with  a  roller  which  is  mounted  on  the  end  of  a 
pivoted  bar.  The  latter  is  kept  at  a  high  angle  as  long  as  the  film  is  being  properly 
fed,  bat  on  the  film  breaking  or  becoming  slack  the  bar  falls,  and  thereby  permits  a 
rfiutter  to  descend,  cutting  ofiT  rays  from  the  light  source. 

B16200-1916  C.  W.  Campbell  and  F.  G.  A.  Roberts        322 

Cinematography.  The  invention  consists  of  a  system  for  a  cinematograph 
camera  or  projector,  in  which  the  film  moves  continuously.  Immediately  in  front  of 
the  gate  is  placed  a  large  positive  lens,  whilst  somewhat  in  front  of  this  latter  is 
moonted  an  endless  chain  of  small  positive  lenses.  This  series  of  lenses  is  geared  to 
the  film  movement  mechanism  in  such  a  way  that  each  picture  image  remains  station- 
ary on  a  given  secticMi  of  film  as  the  film-band  and  lens-chain  are  rotated. 

B16202-1915  C.  W.  R.  Campbell  and  F.  G.  A.  Roberts        322 

Cinematography.  The  invention  relates  to  Nos.  16200  and  16201  of  1915,  in 
particular  as  regards  the  provision  in  front  of  the  rotating  endlet^  band  of  lenses  of 
an  optical  system  the  flat  image  formed  by  which  is  reproduced  by  one  of  the  com- 
ponent lenses  of  the  rotating  lens  band.  This  is  when  the  subject  is  being  photo- 
graphed on  to  the  film.  In  projection  the  image  formed  by  the  moving  lens  is  pro- 
jetted  onto  »  screen  by  the  optical  eyatem.  ^.^.^.^^^  ^^  GoOglc 


8ft  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

French  Patents 

20114,  addition  to  479138-1916  C.  Nieto        1697 

Photographic  and  Like  Plates.  An  adhesive  paste  is  made,  in  the  cold,  of  water 
1000  g. ,  white  pulverized  gum  lac  650  g. ,  pulverized  borax  80  g. ,  crystallized  sodfum 
carbonate  20  g.  A  liquid  adhesive  is  made,  in  the  cold,  of  water  1000  g. ,  white  pul- 
verized gum  lac  400  g.,  borax  60  g.,  crystailiaed  sodium  carbonate  20  g.,  neutral 
lycerol  50  g.  In  the  adhesive  cream  the  wliite  pulverized  gum  lac  may  bi  replaced 
red  or  orange  gum  lac  in  scales.     (Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1094). 


German  Patents 

DRP292193-1914,  add  to  290872    H.Arnold  and  M.  I^vy-Dom         CX116 

Photographic  Plates  Especially  Sensitive  to  Roentgen  Rays  from  Radio- Active 
Substances.  In  carrying  out  the  princii)al  process^  some  of  the  additions  made  to  the 
emulsion,  e.  g.,  coUoidal  selenium  solution,  have  been  found  to  produce  a  veil  effect 
in  the  picture.  To  overcx>me  this  objection,  two  large  layers  are  jwured  on  the  glass 
plate,  of  which  one  contains  the  emulsion  with  the  addition,  while  tlie  second  con- 
sists of  the  usual  emulsion  for  photographic  plates.     (Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1095). 

DRP292852-1914  A.  Spitzer  and  L.  Wilhelm        J84     1666 

Previous  attempts  to  substitute  in  toning  photographic  positive  copies  teWurjinn 
chloride  solutions  for  the  usual  gold  chloride  solutions  have  been  unsuccessfol  sinoe 
tellurium  chloride  solutions  are  stable  only  in  the  presence  of  excess  acid,  and  there- 
fore tone  slowly.  Later  investigations  have  shown  that  a  rapid  and  certain  toning 
of  prints  with  sodium  tellurite  or  tellurate,  or  the  free  acids  or  their  (ximpoandB  can 
be  effected  in  the  presence  of  sodium  thiosulphate  or  ammonium  tliiosulphate  in  the 
toning-fixing  bath.  £.  g.,  prints  were  toned  in  a  toning-fixing  bath  of  the  com- 
position 50  cc.  of  a  10%  sodium  thiosulphate  solution »  1  oc.>  of  a  9%  solution  of 
sodium  tellurite.  The  toning  was  finished  in  5-10  minute.  Also  an  addition  of  a 
lead  salt  has  been  effective,  e.  g.,  a  bath  of  80  cc.  of  a  4^^  sodium  thiosulphate 
solution,  1  cc.  of  a  10%  solution  of  lead  nitrate,  0.6  cc,  of  a  10%  solution  of  citric 
acid,  0.2  cc.  of  a  5^  solution  of  sodium  tellurite.  Tellurous  acid  dissolved  in  some 
citric  acid  can  be  used  instead  of  sodium  tellurite  or  tellurate,  as  well  as  telluric  acid: 
(Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1095). 

DRP292347-1911  '  B.  Eichtler        K/33 

Polychromatic  Double  Screens.  A  thin  plate  is  coated  on  botli  sides  with 
chromated  gelatine,  previously  colored.     (Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1096). 

DRP291473-1914  G.  Bucky        X421' 

Preventing  Halation  in  Roentgen  Photography.     (Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.'lGtti)^ 

DRP291663-1914  A.  Hansleiter        048 

Producing  etched  ground  on  Transparent  Picture  Plates,  such  as  Glass,  CJelluloid^ 
etc.  By  previous  processes  the  production  of  asphalt  copies  of  larg^  foirns  has  been 
quite  difficult,  since  the  central  portions  float  off  or  do  not  copy  uniformly.  *  By  the 
present  proeeas  the  negative  and  the  copy  are  made  on  the  same  plate.  •  The  pictorcr 
printed  from  a  line  or  halftone  negative,  is  developed  by  a  tanning  developer  sLod  the 
untanned  portions  are  washed  off  with  hot  water.  The  gelatine  is  then  dyed  with  a 
dyestuff  which  doea  not  permit  hght  to  act  on  the  asphalt,  which  is  particidarl^ 
necessary  when  the  silver  deposit  is  not  very  tliick.  Preferably,  a  dye  is  formed 
directly  m  the  gelatine  picture,  since  asphalt  is  sensitive  to  the  entire  visible  spectrum. 
The  plate  is  then  coated  on  the  picture  side  with  light-s^isitive  asphalt^  and  exposed 
from  the  back.  The  asphalt  is  thereby  rendered  Lneoluble  where  it  is  not  coverad  by 
the  ^latine.  The  asphalt  picture  is  then  developed  in  the  usual  manner,  the  S^\ 
tine  18  removed  by  a  solvent,  and  an  easily  etched  positive  asphalt  picture  is  obtamea. 
A  10%  hot  potash  lye  is  used  as  solvent,  or  the  plate  is  etchea  at  once.  (C3ietti> 
Absts.,  1917,  p.  1095).  'r^n^r-^rrT^' ' 

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Monthly       I  ' 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


July,  1917 


Issued  hy  the  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  B3DDAK  CCMPANY 

Rochester.  Nev^'York 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  87 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 

Vol.  3.  No.  5 

July,  1917 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


88  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Erratum 

In  the  Abstract  Bulletin  for  June,  page  67,  line  18,  for  stripping  read  striping. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Photography 


Effects  of  Additions  to  Gelatine  Emulsions  Bll 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  274 

This  article  is  the  commencement  of  a  translation  of  the  section  dealing  with  the 
sabject  from  Eder's  Handbook  of  Photography. 

Color  Sensitizing  A.  S.  Cory        C114         1681 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  June,  1917,  pp.  3642,  3812,  3968 

A  review  of  the  literatare  concerning  the- production  of  color  sensitive  ^nulsions 
by  means  of  dyestuffs. 

New  Shapes  and  Sizes  of  Plates  W.  S.  Coles  F2        2651 

and  Photographs 

B.  J.,  1917,  pp.  254,  257 

A  correspondent  protests  against  the  7x11  plate  recently  introduced  by  Kodak 
Ltd. ,  on  the  ground  that  it  will  necessitate  a  new  set  of  apparatus.  The  editors  think 
the  new  7  x  11  size  a  desirable  one,  and  point  out  that  plates  of  this  size  would  fit  in 
a  10  X  12  ou^t  with  new  kits. 

The  Trade  Finishing  Business  of  B.  Matthews,  G-J 

Bradford,  England 

Phot.  Dealer,  1917,  p.  162 

A  very  full  article  describing  the  business  organization  and  method  of  handling 
of  this  finishing  business,  which  develops  about  1000  plates  a  day  and  prints  upwards 
of  30,000  post  cards.  The  plates  are  developed  in  tanks  by  a  special  system  en- 
abling very  uniform  negatives  to  be  obtained  and  are  dried  on  the  machine,  after 
which  they  are  printed  on  automatic  printers  which,  after  the  negative  has  been  put 
in  place  and  the  exposure  fixed,  make  24  bromide  prints  on  one  sheet  of  paper,  all 
the  woiiL  being  carried  through  on  big  sheets.  A  print  drying  machine  is  in  con- 
struction .which  will  deliver  the  prints  dried  continuously.  The  ingenious  scheme  is 
to  carry  the  chemicals  required  for  making  up  solutions  on  a  stand  somewhat  like  a 
revolving  bookcase,  thus  making  it  easy  to  find  any  chemical.  Arrangements  are 
made  by  which  the  photographer  can  obtain  prints  mailed'  the  same  day  on  which 
the  plates  are  received,  all  the  business  being  done  for  cash.  (This  article  should  be 
read  by  everybody  interested  in  trade  finishing. ) 

Scientific  Washing  of  Negatives  and  Prints  A.  W.  Warwick        G-7 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  261 
Amer.  Phot.,  1917,  p.  317 

The  author  covers  the  same  ground  as  that  dealt  with  by  A.  V.  Elsden  (Of.  this 
Bulletin^  May,  1917,  p.  49)  but  has  used  film  negatives  instead  of  fixed  plates.  He  con- 
cludes that  for  safety  the  film  or  paper  should  be  washed  until  the  original  amount  of 
hjrpo  is  reduced  to  1/60,000.  Washing  with  five  minute  soaks,  using  water  equal  to  ten 
times  the  volume  of  the  film,  that  is,  about  3>^  oz.  for  a  2^  x3^  film  pack  negative,  he 
findfi  six  changes  of  water  required ;  washing  in  running  water  about  35  minutes  in  a 
tank  washer  will  eliminate  the  hypo.  For  printing  papers  longer  washing  is  required 
owing  to  the  absorption  of  the  paper,  nine  changes  of  five  minutes  eaei>ot^^ii^l{o^r 


y 


V 


90  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

and  a  quarter  in  a  tank  washer,  reduoing  the  hypo  to  the  proportion  given.  He 
points  out  that  NC  film  coated  with  gelatine  on  both  sid^  retains  at  least  twice  as 
much  hypo  as  plates  and  therefore  requires  somewhat  longer  washing. 

Making  Duplicate  Negatives  G9 

Mot.  Pict.  World,  June,  1917,  p.  1438 

Choosing  a  Printing  Paper  C.  E.  K.  Mees        J 

Camera,         1917,  p.  295 

Making  Sepia  Toned  Prints  C.  E.  K.  Mees        J84 

Kodakery,  June,  1917,  p.  20 

Influence  of  Potassium  Bromide  in  the  Developer  N.  C.  Deck        J84 

on  Sulphide  Toning  of  Bromide  Prints  * 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  280 

Writer  advocates  highly  restrained  amidol  as  developer  for  prints  to  be  toned 
sepia.  Tables  give  the  resulting  colors  with  different  development  times  with  both 
restrained  and  unrestrained  developer.  Prolonged  development  with  restrained 
amidol  gives  cold  sepia  tones. 

Antimony  Toning  of  Development  Pictures  L.  Strasser         J84 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1606 

By  treating  a  bleached  silver  with  0.5^  soln.  of  Schlippe's  salt  a  stable  red-brown 
tone  is  obtained  without  change  of  gradation.  Simultaneous  or  subsequent  sulfide 
toning  gives  a  colder  brown  tone. 

Note— This  is  incorrectly  described  as  Antimony  toning.  The  toning  action  Is  chiefly  due  to  the 
sulfur. 

The  Photographic  Rendering  of  Tone  Values  C.  E.  K.  Mees        01 

Studio  Light,  May,  1917,  p.  6 

The  first  of  a  series  of  articles,  describing  the  mechanism  of  reproducing  on  paper, 
glass,  etc. ,  the  dififerent  degrees  of  brightness  of  the  light  and  shaded  portions  of  the 
object  to  be  photographed.  This  reproduction  of  tone  values  constitutes  the  photo- 
graphic process ;  and  the  author  proposes  to  deal  with  such  matters  as  the  lighting  of 
the  subject,  the  translation  of  the  tone  of  the  subject  in  making  the  negative,  the 
effect  of  exposure  and  development,  the  scale  of  the  printing  paper,  and  the  transla- 
tion of  the  scale  of  the  negative  into  the  scale  of  the  print. 

Pulverization  and  Light-Ripening  H.  Liippo-Cramer        012 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1370 

The  silver  iodide  or  bromide  film  produced  by  fuming  a  silver  mirror  with  iodine 
or  bromine  vapor  appears  practically  homogeneous  in  the  microscope.  Longer  treat- 
ment with  iodine  vapor  renders  it  duller,  but  less  so  than  when  exposed  to  light  No 
visible  image  is  produced  by  light  if  the  silver  iodide  be  freed  from  excess  I ;  it  re- 
mains latent  and  can  be  made  visible  by  treatment  with  iodine  vapor.  Two  ^ta 
may  be  inferred  from  this  mechanically  formed  image,  pulverization  and  light- 
ripening;  the  pulverized  iodine  acts  in  the  ripening  as  a  solvent  for  the-«ilver  iodide. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  91 


A  Modification  of  Martens'  Density  E.  Goldberg        016 

Meter     (Polarization  Photometer) 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1607 

The  usual  powerful  lamp  is  dispensed  with,  and  a  small  incandescent  lamp  is 
inserted  under  the  photometer  table  in  place  of  the  reflecting  prism ;  the  opal  glass  at 
the  end  of  the  illumination  tube  is  replaced  by  white  paper.  An  even  and  mach 
stronger  illumination  of  the  negative  is  produced,  and  densities  as  high  as  3  can  be 
read  easily. 


Colloid  Chemistry  and  Photography  Liippo-Cramer        017 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1606 

The  author  finds  that  reduction  of  silver  bromide  or  silver  nitrate  in  gelatine  is 
accelerated  by  the  addition  of  a  basic  dye  and  that  the  silver  produced  is  less  finely 
subdivided ;  for  example,  if  silver  nitrate  solution  in  gelatine  be  treated  with  hydro- 
chinon  developer  a  reddish  yellow  or  brown  silver  stain  is  produced,  but  the  addition 
of  a  small  amount  of  pinachrome  solution  gives  a  finely  divided  black  silver  precipi- 
tate. The  dyes  tried  were  chiefly  the  isocyanin  dyes  used  for  sensitizing,  though  a 
similar  effect  was  found  with  rhodamine  and  methyl  violet.  The  acid  dyes  and  some 
basic  dyes  tried  do  not  produce  the  effect. 


How  to  Make  Good  Negatives  02 

Kodakery,  June,  1917,  p.  24 

Assuming  that  the  amateur  uses  the  tank  method  of  development,  it  is  recom- 
mended for  average  work  to  keep  the  shutter  speed  constant  at  1/25  of  a  second  and 
vary  the  lens  aperture  according  to  the  nature  of  the  subject  being  photographed,  and 
the  weather  conditions.  Although  the  table  of  exposuns  given  is  only  approximate, 
the  latitude  of  the  Eastman  film  will  take  care  of  any  errors  involved. 

Some  Less  Common  Defects  in  Negatives  J.  N.  Robertson         041 

and  Their  Prevention  * 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  244 

Statement  of  defects  found  in  Course  of  some  years'  experience  and  noted  down  at 
the  time  by  a  practical  worker.  With  films,  reversal  of  the  image  is  a8cribe<l  to  un- 
safe dark  room  light.  Bad  dast  marks  are  due  to  the  stirring  up  of  the  dust  in 
closing  and  opening  the  camera,  and  a  warning  is  given  that  the  inside  of  the  bellows 
should  be  wiped.  With  destruction  plates  of  the  film  is  ascribcnl  to  the  use  of  an  alum 
bath  between  developing  and  fixing ;  irregular  clear  patches  to  the  presence  of  some 
dark  colored  object  in  front  of  the  lens;  small  patches  of  fog.  to  contamination  of  the 
fingers  with  hypo  before  or  during  development.  Also,  finger  marks  on  the  back  of 
of  glass  can  transfer  themselves  onto  another  plate  laid  against  the  marked  glars. 
light  and  dark  bands  are  due  to  several  causes;  light  coming  at  a  very  oblique 
angle  through  the  shutter  leaves  is  one  cause.  Another  is  leaving  a  plate  containing 
hypo  partly  exposed  to  the  air,  as,  for  instance,  in  a  washing  tank,  where  it  is  not 
fully  covered  by  the  water.  It  is  stated  that  minute  white  spots  may  be  produced  by  dust 
on  the  plate  combined  with  fog  due  to  light  leaking  onto  the  plate  from  some  other 
point  near  the  surface  of  the  film,  thus  giving  a  shadow  of  the  dust  spot.    f^^^^T^ 

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92  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Halation  on  Photographic  Plates  E.  Goldberg        041 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1607 

iDstead  of  measuring  the  exposure  necessarj  to  produce  a  definite  ring  or  halo 
around  a  point  or  line  of  light,  G.  measures  the  fog  produced  on  a  protected  part  of 
the  plate  surrounded  by  exposed  areas.  To  avoid  the  necessities  of  exact  exposures,  a 
simultaneous  exposure  on  the  same  plate  is  made  through  a  photographic  wedge,  and 
the  wedge  image  compared  with  the  other  parts  of  the  piate.  A  comparative  table  of 
antihalation  plates  and  methods  shows  that  the  most  efi*ective  is  a  red  backing  between 
the  film  and  the  support. 

Enlargements  on  Concave  or  Flat  Glass  **Chemi8t''        046/64 

Surfaces 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  253 
Gives  collodion  emulsion  formula  suitable  for  this  class  of  work. 

Photographing  Panoramas  061 

Kodakery,  June,  1917,  p.  15 
A  description  of  the  panoramic  Kodak  and  Circuit  camera. 

The  Flashlight  in  Photography  0581 

Kodakery,  June,  1917,  p.  12 

An  illustrated  article,  showing  by  means  of  prints  from  motion  picture  film  the 
different  stages  of  an  eye  wink  caused  by  igniting  a  charge  of  fiashpowder,  as  when 
taking  a  flashlight.  From  the  photographs  it  is  seen  that  the  reflex  action  of  the  eye 
occurs  about  1/12  of  a  second  after  the  flash,  so  that  a  flashpowder  should  have  a 
speed  not  slower  than  1/12  of  a  second.  By  means  of  flashlight  photographs  taken  in 
the  dark  and  in  daylight,  the  cause  of  the  ^'flashlight  stare"  is  explained, as  being  due 
to  an  abnormal  dilation  of  the  eye  pupil.  Flashlight  portraits  should  therefore  be 
taken  with  a  fairly  strong  light  directed  towards  the  eyes  so  that  the  degree  of  dilation 
of  the  pupils  will  be  normal. 

Fire  Prevention  in  Motion  Picture  Studios  061 

Mot.  Pict.  World,  May,  1917,  p.  1283 

Difficulties  Commonly  Met  With  in  Negative  Fihn  0632 

Development 

Mot.  Pict.  World,  June,  1917,  p.  1782 

Coloring  Film  Images  with  Basic  Dyes  A.  S.  Cory        0645 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  June,  1917,  p.  3488 

Instructions  for  working  the  Traabe  process  of  producing  monochrome  dye  images 
by  means  of  a  mordant  image  of  silver  iodide. 


The  Safe  Storage  of  Fihn  065 

Motography,  May,  1917,  p.  1091 
An  editorial  based  on  the  booklet  on  the  subject,  published  by  the-€om^ 

Digitized  by' 


he-€ompanf. 

/Google 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Something  New  in  Film  Printing  A.  8.  Cory        068 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  May,  1917,  p.  3333 

A  description  of  a  process  by  A.  Harte  and  F.  Taglang  for  obtaining  stereoscopic 
effects  from  ordinary  cine  negative  film  photographed  in  the  usual  way  through  one 
lens,  by  printing  the  same  (apparently  by  projection)  and  interposing  a  line  screen 
over  the  positive  film.  It  is  stated  that  only  n^atives  of  crisp  definition  and  strong 
contrast  will  give  prints  with  any  suggestion  of  relief.  (The  process  appears  to  be  an 
attempt  to  apply  the  Ives  method  of  producing  parallax  stereograms  to  the  production 
of  stereoscopic  motion  pictures. ) 

The  Oil-Transfer  Process  F.  T.  Coupland  /SO 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  164 

The  author  describes  his  own  method  of  working  this  process.  He  uses  the 
double  transfer  paper  made  for  the  carbon  process,  which  is  sensitized  with  bichro- 
mate and  printed  under  the  negative,  printing  being  very  rapid.  After  washing  and 
inking  up  the  image  can  be  transferred  in  an  ordinary  copying  press. 

Dyes  as  Sensitizers  of  Carbon  Tissue  J.  C.  Warburg         •/9         •/82 

and  Gum  Paper 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  169 

A  description  of  the  author's  experiences  in  sensitizing  gelatine  and  gum  paper 
with  erythrosin  according  to  the  method  described  by  Dr.  A.  A.  Meisling,  of  which  a 
translation  recently  appeared  (B.  J.,  1917,  p.  96). 

A  Bathing  Process  for  Lippmann  R.  E.  Liesegang         119         K/1 

Plates 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1370 

Silver  bromide  of  the  necessary  fineness  for  this  process  can  be  obtained  in  the 
bathing  operation  only  if  the  silver  nitrate  entering  the  potassium  bromide  gelatine 
film  has  a  higher  concentration  than  the  potassium  bromide.  Otherwise  only  coarse- 
grained silver  bromide  is  produced  at  the  edge. 

An  Enlarging  Lantern  (continued)  2104 

Amer.  Phot.,  1917,  p.  373 
Gives  detailed  instructions  for  making  camera  bellows. 

Photographic  Print  Washing  Machine  H.  Marcelle        257 

Camera,  1917,  p.  308 

The  water  supply  passes  over  an  overshot  waterwheel  which  through  a  crank  arm 
gives  a  rocking  motion  to  the  washing  tray. 

A  Simple  Plate  Draining  Rack  H.  F.  Hudson        258 

Phot.  Focus,  May  2,  1917,  p.  304 

The  rack  consists  of  three  upright  posts  on  a  baseboard.  One  of  the  posts  has 
notches  cut  in  it  on  the  side  facing  the  other  two.  The  distance  between  the  posts 
is  such  as  to  make  the  plates  rest  at  an  angle  of  about  45°.    The  plates  are  dried  film 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


94  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

An  Instrument  for  Direct  and  Rapid  C.  Welborne  Piper        263 

Measurement  of  F  Number  (Angular) 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  272 

Mr.  Piper  explains  the  difference  between  the  effective  aperture  and  the  angular 
aperture  very  clearly  and  shows  how  the  whole  can  be  measured  by  simple  apparatus 
and  without  a  determination  of  the  focal  length.  The  article  also  illustrates  another 
simple  instrument  for  measuring  the  diameter  of  the  effective  aperture. 

Theory  and  Teehnic  of  Examination  of  G.  V.  Potapenko        266 

Filmiform  Light  Filters 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917^  p.  1606 

An  exhaustive  discussion  of  the  curves  of  selective  absorption  of  light  by  different 
media  and  a  description  of  the  different  methods  commonly  used  for  preparing  light 
filters  (gelatin,  collodion,  etc.)  An  up-to-date  bibliography  quoting  118  papers  is 
given. 

Some  Misconceptions  in  the  Use  of  Light  Filters  2661 

in  Multiple 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  271 

A  review  of  the  article  by  W.  Hood,  published  in  Camera  Craft.  (See  Abstract 
Bulletin^  Jime,  p.  72. )  The  errors  made  by  Mr.  Hood  are  pointed  out  and  some 
suggestions  are  made  as  to  the  cause  of  his  misunderstanding. 

Mr.  C.  F.  Inston,  a  leading  figure  in  English  photographic  life,  died  on 
May  4.      Mr.  Inston  was  a  very  well-known  amateur  photographer 
and  was  a  leading  spirit  in  photographic  societies.      The  last  article 
which  he  wrote  was  recently  published  by  Kodak  Ltd. 
B.  J.,  1917,  p.  248 

On  May  12,  Lieutenant  Commander  Sladen,  chief  officer  of  the  London 
Fire  Brigade  visited  the  Kodak  Fire  Brigade  at  Harrow,  and  accorded 
high  praise  to  their  efficiency. 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  265 

A  Photographic  Bibliograhy  A.  S.  Cory 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  May,  1917,  p.  3332 


Photo-Engraving 

Photo-Engraving  in  War  Time  07 

Photo-Engravers'  Bulletin,  May,  1917,  p.  11 

An  account  of  the  restrictions   upon   photo-engraving  in  England   at  present, 

chiefly  due  to  the  scarcity  of  labor  and  copper.  Oooolp 

igi  ize      y  g 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  95 

Why  Printing  Inks  Fade  J.  H.  Smith 

American  Printer,  May  20,  1917,  p.  8 

Gives  the  conditions  under  which  the  greatest  permanence  may  be  obtained. 


Physics 


/ 


Fluorescence  and  Phosphorescence  and  their  use  F.  H.  Glew,  et  al 

to  produce  Luminous  Effects 

in.  Eng.,  1917,  p.  72 

Thia  discussion  comes  at  a  time  when  intensifying  screens  for  x-ray  photography 
are  of  particular  interest.  •  Many  interesting  points  are  introduced  concerning  the 
production  and  use  of  these  effects.  The  difficulties  of  photometrically  measuring 
lominescent  substances  are  discussed  and  means  suggested  to  overcome  these 
difficulties. 

The  Color  Temperature  of  Illuminating  Gas  Flames  E.  F.  Kingsbury 

J.  Frank.  Inst,  June,  1917,  p.  781 

The  chief  item  of  interest  in  this  paper  is  a  table  giving  the  color  temperature 
values  of  various  types  of  gas  flames. 

Improvement  in  Hot-Wire  Anemometers 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  June,  1917,  p.  783 

The  author  describes  an  automatically  compensated  hot  wire  anemometer  which 
requires  no  correction  for  ambient  temperature.  The  fourth  powers  of  the  current 
supplied  to  the  bridge  for  balance  are  directly  proportional  to  the  wind  velocities. 

A  New  Visibility  Equation  Derived  from  the  Ives  and  P.  D.  Foote 

Kingsbury  New  Luminosity  Equation 

J.  Acad.  Sci.  Wash.,  1917,  p.  317 

A  Survey  of  the  Automobile  Headlight  Situation  W.  F.  Little 

Trans.  I.  E.  S.,  1917,  p.  123 

A  complete  study  both  from  a  scientific  and  practical  standpoint.  The  difficulties 
of  any  complete  solution  of  the  problem  of  eliminating  glare  are  pointed  out.  A 
symposium  is  given  containing  the  views  of  prominent  experts. 

Present  Practice  in  Automobile  Headlighting  S.  C.  Rogers 

Trans.  I.  E.  S.,  1917,  p.  158 
A  presentation  of  the  problem  of  Automobile  Headlighting  similar  to  the  pre- 
«ding«,rve,  by  W.  P.  Little.  Digitized  by  GoOgk 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Emissive  Power  of  Tungsten  E.  O.  Hulburt 

Astrophys.  J.,  1917,  p.  149 
Emissive  power  is  defined  as  the  ratio  of  energy  emitted  to  that  from  a  black  body 
at  the  same  temperature.  The  author,  making  use  of  a  sodium  photo-electric  cell, 
finds  for  tungsten  the  relation  connecting  its  emissive  power  with  its  temperature  and 
the  wave-length,  from  which  the  spectral  energy  distribution  curve  for  tungsten  at 
any  temperature  from  1746°  to  2785°  can  be  calculated. 

Some  Properties  and  Applications  of  Selenium  E.  E.  Foumier  D'Albe 

Jour.  Rontgen  Soc,  1917,  p.  38 
A  popular  lecture.    Some  possible  applications  in  photography  are  mentioned, 
as  the  operation  of  automatic  shutters  in  cameras,  phototel^raphy,  the  recording  and 
reproducing  of  sounds  in  synchronism  with  motion  pictures,  etc. 

A  Spectroscopic  Investigation  of  some  Sources  of  Ultra-         C.  A.  Schunck 
Violet  Radiation  in  Relation  to  Treatment  by  Ultra-Violet  Rays 

Jour.  Rontgen  Soc.,  1917,  p.  25 
Shows  comparative  photographs  on  Wratten  panchromatic  plates  of  arc  and  spark 
spectra  of  metallic  electrodes  of  tungsten,   molybdenum,  iron   and   uranium,  and 
carbon  rods  cored  or  impregnated  with  oxides  of  these  and  other  metals.    Tungsten 
metallic  electrodes  give  the  most  intense  ultra-violet  radiations. 

Contribution  to  the  Study  of  the  L  R.  L.  I^bard  and  A.  Dauvillier 

Series  of  the  Elements  of  High  Atomic  Weight 

Comp.  Rend.,  1917,  p.  687 
The  ^wavelengths  of  nine  lines  of  the  L  series  of  tungsten,  iridium,  platinum  and 
gold  were  measured  and  found  to  follow  the  Moseley  relation. 

The  Focal  Variator  A.  P.  Weiss 

J.  Exper.  Psychology,  1917,  p.  106 
The  apparatus,  as  described  from  three  illustrations,  is  a  system  of  lenses  related 
to  ea<'h  other  in  such  a  way  that  a  visual  stimulus  may  be  projected  on  a  ground 
glass  in  any  degree  of  clearness  and  so  that  the  degree  of  clearness  can  be  accurately 
measured.  The  author  gives  the  following  as  some  of  the  problems  suitable  for  the 
apparatus:  Relative  legibility  of  handwriting,  type  faces  and. forms,  diacritical 
marks,  symbols,  visual  signals  and  the  analysis  of  factors  which  make  the  different 
parts  of  a  visual  complex  (such  as  a  picture)  of  unequal  attentive  or  affective  value. 
This  last  problem  would  be  useful  in  a  research  on  advertising. 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Plastic  Cements  J.  B.  Bamett 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  442 

Brass  World,  1917,  p.  146 

The  nature  and  applications  of  plastic  cements  is  discussed.    The  cements  are 

divided  into  twelve  classes:     1  plaster  of  Paris,  2  hydrauhc  cement,  3  clay,  4  lime,  5 

asphalt  or  pitch,  6  rosin,  7  rubber,  8  linseed  oil,  9  casein  and  albumen,  10  silicate  of 

soda  and  oxychloride  cement,  11  flour  and  starch,  12  miscellaneous.     Formulae  are 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  97 

Some  Puzzling  Equations  with  Which  the  Plater  E.  S.  Thompson 

Must  Contend 

Brass  World,  1917,  p.  139 

A  crude  attempt  to  introduce  electricity,  which  the  author  desigDates  as  **E*' 
into  chemical  equations.  '*E''  is  considered  as  an  etement  with  the  power  of  com- 
bining with  other  elements,  though  it  cannot  be  held  in  such  a  state. 

A  Note  on  Silicon-Coated  Metal  W.  E.  Vawter 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  680 

An  attempt  to  coat  iron  with  an  acid-resisting  coat  of  silicon.  The  experiments 
were  failures. 

New  Alloys  to  Replace  Platinum  F.  A.  Fahrenwald 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  690 

A  series  of  alloys  comprised  of  platinum,  palladium  and  gold  in  varying  amounts. 
Results  given  show  these  alloys  to  be  as  good  as  (in  some  cases  better  than)  platinum. 
Cannot  be  used  for  hot  concentrated  nitric  acid  nor  for  anodes.  The  paper  is  prefaced 
with  a  discussion  of  some  of  the  laws  governing  the  formation  of  alloys. 


Analytical  Chemistry 


Interpretation  of  Coal  Analysis  E.G.  Bailey 

Analyst,  1917,  p.  145 

The  cUnkering  properties  of  coal  may  be  either  due  to  the  sulphur  or  iron  content 
or  both.  The  percentage  of  volatile  matter  in  coal  is  not  a  true  measure  of  the  value 
of  coal,  for  much  depends  on  the  nature  of  the  volatile  matter  and  how  much  of  it  is 
combustible.  The  percentage  of  moisture  is  also  considered  but  the  difficulty  of  de- 
termining free  water  and  water  of  composition  is  not  mentioned. 

Inclusions  in  Silver  V^oltameter  Deposits      M.  M.  Bovard  and  G.  A.  Hulett 
and  the  Electrochemical  Equivalent  of  Silver 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  1077 

The  agreement  between  the  amount  of  silver  deposited  at  the  cathode  and  dis- 
solved at  the  anode  has  been  determined  more  accurately  than  by  previous  investi- 
gators. With  the  improved  Hulett  apparatus  the  authors  determine  the  inclusions 
in  the  silver  deposit  directly  with  an  accuracy  of  one  part  in  a  hundred  thousand. 

The  Contamination  of  Precipitates  in  Gravimetric  Analysis     G.  M.  Smith 
J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  1152 

Barium  sulphate,  when  precipitated  in  solutions  containing  ferric  iron,  carries 
down  ferric  iron  in  the  form  of  a  hydrated  complex  sulphato-ferriate  of  barium.       t 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


98  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Colloid  Chemistry 


Some  Theoretical  Aspects  of  Electrical  Fume  W.  W.  Strong 

Precipitation 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  June  1,  1917,  p.  648 

A  *  *  fujme  "  is  a  disperse  system  of  solid  or  semi -sol  id  particles  in  a  gas  and  may 
vary  in  state  of  subdivision  from  microscopic  to  colloidal  dimensions.  The  electrical 
precipitation  of  these  is  paralleled  by  electrical  coagulation  of  suspension  colloids  in 
liquids,  and  the  process  follows  much  the  same  course: — (a)  The  formation  of  ions, 
(b)  adsorption  of  ions  to  the  **fume"  particles,  charging  these,  (c)  the  driving  of  the 
''fume"  ions  to  the  passive  electrode,  (d)  collection  of  tlie  fume  at  this.  The  chief 
differences  depend  electrically  upon  the  very  high  voltages  required  to  ionize  the  gas, 
physically  upon  the  low  viscosity  in  the  gaseous  system  and  the  conseciuent  occurrence 
of  well-marked  regional  discontinuities  and  instabilities  of  motion,  as  eddies.  These 
phenomena  are  treated  diagrammatically  whlie  the  dependence  of  the  precipitation 
upon  the  ionization  is  dealt  with  mathematically. 

A  Contribution  to  the  Theory  of  L.  Roon  and  R.  E.  Oesper 

Emulsification  Based  on  Pharmaceutical  Practice 
J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  156 

The  emulsions  considered  in  this  communication  are  the  typical  oil  in  water 
emulsions  of  pharjnacy.  Such  emulsions  consist  of  ( 1 )  an  oil,  forming  an  internal 
phase,  (2)  an  emulsifying  agent  or  emulgent,  (3)  water.  The  emulsifying  agents 
most  generally  used  are  gum  arabic  (acacia),  gum  tragacanth,  Irish  moss,  dextrin, 
gelatin,  malt  extract,  yolk  of  egg.  Of  these,  gum  arabic  (acacia)  is  the  best.  The 
experimental  method  investigated  was  that  of  forming  a  nuclear  emulsion  with 
certain  definite  proportions  of  oil,  gum  and  water.  This  nucleus  may  then  be  diluted 
with  any  quantity  of  water  to  form  a  good  emulsion.  It  is  shown  that  ( 1 )  definite 
critical  points  of  emulsification  exist,  (2)  these  critical  points  depend  on  (a)  the 
quantities  of  internal  phase  and  of  emulgent,  ( b )  the  nature  of  the  internal  phase  and 
of  emulgent, (c)  the  procedure  in  emulsification,  (3)  Fischer's  hydration  theory,  which 
requires  that  the  emulgent  be  a  hydrophilous  colloid,  has  been  sustained,  in  part. 
(4)  Preparation  of  nuclear  emulsions  for  subsequent  dilution  gives  the  best  results, 
(6)  Nuclei  of  one  composition  act  as  stabilizers  for  incomplete  emulsions  of  other 
compositions,  (6)  Nuclei  of  one  composition  act  as  emulgents  for  other  internal  phases. 

Emulsification  of  Mineral  Lubricating  Oils,  P.  H.  Conradson 

Apparatus  and  Test  Method  , 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  1(3G 


Organic  Chemistry 

The  Chemistry  of  Wood  A.  W.  Schorger         1411 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  pp.  556,  551 

Part  I  deals  with  the  analysis  of  some  American  species  of  wood,  several  interest- 
ing |)oint8  being  brought  out.      The  occurrence  of  methyl  alcohol  and-acetic  aaid  in 

Digitized  by  V^OOQiC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  99 


wood  distillate  is  ascribed  to  the  presence  of  methoxy  and  acetozy  groups  in  the 
lipocelluloeea.  The  question  is  left  open  whether  lignins  and  cutin  are  chemically 
or  physically  combined  with  cellulose  in  lignocellulose.  An  important  further  differ- 
ence between  lignocelluloee  from  wood  and  cellulose  from  cotton  is  the  behavior  on 
bbilingwith  12%  hydrochloric  acid;  6  to  17%  of  furfural  is  obtainable  from  wood  cellu- 
lose, yet  only  a  trace  from  cotton  cellulose.  Methods  ami  results  are  given  for  the 
solubility  in  cold  water,  hot  water,  alkali  (1%  caustic  soda)  and  ether;  the  content 
of  ash  moisture,  volatile  oil,  wax  and  resinous  substances,  pentosan  and  methyl  pento- 
san, aeetoxyl  and  methoxyl,  both  in  the  lignocelluloee  and  cellulose  prepared  from  it. 
In  Part  II  the  analytical  methods  and  their  results  are  discussed.  The  author  defines 
cellulose  as  the  residual  product  after  successive  alternate  treatments  ^ith  chlorine 
and  sodium  sulphite  up  to  the  point  MSule's  reaction  ceases.  This  reaction  depends 
upon  the  red  color  developed  by  lignins  on  adding  ammonia  to  wood  successively 
treated  with  permanganate  and  hydrochloric  acid.  It  is  shown  that  conifers  contain 
a  slightly  higher  percentage  of  cellulose  than  tlie  hardwoods. 

Influence  of  Humidity  on  the  O.  Kress  and  P.  Silverstein         1412 

Physical  Constants  of  Paper 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  449 
A  study  of  the  effects  of  humidity  on  the  strength,  stretch  and  folding  of  papers. 
It  is  pointed  out  that  much  more  uniform  results  would  be  obtained  if  a  standard 
humidity  were  observed. 

Mould  Fungi  Causing  Deterioration  of  Paper  P.  See         1412 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  419 
Paper  is  very  susceptible,  in  a  damp  Atmosphere,  to  attack  by  mould  fungi.   The 
spores  probably  preexist  in  the  raw  material  used  in  niaking  the  paper.   The  number 
of  species  is  strictly  limited.     Many  of  them  produce  stain. 

The  Action  of  Acetic  Acid  on  R.  Seligman  and  P*.  Williams         1511 

Aluminum 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  409 
In  a  previous  communication  (  cf.  this  Bulletin^  Apr.,  1916,  p.  12)  the  action  of 
concentrated  acetic  acid  was  studied;  the  present  papt*r  deals  with  dilute  acetic  acid. 
With  hot  acid  it  is  found  that  the  rate  of  solution  of  aluminum  increases  with  fall  of 
concentration  of  acid  down  to  1%.  Dilute  acid  containing  dissolved  aluminum  cor- 
rodes the  metal  more  rapitlly  than  pure  acid  of  the  same  strength.  Strange  to  say, 
distillation  of  such  acid  does  not  reduce  the  activity  to  the  original  value.  It  is  thus 
essential,  in  practice,  to  design  aluminum  apparatus  so  as  to  avoid  the  formation  of 
pockets  and  e<idies;  further,  such  apparatus  lasts  longer  if  frequently  cleaned.  Cold 
acetic  acid  attacks  aluminum  only  slowly;  it  is  shown  that  oxygen  increases  the  rate 
of  attack.  Vessels  must  therefore  be  washed  and  dried  as  soon  as  possible  after  re- 
moval of  their  contents.  In  many  cases  it  is  found  that  the  presence  of  small 
amounts  of  salts  such  as  sodium  chloride  and  sulphate  greatly  accelerate  corrosicm. 

Synthetic  Manufacture  of  Acetic  Acid  from  Acetylene  A.  D.         1511 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9200 

New  Cellulose  Acetate  1613 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9177 
The  L'sines  du  Rhdne  are  manufacturing  a  new  type  of  acetate  produced  by  the 
action  of  acetic  anhydride  upon  cellulose  in  presence  of  trioxymethylene.  (^oOCtIp 


100  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

^     The  Solvents  of  Cellulose  Acetates  A.  Dubosc        1516-1513 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9197 

First  installment  of  a  series.  The  difficulty  of  forming  general  rules  on  solubility 
of  cellulose  acetates  is  emphasized,  the  irregularities  being  even  greater  than  with 
nitrocelluloses.  The  effect  of  the  degree  of  hydrolysis  is  mentioned,  also  the  contrast 
in  behavior  of  allied  substances,  such  as  tetrachloroethane  and  pentachloroethane, 
and  chloroform  and  carbc»n  tetrachloride.  The  acetates  of  all  alcohols  are  either  solvents 
or  softeners;  this  is  discussed  in  more  detail.  The  author  promises  a  classification  of 
solvents  and  softeners,  taking  up  in  turn  the  alcohols,  ethers  and  esters,  ketones, 
aldehydes,  acids,  amides,  nitro  compounds,  chlorine  compounds,  hydrocarbons  and 
essential  oils. 

The  Cheap  Production  of  Alcohol  A.  M.  Breckler 

J.  Incl.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  612 
It  is  predicted  that  the  price  of  grain  alcohol  will  be  over  fifty  cents  per  proof 
gallon  during  the  present  year,  so  that  it  will  become  increasingly  necessary  to  find 
some  other  source.  Molasses  residues,  wood  waste,  and  sulphite  liquors  are  discussed; 
the  first  is  not  available  in  sufficient  quantity,  the  others  involve  many  difficulties.  The 
author  analyzes  the  cost  of  water,  fuel,  and  raw  material,  and  emphasizes  the  ne- 
cessity of  careful  cast  accounting  in  experimental  plants,  lest  capital  be  scared  off  by 
the  failure  of  too  great  promises. 

On  the  Synthesis  of  Caoutchouc  A.  D. 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9197 


Patent  Abstracts 
U.  S.  Patents 

1226341         W.  G.  Lindsay,  Assigned  to  The  Celluloid  Co.         B122-1613 

A  Process  of  Making  a  Plastic  Compound  suitable  for  a  photographic  film  base. 
Acetyl-cellulose  of  the  acetone-soluble  type  is  mixed  with  benzol,  methyl  alcohol  and 
a  small  amount  of  water  to  produce  a  ^latinous  mass.  Paraethyltoluolsulfonamid 
may  also  be  added. 

1226842        W.  G.  Lindsay,  Assigned  to  The  Celluloid  Co.         B122-1613 

A  Process  for  Making  a  Composition  suitable  for  film  base  which  consists  in  mix- 
ing acetone-soluble  acetyl  cellulose  with  paraethyltoluolsulfonamid  and  adding 
triphenylphosphate,  methyl  acetate  and  methyl  alcohol. 

1226343        W.  G.  Lindsay,  Assigned  to  The  Celluloid  Co.         B122-1613 

The  Process  of  Making  a  Film  Base  Compound  which  consists  in  mixing  acetyl 
cellulose  with  an  alkylated  aromatic  sulfonamid,  triphenylphosphate,  epichlorhydrin 
and  methyl  alcohol. 

1225146  G.  W.  Leighton  and  C.  S.  Babcock        C1312/74 

A  Coating  Material  for  a  Printing  Paper  which  is  manipulated  in  a  way  similar 
to  platinotype.  It  includes  ferric  oxalate,  oxalic  acid  and  salts  of  silver  @4^^l^^- 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  101 

1224984  S.  H.  Weinhandler  and  J.  S.  Sinsohn        G7 

A  Process  of  Eliminating  Hypo,  electlx)lytic  sodium  hypochlorite  being  used, 
which  is  strongly  alkaline  in  order  rapidly  to  open  the  pores  of  the  gelatine. 

1224442  P.  a  Brewster        K/42 

A  Process  of  Making  Colored  Photographic  Prints  in  which  two  gelatine  comple- 
mentary-color films  are  made  on  the  usual  bases  such  as  glass  or  celluloid.  One  of 
these  films  is  treated  in  a  bath  to  toughen  and  loosen  it  from  its  base.  It  is  then 
cemented  upon  the  complementary  film  in  register.  The  upper  base  is  then  stripped 
off.  The  combined  print  is  then  toughened  and  stripped  from  the  lower  base  and 
transferred  to  a  suitable  support. 

1226246  H.  Hess,  Assigned  to  Hess- Ives  Corporation         K/45 

A  Process  for  Reproducing  Colored  Transparencies.  Three  color  separation  nega- 
tives are  made  by  contact  printing,  using  appropriate  filters.  From  these,  corre- 
sponding positives  in  complementary  colors  are  produced  and  assembled  in  the  usual 
way. 

1226135  R.  V.  Stambaugh,  Assigned  to  Artfilm  Studios        062 

The  Process  of  Making  Motion  Picture  Films  of  the  animated  cartoon  type.  The 
pictures  are  printed  by  contact  while  the  titles  are  simultaneously  printed  by  optical 
projection. 

1225729  J.  H.  Fullmer  and  R.  W.  Runser        07005 

Another  one  of  the  Huebner-Bleistein  series  of  patents.  This  covers  a  printing 
machine  for  making  the  prints  on  to  sensitized  metal,  so  that  register  is  not  di8turl)ed 
and  manipulation  is  easy. 

1225447  A.  C.  Murray        07(X)7 

A  Method  of  * 'Staging''  Half -Tone  Work  when  re-etching  by  putting  paraffin  wax 
on  the  heated  plate  and  wiping  it  away  from  those  parts  which  require  further  etching. 

Note — This  Is  only  suitable  for  coarse  or  wash  drawings,  and  it  is  well  known  in  the  trade :  some 
etchers  using  an  ordinary  candle  to  provide  the  wax  resist. 

1224328  G.  W.  Scritsmier        089 

A  Mechanically  Produced  Negative  consisting  of  a  celluloid  base  coated  with  a 
mixture  of  beeswax  and  paraffin  over  which  is  a  layer  of  a  waxy  ink.  When  this  is 
written  upon  in  a  typewriter,  the  ink  is  displaced  l>y  the  type,  leaving  transparent 
letters  or  figures  in  the  wax. 

1226339  W.  G.  Lindsay,  Assigned  to  The  Celluloid  Co.         1613 

A  Solvent  for  Acetyl  Cellulose  composed  of  benzol,  methyl  alcohol  and  a  smaU 
.  amount  of  water. 

1226340  W.  G.  Lindsay,  Assigned  to  The  Celluloid  Co.         1613 

A  Solvent  for  Acetyl  Cellulose  comprising  epichlorhydrin  and  methyl  or  ethyl 
alcohol.     Paraethyltoluolsulfonamid  and  triphenylphosphate  may  be  addedOQ[^ 


102  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1224300  C.  A.  Hoyt        2152 

A  Device  for  Preventing  Double  Exposure.  The  arrangement  maintains  the 
shutter  inoperative,  after  making  an  exposure,  until  a  fresh  section  of  film  is  wound 
into  place.  A  signal  device  also  appropriately  shows  the  words  * 'exposed"  or 
* 'unexposed.  * ' 

1224531  W.  S.  Goldwire  and  J.  F.  Patton,         2152 

Assigned  1/3  to  W.  R.  Bedingfield 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  spring  motor  mechanism  for  quickly  and 

automatically  winding  up  a  fresh  section  of  film  after  each  exposure.     The  winding 

operation  is  stopped  at  the  proper  point  when  one  of  a  series  of  spaced  perforations 

in  the  edge  of  the  film  co-acts  with  a  detent  finger  which  controls  the  spring  motor. 

1225757  G.  W.  Bretz        2152 

An  Attachment  for  Cameras  to  enable  titles  or  other  writing  to  be  light  printed 
upon  the  negative.  The  operator  writes  upon  a  ground  glass  strip  which  is  inserted 
in  the  camera.  I'pon  turning  the  operating  key,  the  strip  is  moved  against  the  film 
and  a  brief  exposure  made  by  opening  a  window,  the  film  being  protected  and  the 
window  being  covered  at  all  other  times. 

1224588  H.  C.  Wray        2153 

A  Camera  Attachment  for  automatically  printing  identification  marks  upon  roll 
film  negatives.  Transparent  discs  carrying  opaque  clock  hands  are  rotatably  mounted 
near  the  border  of  the  picture  area  and  are  so  connected  with  the  shutter  release  that 
they  will  be  partially  rotated  each  time  an  exposure  is  made. 

1225951  H.  Le  B.  Gray,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2153-2653 

A  Photographic  Film  Cartridge  in  which  the  sensitive  film  is  associated  with  a 
backing  paper  of  semi -translucent  material,  along  the  edge  of  which  are  opaque 
numerals  corresponding  to  the  successive  exposure  areas.  Between  the  film  and 
.backing  is  a  carbon  paper  that  is  cut  away  opposite  the  numerals  so  as  to  be  slightly 
narrower  than  the  film.  When  this  film  is  used  in  a  camera  provided  with  a  window 
in  the  back,  through  which  the  usual  writing  may  be  done  with  a  stylus,  the  numerals 
will  be  light  printed  on  the  edge  of  the  film  automatically. 

1225803  J.  S.  Greene,  Assigned  to  Comercial  Camera  Co.         2172 

A  Developing  Apparatus  for  use  in  commercial  copying  cameras  of  the  type  which 
employ  rolls  of  sensitive  paper.  The  exposed  strip  of  paper  is  moved  downwardly  by 
rolls  and  guided  by  a  curved  track  underneath  the  developer.  After  it  is  severed 
from  the  strip,  the  exposed  portion  is  moved  forward  in  the  developer  by  rotating 
paddles  which  also  stir  the  developer.  After  development  is  completed,  a  gate  is 
moved  out  of  the  way  and  paddles  move  the  paper  rearwardly  up  inclined  guides, 
enabling  the  paper  to  be  drawn  between  squeegeeing  rolls  and  deposited  in  the  hypo. 

1223752  A.  H.  Adams,  Assigned  by  Mesne  Assignments  to        2231 

Western  Electric  Co.,  Inc. 

A  Projecting  Incandescent  Lamp,  the  globe  of  which  is  coated  with  a  mirror 

throughout  its  whole  area,  except  for  a  small  opening  corresponding  in  size  to  the 

eflfective  area  of  the  condenser  in  the  projecting  system.     The  globe  is  made  in  the 

shape  of  opposing  paraboloids  of  diflferent  focal  length.  ^.    .^   , ,    GqOqIc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  103 


1224663     A.  L.  Patterson,  Assigned  to  Bausch  &  Lomb  Optical  Co.     2231 

A  Projection  Apparatus  which  includes  a  concentrated  filament  lamp  and  a 
special  system  of  reflectors  which  co-act  alternatively  with  a  transparent  projection 
system  and  an  opaque  projection  system. 

1224392  F.  A.  Loft  us        2235 

A  Projecting  Device  adapted  to  be  inserted  in  the  slide  carrier  of  an  ordinary 
lantern.  By  changing  saitable  transparencies,  the  progress  of  a  baseball  game  is 
projected  on  the  screen. 

1226176  C.  H.  Bierbaum         2235 

A  Slide-Shifting  De\ice  for  Projection  Apparatus  so  arranged  that  the  changing 
of  slides  is  controlled  by  the  lecturer  through  a  pneumatic  release  and  the  attendant 
merely  changes  the  slides  in  the  holder. 

1226177  D.  U.  Billings        2235 

A  Projecting  De\ice  for  displaying  a  series  of  advertising  slides  automatically, 
the  slides  heing  carried  on  an  endless  belt  which  is  intermittently  actuated. 

1225261  D.  C.  McCandless        232 

A  Flash-Light  Apparatus  adapted  to  give  fire-light  effects.  It  consists  of  t\^'o 
special  flash  cabinets,  one  of  which  is  inserted  in  a  fire-place  and  the  other  of  which 
is  placed  to  light  the  subject  dififusely  to  soften  it.  The  flashes  are  electrically  ignited 
in  timed  relation  ^nth  electro  magnetic  actuations  of  the  camera  shutter. 

1225957  E.  H.  Hollister        242 

A  Printing  Frame  provided  with  a  sliding  clamp  along  one  edge  which  co-operates 
with  a  curved  spring  member  to  hold  the  negative  film  and  mask  in  adjusted  position. 

1225652  T.  Kruger         2626 

An  Electro  Magnetic  Shutter  Actuator  which  enables  the  operator  to  make  an 
exposure  while  he  is  a  conaderable  distance  from  the  camera. 

1225039  A.  Kiss        2652 

A  Magazine  Plate  Holder  for  revolving  back  cameras.  The  plates  are  loaded  into 
septa  and  piled  in  the  septum  box.  The  slide  of  the  box  is  pulled  out  preparatory  to 
exposing  the  front  plate  and  when  said  slide  is  pushed  back  to  close  the  carrier  aifter 
an  exposure  is  made,  it  pushes  the  exposed  front  plate  and  its  septum  through  a  slot 
into  a  receiving  case.  The  apparatus  is  mounted  to  permit  the  revolving  back  to  be 
used. 

1225988  B.  H.  Meyering,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2653 

A  Film  Cartridge  in  which  the  film  is  aa^ociated  with  an  opaque  backing  paper 
through  which  perforated  numerals  are  punched  or  stenciled  at  intervals  correspond- 
ing to  the  edges  of  the  successive  picture  areas  of  the  film.  Between  the  stenciled 
numerals  and  the  film  there  is  located  a  translucent  sheet  of  paper  to  prevent  halation 
and  temper  the  light.  This  may  be  red  translucent  paper  in  the  form  of  separate 
patches  beneath  the  numerals,  or  in  the  form  of  a  continuous  strip  co-extensive  with 
the  film.     It  is  used  in  cameras  having  a  window  in  the  back^.  .^.^^^  bvGoOQlc 


104  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1224500  R.  H.  Pietzsch,  Assigned  to  Sino  Camera  Co.         319 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  in  which  the  picture  units  are  arranged  in  transverse 
rows  on  the  film,  the  kinetographic  series  thus  zigzagging  upwardly  throughout  the 
film.  The  film  is  provided  with  opaque  ends,  one  of  which  contains  a  roughened 
transparent  window  for  focusing. 

1223577  P.  R.  Gonsky,  Assigned  to  Endlessgraph  Mfg.  Co.         320 

A  Stand  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors  provided  with  a  screw-threaded  spindle 
for  raising  and  lowering  it. 

1224079  J.  F.  Davidson        3201 

An  Litermittent  Mechanical  Movement  designed  for  operating  the  film  sprockets 
of  motion  picture  machines. 

1225151  A.  Mehlfelder        3201 

An  Intermittent  Drive  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors  in  which  a  modified  driving 
worm  actuates  a  gear  provided  with  driving  studs.  The  arrangement  is  such  that  the 
relative  motions  of  the  driving  and  driven  parts  may  be  altered  during  operation  to 
correct  the  framing  of  the  picture. 

1225184  M.  Segel,  Assigned  to  E.  M.  Ubelmesser        3201 

A  Self -Threading  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  in  the  use  of  which  the 
lead  end  of  the  film  is  connected  with  the  upper  sprocket.  Further  operation  of  the 
machine  moves  this  film  end  through  curved  guides  past  the  gate  and  lower  sprocket 
and  into  engagement  with  an  automatic  clip  upon  the  lower  take-up  reel. 

1225222  A.  D.  Covert        3208 

A  Governing  Device  for  the  Take-Up  Reels  Motion  Picture  Machines.  The  take- 
up  reel  increases  in  speed  as  the  machine  is  speeded  until  a  critical  point  is  reached. 
No  increase  occurs  thereafter,  but  instead  the  velocity  of  the  reel  is  progressively 
decreased  to  compensate  for  the  increasing  diameter  of  the  film  which  is  wound 
thereon. 

1223771  O.  B.  Day        3209 

A  Signaling  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors.  The  arrangement  rings  an 
electiic  bell  when  a  small  strip  of  tinfoil  located  on  the  edge  of  the  film  at  an 
appropriate  point  passes  over  two  contacts. 

1225801  J.  Grant        3209 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  provided  with  a  fire  shutter  that  automatically  closes 
when  the  machine  is  stopped.     It  is  frictionally  actuated  from  the  crank  shaft. 

1225905  D.  P.  WhiteseU        3209 

A  Device  for  Winding  Motion  Picture  Film  so  that  rewinding  will  be  unnecessary. 
The  film  is  coiled  in  its  container  from  the  outside  inwardly,  there  being  automatic 
means  for  increasing  the  speed  of  the  container  as  the  film  convolutions  grow  smaller 
and  smaller.  ^  t 

■    Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 106 

1226636  C.  F.  Jenkins        321 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  in  which  the  shutter  is  located  between  the  film  and 
condenser  in  '  *free  cooling  air/ '  A  prism  reflects  the  light  through  a  lateral  lens 
onto  a  screen  at  right  angles  to  the  plane  of  the  film  to  avoid  interference  by  film  rolls. 


1224304  W.  A.  King,  Assigned  i  to  W.  demons        322 

A  Motion  Picture  Projection  Apparatus  in  which  the  film  is  moved  continuously 
and  the  pictures  on  the  screen  held  stationary  by  means  of  appropriately  moved 
mirrors  in  the  projection  system.  These  mirrors  arepivotally  mounted  on  an  endless 
carrier  and  are  suitably  rocked  by  rollers  traveling  over  cams. 


1225392  L,  Arkin  and  S.  Adelman        329 

A  Toy  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  of  the  book-leaf  type. 

1225335  A.  S.  Howell,  Assigned  to  Bell  &  Howell  Co,         34 

A  Motion  Picture  Contact  Printing  Apparatus  provided  with  several  control 
mechanisms.  The  negative  film  is  provided  at  appropriate  places  with  notches  in  its 
edges,  which  permit  an  electric  circuit  to  be  closed,  thereby  stopping  the  machine, 
relieving  the  pressure  which  holds  the  negative  and  positive  films  in  contact  and 
automatically  sliifting  an  index  card  to  tell  the  operator  how  the  printing  light  should 
be  altered  and  what  the  name  is  of  the  next  scene.  The  shutter  is  provided  in  its 
opaque  section  with  a  ruby  window,  which  automatically  comes  opposite  the  film 
window  when  the  machine  is  stopped,  so  that  the  operator  may  make  an  inspection 
without  fogging  the  film.  A  special  light  controlling  diaphragm  is  provided  consist- 
ing of  two  oppositely  driven  perforated  slides  controlled  by  two  racks  and  a  common 
pinion.  A  shift  in  the  driving  mechanism  enables  the  quick  rewind  of  the  negative 
film. 

1223539  M.  Vandal        383 

A  Machine  for  Cutting  Stencils  for  the  mechanical  coloring  of  films.  The  operator 
does  not  move  the  knife  directly  in  contact  with  the  film,  but  operates  a  pantograph ic 
pointer  over  a  projected  image  of  the  film,  the  pantograph  being  connected  with  the 
knife. 

1225270  E.  R.  Pearson  and  C.  E.  Jones        387 

A  Machine  for  Lubricating  the  Edges  of  Motion  Picture  Film.  A  thin  film  of 
lubricant  is  withdrawn  from  the  supply  tank  on  the  peripheries  on  two  feed  rolls  and 
is  taken  up  therefrom  by  two  narrow  applying  roUs  which  touch  against  the  edges  of 
the  film. 

1223459  G.  C.  Whitney 

Apparatus  for  Producing  Colored  Light  Effects.  Selected  amounts  of  light  from 
colored  sources  are  projected  through  lenses  onto  a  ground  glass  screen,  from  whence 
the  mixed  light  is  thrown  by  a  projecting  lens  onto  the  object  to  be  illuminated.. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


106  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


British  Patents 

B102280  F.  W.  Donisthorpe        K31 

Improvement  in  and  Relating  to  Color  Cinematography.  Arrangement  for 
enabling  half-size  motion  pictures  to  be  made  by  dividing  each  picture  on  the  film 
vertically  into  two,  especially  for  two  color  work.  When  this  is  done  the  picture  is 
higher  than  it  is  long,  which  is  unsatisfactory,  and  in  order  to  avoid  this,  each 
picture  area  has  been  divided  into  four,  w  hich  means  extremely  small  pictures  and 
also  in  some  machines  the  film  has  been  passed  horizontally  through  the  projector, 
but  this  prevents  the  standard  projector  from  being  used.  This  patent  enables  a 
vertically  divided  picture  to  be  used  by  rotating  the  picture  through  an  angle  of  90^ 
optically  in  the  process  of  projection  onto  the  screen  so  that  without  changing  the 
standard  projector  the  picture  appears  the  correct  way  ^ip  on  the  screen.  Arrange- 
ments of  prisms  for  doing  this  are  described. 

B105380  C.  F.  Jones        K/41 

Two-Color  Photography.  From  the  red  filter  negative  a  positive  is  printed  and 
toned  blue,  whi(!h  is  then  sensitized  in  bichromate  and  printed  under  a  positive  made 
from  the  green  filter  negative  dyed  up  with  a  red  pinatype  dye,  the  process  thus  being 
a  combination  of  the  blue  toning  and  pinatype  processes  in  making  the  positives. 

B104742  J.  P.  Ferrier  and  T.  J.  Peters        045 

Improvements  in  Stereopticon  Plates  and  Slides  and  Processes  of  Making  the 
Same.  Formula  for  a  varnish  intended  for  coating  glass  plates  so  that  written  or 
printed  matter  can  be  mechanically  transferrtnl  to  the  varnish  is  given,  consisting  of 
06%  celluloid  varnish  and  5%  white  shellac. 

B104575  J.  Drysdale        067 

Anti-Flickering  Device  for  I'se  in  Connection  with  Cinematography.  A  fan- 
shaped  sheet  of  cardboard  or  the  like  with  vertical  bars,  intended  to  be  moved  hori- 
zontally before  the  eyes  of  the  viewer  of  cine  images,  it  being  alleged  that  this  addi- 
tional flicker  will  counteract  that  of  the  images  upon  the  screen. 

B103782  T.  J.  Mills  and  E.  T.  Morris        0713 

An  Improved  Machine  for  Preparing  Grinding  and  Polishing  Intaglio  Printing 
and  other  Cylinden*. 

B105012  W.  J.  Mellersh-Jackson        0722-216 

Improvements  in  or  Relating  to  Photographic  Apparatus.  Camera  arranged  for 
reproducing  subjects  in  pre-determined  positions  of  a  sensitive  material  in  which  the 
sensitized  surface  is  adjustable  relative  to  the  camera  by  special  mechanism,  and  in 
which,  also,  the  subject  holder  is  adjustable,  the  whole  being  interconnected  with 
gearing  to  form  a  camera  suitable  for  the  Huebner-Bleistein  system,  in  which  a 
numl)er  of  duplicate  pictures  are  obtained  in  exact  relation  to  each  other  for  the 
photo-lithographic  process. 

B104663  L.  Drej^us        1212 

Improvements  Kelathig  to  Cinematographic  Films  or  Bands.  A  cine  band  with 
reinforced  edges  having  elevations  and  depressions  corresponding  with  the  carrying 
teeth  of  the  winding  wheel.  These  projections  not  only  strengthen  the  band  but  pro- 
tect the  picture  surface  when  the  film  is  wound  in  coil. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  107 


B103951  E.  H.  Alvord         1412 

Improvement  in  Presses  for  Paper  and  like  Pulp.  Pulp  press  with  presser  rolls 
and  a  novel  form  of  throat  for  reoeivinj?  the  discharge  therefrom. 

B15365-1913  Akt.  f.  Chem.  Prod.         1421 

Improvements  in  or  Relating  to  Methods  for  Finely  Dividing  Gelatinizing 
Substances.  A  method  of  granulating  gelatine  by  introducing  a  warm  solution  there- 
of into  certain  liquids  and  thereafter  removing  and  washing  the  solidified  particles. 
One  of  the  advantages  of  this  process  is  the  fact  that  the  colloid  is  dried  far  more 
rapidly  than  when  it  is  produo^d  in  the  shape  of  sheets  or  shreds ;  the  danger  of 
decomposition  being  thereby  diminished. 

B100073  Akt.  f.  Chem.  Prod.         1421 

Improvements  in  or  Relating  to  Methods  for  Finely  Dividing  Gelatinizing 
Snbstances.    See  British  patent  15365-1916. 

B103877  H.  E.  Macadam  and  H.  Walker        1511 

Improvements  Relating  to  Apparatus  for  the  Manufacture  of  Sulphuric  Acid. 
Form  of  the  Glover  tower  for  the  making  of  sulphuric  acid  with  atomizing  sprays  for 
the  sodium  nitrate  solution. 

B105366  J.  M.  F.  Pons  and  A.  M.  y  Perez         2109 

An  Attachment  to  be  fitted  to  the  back  of  an  ordinary  camera  for  the  production 
of  multiple  exposures  on  a  single  plate.  The  necessary  screen  is  carried  in  a  franie 
movable  by  means  of  a  screw. 

BI03510  .  G.  F,  Cooke        221 

Apparatus  for  Writing  and  Projecting  the  Writing  onto  a  Screen.  Apparatus 
for  projecting  typewritten  «xript  upon  a  screen  whilst  it  is  being  formed. 

B104517  H.  R.  Evans        2231 

Improvements  in  or  Relating  to  the  Projection  of  a  Light  Beam.  Reflector  for 
Projecting  Lamp.  A  casing  which  presents  an  interior  reflecting  surface  which  is 
optically  a~  closed  sphere  except  for  a  projection  aperture  used  in  combination  with  a 
source  of  light  at  the  center  of  the  sphere. 

B104613  F.  W.  Norton        257 

An  Improved  Method  of  Developing,  Fixing  and  Washing  a  Number  of  Photo- 
graphic Prints  Simultaneously.  Device  for  developing  a  number  of  photographic 
prints  in  which  carriers  preliminarily  wetted  are  formed  into  a  pack,  thereafter 
immersed  in  the  tank  containing  the  developer  in  which  air,  under  pressure,  is  forced 
edgewise  of  the  pack.  The  number  of  the  original  American  application  is  given  as 
1074572,  bat  the  British  Patent  was  not  taken  out  under  the  Convention. 

B15377-1915  W.  Taylor        263 

Improvements  ih  Maclunes  for  Grinding  Glass.  A  new  machine  for  grinding 
spherical  surfaces  on  discs  of  glass  in  lens  work.  ^^  ^^^T^ 

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108  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

B103389  W.  J.  Travis        263 

Improvements  in  Lens  Grinding  Machinery.  Lens  grinding  machine,  the  novel 
feature  of  which  is  the  osoillating  motion  of  the  cylindrical  grinding  bed. 

Bl 05083  H.  B.  Cuthbert        2653 

ImprovemeDts  in  or  Relating  to  Photographic  Roll  Films.  A  method  of  marking 
diagonal  lines  or  numbers  upon  film  backing  paper  in  such  wise  tliat  the  exact  posi- 
tion of  any  particular  film  section  can  be  determined  by  inspection  through  the  sight 
hole. 

BI04501  '  N.  A.  Pyke        2833 

Living  Portrait  Photographs.  The  invention  consists  in  a  mount  for  production 
of  the  moving  portrait  effect  by  the  movement  of  a  thin,  fiexible,  ruled  screen  over  a 
banded  multiple  print.  The  special  object  is  to  provide  good  contact  between  the 
screen  and  print  and  for  this  purpose  a  springy  packing  such  as  cotton  or  corrugated, 
paper  is  inserted. 

B104625  P.  G.  Palmer        3203 

Improvements  in  or  Relating  to  Shutters  for  Cinematograph  Projectors,  Cameras 
and  Printing  Apparatus.  A  shutter  for  cinematograph  projection  in  which  there  are 
narrow  slots  in  the  opaque  portions. 

B104711  C.  J.  Bebbington         324 

Improved  Screen  to  Enable  Cinematograph  and  like  Pictures  to  be  Viewed  in  the 
Daylight.  Projection  Screens :  Screen  for  projection  in  daylight  consisting  of  a  sheet 
of  transparent  or  translucent  material  faced  with  a  layer  of  a  dull,  blue  colored  ma- 
terial, such  as  a  matte  surface  sheet  of  blue  colored  celluloid.  The  picture  is  projected 
through  the  blue  side  and  is  viewed  by  the  audience  on  the  other  side  of  the  st^reen. 


German  Patents 

DRP292723-1915  G.  W.  A.  Sosna  and  J.  E.  Biedebach        G5-11 

Photographic  Plates,  Films,  Paper,  etc.,  with  Coloring  which  Reduces  the 
Sensitiveness  to  Light.  Addition  to  288328.  The  plates  are  rendered  non-sensitive 
to  subdued  daylight  during  development.  In  addition  to  the  filter  dyes,  chemicals, 
such  as  phenolphthalein,  are  incorporated  in  the  emulsion,  which  is  not  affected 
thereby,  so  that  a  color  is  generated  in  the  emulsion  by  the  action  of  the  alkali  of 
the  developer.     Modifications  are  specified. — Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1371. 

DRP293004-1914  C.  Schleussner,  Akt.  Ges.         K/33 

Polychrome  Screens  for  Color  Photography.  The  principal  difficulty  in  the  pro- 
cesses of  this  kind  has  been,  heretofore,  in  preventing  the  formation  and  persistence 
of  holes  between  the  colored  granules  of  the  colloidal  coating.  According' to  the 
present  invention,  neither  a  pre-treatuient  of  the  granules,  nor  an  after  treatment  of 
the  plate,  nor  an  intermediate  layer  of  adliesive  to  secure  the  granules  to^eir  earner, 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  106 

is  necessary.  The  process  consists  in  applying  the  dry  colloidal  particles  directly 
to  the  carrier  and  insuring  a  faultless  contact  of  the  particles  with  each  other  and  their 
direct  union  with  the  carrier,  by  means  of  the  vapors  of  aisoftening  agent.  Glycerol 
is  used  in  connection  with  this  treatment,  to  destroy  the  cohesion  of  the  colored 
granules  during  the  treatment  with  vapor.  E.  g. ,  the  dye  vehicle,  vegetable  glue  or  " 
other  colloid,  is  dyed  wet  with  the  three  colors,  red,  blue  and  green.  The  dyed  col- 
loid 18  then  dried,  comminuted,  and  sifted  to  the  finest  degree.  After  the  colored 
particles  have  been  mixed  in  the  proper  proportions,  they  are  dusted  on  a  carrier 
(glass,  film,  or  the  like).  A  very  thin  film  of  glycerol  is  applied  to  the  carrier,  pre- 
ferably by  mixing  2  cc.  glycerol  with  12  cc.  acetic  acid,  pouring  this  upon  the  carrier, 
whereupon  after  evaporating  the  acetic  acid  a  small  amount  of  glycerol  remains, 
which  destroys  the  cohesion  of  the  screen  granules.  The  dusting  can  be  effected  in  a 
box.  The  screen  elements  are  then  uniformly  distributed  over  the  surface  of  the 
plate  by  means  of  a  very  soft  brush,  and  the  excess  elements  are  removed  by  dusting 
them  off.  Steam  is  now  conducted  over  the  plate  prepared  in  this  manner,  whereby 
the  colloid  particles  are  liquefied  and  flow  together  in  a  continuous,  faultless  film,  ab- 
sorb the  glycerol,  and  are  secured  firmly  to  the  film.  No  further  treatment  is  neces- 
sary.   Alcohol  vapor  may  be  employed  instead  of  steam.— Chem.  Absta.,  1917,  p.  1372. 


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c         Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


August.  1917 


Issued  hy  th?  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COMPANY 

Rochester.  NeAvYork 

( 


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v^/ 


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ABSTRACT    BTLLETIN  111 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  3.  No.  6 


August,  1917 


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AUG  14  1917 


J 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  113 


Photography 


Effect  of  Additions  to  Gelatine  Emulsion  Cll  ^ 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  300 
Conclneion  of  series  commencing  on  p.  274. 

Additions  to  Emulsion  W.  E.  Debenham        Cll 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  319 

In  connection  with  the  publication  of  the  translation  from  Eder  on  this  subject, 
Mr.  Debenham  stated  that  in  order  to  avoid  green  fog  he  has  added  perchloric  acid  to 
the  silver  solution  before  mixing  and  also  formic  acid  to  the  hromide. 

Home-made  Transparency  Plates  W.  E.  Debenham        C112 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  289 

Description  of  method  of  making  emulsion  and  coating  plates  for  transparency 
work. 

Methods  of  Determining  Exposure  F5 

Mot.  Pict.  World,  June,  1917,  p.        2094 
July,  1917,  pp.  98,  238 

Tank  Plate  Markings  A.  0.  Forrest        G4        041 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  291 

The  only  defects  observed  in  six  years*  use  of  tanks  for  plates  are  streaks  of  un- 
even intensity  due  to  insufficient  movement  of  the  developing  solution  and  scum-like 
inarkings  on  the  edges,  which  are  due  to  loading  the  plates  into  the  rack  before  its 
grooves  are  perfectly  diy. 

Intensifying  Negatives  C.  E.  K.  Mees        H2 

Kodakery,  July,  1917,  p.  21 

Warm  Tones  Direct  in  Development  J83 

Fotografen,  April,  1917,  p.  16 

Mr.  Brinchmann,  of  Kristiania,  recommends  for  obtaining  platinum  brown  tones 
on  £  and  AE  Kodura  paper  the  following  developing  formula  : 

A    Hydrochinon,  -  -  .  -  10  gm. 

Sodium  Sulphite,  (Crystals)  -  -  80  gm. 

Watei', 600  cc. 

B    Potassium  Carbonate,         -  -  -  60  gm. 

Water, 500  cc. 

For  use  take  25  cc.  A,  25  cc.  B,  20  cc.  water  and  add  4  drops  of  lO'jh  potassium 
bromide  solution.  This  formula  has  been  tried  in  the  Laboratory  with  Artura  but 
no  satisfactory  results  could  be  obtained. 

A  Bibliography  for  Color  Photography  A.  S.  Cory        K 

Mot.  Pict.  News.  July,  1917,  p.  298  ,,,,,,  .^GoOglc 


114  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Color  Vision  and  Color  Photography  C.  W.  Piper        Kl 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  21 

Color  Sensitizing  A.  S.  Cory        KC  1212        1681 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  June.  1917,  pp.  3812,  3968,  4131 
A  continuation  of  previous  articles  on  the  subject. 

Decennia  Practica— Color  Photography  K/41         K/3 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  23 

Deals  with  color  transparencies,  especially  those  made  by  the  Pinatype  process, 
and  screen  plate  color  processes. 

Mounting  on  Metal  Nl 

Studio  Light,  June,  1917,  p.  20 

Prints  may  be  mounted  on  metal  either  witli  the  aid  of  a  strong  solution  of 
shellac  in  alcohol,  or  with  Kodak  dry  mounting  tissue.  In  the  latter  case  it  is  neces- 
sary to  insure  that  the  metal  is  free  from  grease,  and  that  it  is  heated  to  a  tempera- 
ture approaching  the  softening  point  of  the  tissue  before  mounting. 

The  Action  of  X-Ray  on  J.  Reiner  and  W.  D.  Witherbee        XF5 

Plate,  Pastille,  and  Skin 

Amer.  Jour,  of  Roentgenology,  June,  1917,  p.  302 

Some  rather  useful  formul«e  are  given  for  the  calculation  of  x-ray  exposures,  in 
x-ray  photography  and  treatment  work. 

Phenomena  of  Ripening  R.  E.  Liesegang        012 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  17.96 

The  **Ostwald'*  ripening,  which  depends  on  an  intermediate  stage  in  which  the 
smaller  articles  are  dissolved,  does  not  take  place  in  a  coagulated  gelatin  film.  Other 
kinds  of  ripening  must,  therefore,  exist. 

An  Effect  of  Light  on  Paper  R.  E.  Liesegang        012 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  1796 

Pure  paper  is  light-sensitive  as  well  as  paper  containing  wood  pulp.  The  latent 
light- image  shows  brown  when  treated  with  pyrogallol  and  soda,  and  the  develop- 
ability  is  accompanied  by  an  ozonization  on  the  exposed  areas.  The  active  agent  is 
the  gum  used  in  the  sizing;  with  unsized  paper  no  effect  is  produced. 

Photo-Inv(Tsion  H.  Saegusa        012 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  1796 

Sulphur  dioxide  produces  photo-inversion  on  the  photographic  film.  .  The  image 
may  be  either  positive  or  nega];ive  according  to  the  concentration  of  sulphur  dioxide, 
the  length  of  exposure  to  the  gas,  and  the  intensity  of  the  light.  The  eflect  gradually 
weakens  with  time  and  generally  disappears  after  several  hours.  Measurements  with 
a  micrometer  microscope  show  that  the  silver  grains  undergoing  photo-inversion  are 

finer  than  those  in  the  ordinary  negative.  r^^^^T^ 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  115 


The  Grain  of  Photographic  Plates         P.  P.  Koch  and  G.  du  Prel        014 
and  a  Method  for  its  Investigation 

Chem.  Abets.,  1917,  p.  318 

The  film  of  a  plate  is  softened  by  soaking  in  water,  then  a  little  of  the  emulsicm 
transferred  to  a  microscope  cover-glass,  electrically  warmed  until  the  gelatin  melts, 
when  a  second  cover-glass  is  pressed  against  the  first  and  the  pair  separated ;  this 
leaves  a  film  only  a  few  thousandths  of  a  mm.  thick,  w^ith  the  grains  in  a  single  layer. 
Illumination  with  deep  red  light  makes  it  possible  to  obtain  photomicrographs  on 
panchromatic  plates  without  photographically  affecting  the  grains  under  observation, 
so  that  particular  grains  can  be  studied  before  and  after  exposure  and  treatment.  De- 
velopment shows  in  general  no  marked  change  in  form  or  size  of  the  grains.  The 
effect  of  para-phenylenediamine  and  similar  developers  which  gives  a  fine-grained 
image  on  coarse-grained  emulsions  is  shown  to  be  due  to  a  reduction  of  only  a  part*  of 
the  developable  grains.  Development  after  preliminary  fixing  shows  silver  aggregates 
fflibstantially  in  the  position  of  the  original  silver  bromide  grains,  but  larger.  No 
evidence  of  tlie  formation  of  nuclei  is  found.  Count  and  measurement  of  -many 
grains  0.2-p-1.8p  in  diameter  before  and  after  exposure  and  development,  throw  much 
doubt  on  the  usual  dictum  that  a  sensitive  emulsion  is  necessarily  of  coarse  grain. 


The  Photographic  Rendering  of  Tone  Values  C.  E.  K.  Mees        015     J 

Studio  Light,  June,  1917,  p.  3 

In  this  article  the  author  indicates  the  conditions  which  must  be  fulfilled  in  order 
that  the  scale  of  tones  of  the  subject  may  be  correctly  translated  into  corresponding 
opacities  in  the  negative;  in  other  words,  in  order  that  a  perfect  negative  may  be  ob- 
tained. Although  no  mention  is  made  of  the  well-known  Hurter  <fe  Drifl^eld  system, 
the  author  has  paved  the  way  to  a  better  understanding  of  the  full  significance  of  the 
H.  «&  D.  curve  by  placing  a  portrait  and  its  corresponding  curve  side  by  side,  and 
indicating  corresponding  portions  of  the  curve  and  print. 


Colloid-Chemistry  and  Photography.  Liippo-Cramer        017 

XXX\^III.       The    Accelerating 
Action  of  Dyes   in  Developing 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  1796 

The  dye  sensitizers  of  the  isocyanin  series  give  rise  to  fogging  under  certain  con- 
ditions. This  occurs  if  metol  is  used  as  developer  instead  qf  hydrochinon,  and  in 
other  ways.     The  reduction  of  silver  nitrate  solution  is  accelerated  by  pinachrome. 


Some  Simple  Lens  Arithmetic  B.  E.  Havelock        019 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  298 

The  calculations  given  are  based  on  the  following  rule  :  AVhen  copying  or  en- 
larging, say,  four  times,  the  greater  extrafocal  distance  is  four  times  the  focal  length  of 
the  lens  and  the  smaller  extrafocal  distance  a  quarter  the  focal  length  of  the  lens. 
Similarly,  five  times  and  one-fifth,  for  the  scaleof  five  times;  and  so  on  fpi;any  given 
scale  of  enlargement  or  reduction.  Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


116 ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

An  Easy  Method  for  Constructing  a  E.  Senior        019        2102 

Focusing  Scale 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  313 

The  rule  given  is  as  follows:  Take  some  useful  proportion  of  the  focal  length  of 
the  lens  and  lay  it  off  from  the  infinity  marie,  then  dinde  the  distance  into  jtwo  equal 
parts,  and  this  again  into  two  equal  parts,  and  so  on.  If  below  these  values  we  place 
a  number  which  is  greater  by  one  than  that  which  represents  the  number  of  parts 
that  the  focus  has  been  divided  into,  then  the  focal  length  of  the  lens  in  inches  when 
multiplied  by  these  figures  will  denote  the  respective  conjugate  foci  in  inches. 

Landscape  Photography  021 

Phot.  Min.,  Apr.,  1917 

.    Devotes  considerable  space  to  composition. 

Print  Fading  041 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  306 

In  a  letter  to  the  editor  it  is  suggested  that  self-toned  prints  may  fade  as  a  result 
of  being  printed  from  negatives  intensified  with  mercury. 

Enlarging  Accurately  to  Scale  A.  Lockett        046 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  297 

A  method  is  given  for  making  enlargements  true  to  scale  without  the  necessity  of 
measuring  from  tlie  lens,  provided  that  the  focal  length  of  the  lens  is  known. 

Enlarging  with  a  Hand  Camera  046 

Kodakery,  July,  1917,  p.  24 

A  Photographer  in  Java  L.  G.  F.         055 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  296 

An  article  of  general  rather  than  photographic  interest.      The  author  states  that 
-photographic  supplies  are  difficult  to  obtain  in  Java  at  the  present  time;  he  was 
charged  60  cents  for  a  spool  of  Vest  Pocket  film  in  Batavia. 

A  Paper  Prepared  by  the  Committee  on  Electrical  Devices  067 

of  the  Society  of  Motion  Picture  Engineers 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  July,  1917,  p.  136 

An  article  discussing  the  relative  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  direct  and 
alternating  current  for  motion  picture  projection. 

Notes  and  Comments  083 

Phot.  Min.,  Apr.,  1917,  p.  176 

Describes  the  Multiple  Aeroplane  camera  of  Herbert  and  Huesgen.  This  is  madb 
entirely  of  metal,  mtasures  8>^  x  4>^  x  2}^  inches,  weighs  6  poands,  and  uses  an  F4.8 
lens  of  4^  inch  focal  length.  Standard  perforated  motion  picture  negative  ^Im  is  used. 
To  operate:  one  pall  of  the  flexible  cable  winds  up  the  previous  exposure  and  registera 
the  number  of  tlie  photograph  taken.  One  second  completes  the  cycle  of  operations 
required  to  m.ke  an  expoeare.  ^^^^^^  ^^  GoOglc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 117 

Photographing  Wild  Flowers  H.  D.  House        098 

Kodakery,  July,  1917,  p.  10 

A  deecripdoD  of  a  cabinet  with  transparent  sides  which  is  placed  over  the  flower 
to  be  photographed.  Li  this  way,  using  a  background  of  white  cardboard,  a  flower 
or  plant  may  be  photographed  as  if  isolated,  even  when  a  strong  wind  is  Mowing. 

The  Bromoil  Process  Brum  do  Canto         •/89 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  806 

The  hardening  action  in  the  Bromoil  process  is  ascribed  to  the  production  of 
chromium  chromate,  and  since  this  salt  can  be  produced  by  the  action  of  bichromate 
with  Buli^te,  the  placing  of  a  print  containing  bichromate  in  the  flxing  bath  will 
produce  hardening. 

Theory  of  Bromoil  /Sg 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  310 

In  an  editorial  the  conclusions  arrived  at  by  Dr.  Brum  do  Canto  are  questioned. 
It  is  pointed  out  that  in  the  bromoil  process  the  chromium  compound,  which  may  or 
may  not  be  chromium  chromate,  can  be  removed  by  the  acid  bath  without  aflecting 
the  hardening  of  the  image.  It  is  suggested  that  perhaps  the  production  of  the 
chromium  compound  \a  a  by-product  rather  than  a  cause  for  the  hardening  action. 

The  Spectra  of  the  Sensitized  Products  J.  M.  Eder        1681  v/ 

(Sensitivity  Spectra)  Produced  by  the  Action 
of  Vegetable  Coloring  Matters  on  Silver  Bro- 
mide-Collodion 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  1796 

Experiments  have  been  made  on  sensitizing  silver  bromide  collodion  emulsions 
with  extracts  of  plant  coloring  matters:  cWorophyll  prepared  from  ivy  leaves, 
spinach  and  wild  vine,  and  also  xanthophyll  and  carotin.  The  dark  red  leaves  of 
the  wild  vine  in  autumn  yield  on  extraction  with  alcohol  a  deep  red  solution  which 
gives  a  hitherto  unknown  sensitizing  spectrum.  Other  sensitizing  coloring  matters  were 
obtained  by  extracting  fresh  blue  grapes,  beets,  blossoms  of  red  phlox,  dried  whortle 
berries,  fresh  black  elderberries,  curcuma  roots,  alkanna  roots  and  red  fly-agaric. 

A  New  Notion  in  Plate  Rockers  D.  Charles        251 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  302 

Arrangement  showing  a  dish  which  is  not  resting  on  the  rocker,  but  on  a 
shelf  perforated  at  the  ends  so  that  projections  from  the  shelf  can  pass  through  the 
^If  and  tilt  the  dish  at  intervals. 

The  Kodak  Hand  Camera  Range  Finder  2645 

Phot.  Focus,  June  20,  1917,  p.  425 

The  Rotary  Photographic  Company 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  304 

The  business,  stock  and  factory  of  the  Rotary  Photographic  Company,  Ltd. ,  has 
been  offered  for  sale  by  auction.  r^r\r^n]o 

^  Digitized  by  VjOOv  IC 


11«  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

**Rexo"  roll  film  and  motion  picture  film  is  advertieed  in  the  Photographic 
Press  as  now  being  manufactured  by  Burke  A  James  of  Chicago. 

A  Proposed  Co-Operative  Plate  Factory  A.  Clark 

B.  J.,  1917.  p.  291 

The  author  is  attempting  to  form  a  company  to  be  called  the  New  Era  Dry  Plate 
Co. ,  Ltd. ,  and  states  that  he  has  an  option  on  a  quantity  of  glaM  and  has  obtained 
the  assistance  of  an  emulsion  maker. 

Restoring  Scales 

B.  J.;  1917,  p.  294 

For  the  restoration  of  engraved  scales  which  have  lost  their  pigment,  the  bes* 
black  filling  is  a  mixture  of  lampblack  and  tallow ;  for  a  white  filling,  a  white  cement 
can  be  used. 


Photo-Engraving 


Printing  Device  for  Rotogravure  0713 

American  Printer,  June  20,  p.  69 

A  note  concerning  the  mercury  vapor  outfit  to  print  photogravure  tissues  at  the 
New  York  Times  ofiioe. 

Development  in  Offset  Plate  Making  W.  C.  Huebner        0723 

Photo-Engravers'  Bulletin,  June,  1917,  p.  12 

The  writer  suggests  that  there  are  three  obfltacles  to  attainment  of  good  work  by 
offset:  1.  Difficulty  of  securing  true  tonal  values  in  half-tone  screen  or  other  grained 
negatives.  2.  Hand  transferring  wftich  obliterates  the  doti.  3.  The  spread  dur* 
ing  printing  due  to  lack  of  accurate  correlation  of  the  speed  of  the  three  (the  plate, 
the  blanket,  and  the  impression)  cylinders. 


Physics 

On  Methods  for  Detecting  Small  Optical  Retardations  Lord  Rayleigh 

and  on  the  Theory  of  Foucault's  Test 

Phil.  Mag.,  1917,  p.  161 

The  methods  of  high  precision  measurements  are  discussed  and  compared.  The 
article  is  highly  theoretical  for  general  purposes  but  will  be  of  value  in  practical 
optical  tests. 

Studies  of  the  Ultra-violet  Transparency  of  Certain        H.  W.  L.  Absalom 
Colored  Media 

Phil.  Mag.,  1917,  p.  450 

The  author  investigated  the  ultra-violet  transparency  of  various  naturally  colored 

minerals,  precious  stones,  and  various  preparations  of  colloidal  metals^'^p.^QTp 

igi  ize      y  g 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  119 

Notes  on  the  Absorption  of  X-Rays  T.  E.  Aur^n 

PhiL  Mag.,  1917,  p.  471 
The  aheorption  coefficients  of  varioue  elements  and  componnds  were  detennined 
and  their  relation  to  the  atomic  numbers  shown. 

Practical  Limitations  in  the  Projection  of  Light  J.  A.  Orange 

Gen.  Elect.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  553 
A  discussion  of  the  factors  controlling  brightness  in  the  projection  of  light. 

The  Theory  and  Practical  Use  of  Projectors  and  Their  L.  C.  Porter 

Latest  Application  as  Portable  Signals  Outfits 
Gen.  Elect.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  660 

Absorption  of  Ultra- Violet  Radiations  by  the  Massol  and  Faucon 

Iodine  Derivatives  of  Methane 

Compt.  Rend.,  1917,  p.  813 
The  three  ultra-violet  absorption  bands  of  iodine  are  considerably  modified  in 
the  iodine  derivatives  of  methane. 

Remarks  on  the  Temperature  of  Space  C.  Fabry 

Astrophysical  J.,  1917,  p.  269  *  . 

It  is  shown  that  the  temperature  of  space  can  not  be  specified.  A  small  black 
body  in  space  will  come  to  temperature  equilibrium  at  3°  absolute,  while  a  body 
absorbing  selectively  radiation,  of  0.4  n  will  reach  a  temperature  of  1000°  Abs.  The 
luminescence  of  comets  is  explained  by  assuming  selective  absorption  of  short  wave 
lengths. 

The  Rotation  of  Prisms  of  Constant  Deviation  W.  E.  Forsythe 

Astrophysical  J.,  1917,  p.  278 
In  the  Hilger  type  of  constant  deviation  spectroscope,  it  is  shown  where  the 
prism  should  be  placed  on  the  rotating  table  in  order  that  the  objective  should  remain 
symmetrically  illuminated.     A  simple  geometrical  proof  is  given. 

The  Physical  Basis  of  Color-Technology  M.  Luckiesh 

Jour.  Frank.  Inst.,  July,  1917,  p.  73 
The  author  outlines  the  various  methods  of  color  analysis  in  use  at  tlie  present 
tinie,  and  points  out  the  applicability  of  the  data  obtained  by  each.  The  fact  that 
spectro-photometric  curves  represent  a  complete  specification  of  color  from  the 
physical  standpoint  is  emphasized.  The  colored  media  discussed  are  divided  into 
three  classes,  pigments,  dyes  and  coloretl  glasses ;  and  a  large  number  of  spectro- 
photometric  curves  are  given  for  various  commercial  pigments. 

A  Self  Recording  Electrometer  for  Atmospheric  Electricity    W.  A.D.  Rudge 
Electrician,  June,  1917,  p.  345 

The  Nemst  Vapor  Lamp 

Electrician,  June,  1917,  p.  397 
The  lamp  consists  of  an  enclosed  carbon  or  mercury  arc  in  an  atmosphere  of  the 
chlorides  of  aluminum,  titanium,  or  zinc.     An  efficiency  of  0.16  watt  per  Hefner 
cndle  power  is  claimed.  ^^ ,.^^^ ^^ GoOglc 


/ 


120  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Analytical  Chemistry 


A  Rapid  Method  for  Estimating  Nickel        W.R.  Schoeller  and  A.R.  Powell 
and  Cobalt  in  Ores  and  Alloys 

Analyst,  1917,  p.  189 

The  nickel  and  cobalt  are  separated  from  other  metals,  especially  iron,  by  pre- 
cipitating with  potassium  iodide  from  ammoniacal  tartrate  solution.  The  nickel  and 
cobalt  iodides  are  dissolved  in  dilute  hydrochloric  acid,  then  separated  by  standard 
methods  and  estimated. 


Use  of  Diphenylamine  and  Diphenylbenzidine  for  Colori-  L.  Smith 

metric  Estimations 

•J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  ii.  p.  217 

The  author  varies  the  amount  of  diphenylamine  reagent  to  obtain  the  most  stable 
and  intensified  coloration  at  ordinary  temperature  with  certain  quantities  of  nitric 
acid.     Diphenylbenzidine  is  twice  as  sensitive  towards  nitric  acid  as  diphenylamine. 

Prevention  of  Loss  of  Ammonia  in  the  Estimation        A. W.  Joachimowitz 
of  Nitrogen  by  KjeldahPs  Method 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  ii.  p.  217 

The  concentrated  sodium  hydroxide  solution  is  added  so  as  to  form  a  layer  below 
the  acid  solution  and  the  two  layers  are  mixed  when  ready  for  absorption  of  ammonia. 
(This  method  is  familiar  to  every  organic  chepaist). 

The  Analysis  of  Gases  by  Means  of  Orsat's  Apparatus,  L.  Descamps 

Replacing  Pyrogallol  by  Hyposulphites 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  ii.  p.  216 

Alkaline  sodium  hyposulphite  is  advocated  for  the  absorption  of  oxygen.  No 
mention  is  made  of  the  instability  of  hyposulphite  compounds. 

Estimation  of  Hardness  in  Water  A.  Heyn 

J.  Chem.  Soc,  Abst.,  1917,  ii.  p.  218 

Influence  of  different  constituents  of  natural  waters  on  the  estimation  of  hardness 
by  different  methods  is  shown. 

Microchemieal  Detection  of  Carbon  and  Sulfur  F.  Emich 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  ii.  p.  218 

Estimation  of  Small  Quantities  of  Iron  and  Aluminum  R.  Berg 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  ii.  p.  220 

System  for  the  estimation  of  these  metals  in  goods  and  organic  substances 
8«'»«"'"y-  Digitized  by  Google 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  121 

Eetimatioii  of  Nickel  in  the  Presence  of  Zinc  and  Iron  S.  Rothschild 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abet.,  1917,  ii.  p.  221 

The  nickel  is  separated  from  zinc  by  precipitatioD  with  dimethyl-glyoxime.  The 
precipitate  is  then  dissolved  in  hydrochloric  acid  treated  with  an  excess  of  ammonia 
and  electrolysed.  The  nickel  is  deposited  and  separated  from  the  iron.  It  may  be 
stated  that  to  deposit  all  the  nickel  as  a  pure  deposit  is  a  very  difficult  matter. 

Determination  of  Small  Amounts  of  Free  E.  Vulquin  and  M.  Entat 

Sulphuric  Acid  in  Presence  of  Sulphates 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.. 546 

As  little  as  0.4  mg.  of  fTee  sulphuric  acid  in  presence  of  sulphates  is  claimed  to 
be  terminable  by  electrometric  method. 

Titration  of  Oxalic  Acid  with  Alkalis  and  Ammonia  in  G.  Bruhns 

Presence  of  Methyl  Orange 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  645 

Most  of  the  oxalic  acid  ia  titrated  with  alkali  and  the  end  point  is  obtained  by 
precipitating  the  remaining  oxalic  acid  with  calcium  chloride  then  titrating  the  liber- 
ated hydrochloric  acid  in  presence  of  methyl  orange. 

Colloid-Chemical  Phenomenon  as  Indicator  in  Quantitative       J.F.  Sacher 
Analysis 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  571 

The  coagulation  of  colloidal  lead  molybdate  serves  as  an  end  point  for  the 
titration  of  lead  with  ammonium  molybdate. 

Titration  of  Iodine  with  Thiosulphate  R.  Kempf 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  571 

Large  excess  of  acid  or  the  presence  of  alkali  introduces  an  error  in  titration. 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Scheme  of  Analysis  for  Blanc  Fixe  A.  B.  Hitchins         1414 

Paper,  June  6,  1917,  p.  11 

A  description  of  the  tests  used.  For  photographic  purposes  it  is  tested  as  follows: 
A  small  sample  is  spread  upon  a  glass  slide  and  a  drop  of  10%  silver  nitrate  solution 
is  put  on  it.  If  a  deep  brown  or  black  stain  develops  within  five  minutes,  it  is  unfit 
for  photographic  purposes.  This  paper  is  a  contribution  from  the  Research  Labora- 
tory of  the  Ansco  Company. 

Production  of  Platinum 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  295 

The  total  output  of  platinum  from  the  Urals  showed  a  decrease  during  1916, 
86,608  offl.  being  produced  as  compared  with  118,709  in  1916  and  168,084  in  1913.|^ 


122 ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

The  Solubility  of  Lead  Sulphate  in  Highly        H.  Ditz  and  F.  Kanhaoser 
Concentrated  and  Fuming  Sulphuric  Acid 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abet.,  1917,  ii.  p.  208 

The  solubility  of  lead  increases  with  concentration  of  the  sulphuric  acid  slowly  up 
to  97%,  then  rapidly  up  to  100%. 


Organic  Chemistry 

Microscopic  Paper  Fiber  Analysis      G.K.  Spence  and  J.M.  Krauss       1412 
Paper,  May  23,  1917,  p.  11 

A  new  quantitative  method  for  determining  the  percentage  weight  of  different 
fibers  in  a  sample  of  paper  or  pulp.  To  determine  the  percentage  weight  of  the 
different  fibers  present  in  a  given  sample  of  paper  it  is  necessary  to  know  the  relative 
weights  of  equal  areas  or  lengths  of  the  difierent  fibers.  Since  the  weights  per  unit 
length  of  different  kinds  of  fibers  vary,  the  counts  (unit  lengths)  must  vary  in  inverse 
ratio.  The  sample  of  paper  is  pulped  and  diluted  so  that  it  contains  from  .02-. 03  percent 
fiber.  A  small  quantity  of  this  is  put  on  a  slide  and  examined  under  a  microscope. 
A  magnification  of  about  160  diameters  is  used.  The  total  length  of  each  kind  of 
fibre  (the  diameter  of  the  field  being  taken  as  the  unit  of  length)  observed  in  the 
field  is  taken.  It  is  advisable  that  not  more  than  four  complete  diameters  shall  appear 
in  one  field.  Sufficient  fields  should  be  counted  to  give  a  fair  average.  To  obtain 
relative  weights,  MunktelPs  0  filter  paper,  which  is  pure  rag,  was  taken  as  the 
standard.  Since  there  is  a  great  variation  in  weights  of  the  different  deciduous  fibers, 
to  ascertain  the  amount  of  each  kind  present,  the  percentage  of  ducts  occurring  in 
each  kind  was  ascertained  from  samples  of  pulp  of  each  kind.  By  counting  the  ducta 
(which  are  characteristic  for  each  kind  of  deciduous  wood)  in  the  sample  under  ex- 
amination, and  using  the  percentage  factors,  the  amount  of  that  kind  of  fiber  may  be 
determined.    Tables  are  given. 

The  Physical  Testing  of  Paper  as  Affected  by  R.  Campbell         1412 

Humidity 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  658 

Tests  were  made  at  different  humidities  on  various  samples  of  paper  using  the 
Schopper  tensile  strength  machine,  Schopper  folding  machine,  Mullen  tester  and  pene- 
tration test.  As  the  relative  humidity  increased,  strength  and  penetration  decreased; 
stretch  increased.  Folding  test  in  most  cases  reached  a  maximum  at  about  80% 
humidity.  The  author  states  that  while  the  humidity  control  waa  not  all  to  be 
desired,  it  did  not  vary  more  than  two  or  three  points.     Tables  and  charts  are  given. 


Organic  Chemical  Reagents  for  Scientific  and  Technical  R.  Adams 

Laboratories 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  686 

Offering  for  sale  a  number  of  substances  unobtainable  in  the  open  market  which 
have  been  or  can  be  prepared  in  the  Organic  Laboratory  of  the  University  of  Illinois 

under  the  scheme  initiated  by  Dr.  C.  G.  Derick.  C^ r\r\n]^ 

^  Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  123 


Some  Machinery  Employed  in  the  Manufacture  of  Glue        A.  l^owenstein 
J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  710 
Review  of  modem  methods  involred  in  chilling,  catting  and  spreading. 

The  Ferrous  Sulphate  and  Ammonia      W.A.  Jacobs  and  M.  Heidelberger 
Method  for  the  Reduction  of  Nitro  to  Amino  Compounds 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  1435 
This  forms  an  excellent  method  when  it  is  necessary  to  reduce  nitnMK>mpounds 
which  are  sensitive  to  acid.    Ferrous  sulphate  solution  is  added  to  a  solution  suspension 
of  the  substance  to  be  reduced  in  hot  dilute  ammonia. 

On  the  Use  of  I^rge  Glass-stoppered  Containers  in  R.  B.  Krauss 

Autoclaving 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  1512 
In  order  to  conduct  autoclave  reactions  in  glass  vessels,  the  reaction  mixture  is 
placed  in  a  stoppered  bottle,  the  stopper  being  securely  clamped  down,  and  the  whole 
placed  in  water  in  an  autoclave.    In  this  way  large  differences  between  internal  arid 
external  pressure  are  eliminated. 

Estimation  of  Traces  of  Water  in  Alcohol  Nussbaum 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  ii.  p.  215 
The  addition  of  definite  amounts  of  water  raises  the  temperature  at  which  a 
slightly  heaited  mixture  of  equal  volumes  of  absolute  alcdhol  and  light  t>etroleum 
becomes  turbid  when  cooled. 

Electrolysis  of  Organic  Compounds  A.  Piguet 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  July,  1917,  p. "42 
A  design  of  cell  is  devised  to  prevent  a  circulating  emulsion  to  be  reduced  at  the 
cathode  from  being  oxidized  by  the  anode  and  vice  versa. 


Photochemistry 

Ultra-Violet  Light.     Its  Application  in  Chemical     C.  Ellis  and  A.  A.  Wells 
Arts.     Part  IV. 

Chem.  Eng.,  June,  1917,  p.  148 

On  the  Inner  Mechanism  of  the  Photo- Chemical  N.  P.  Strachov 

Reaction  between  Oxygen  and  Hydriodic  Acid 

J.  Russian  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  p.  825 
Under  the  influence  of  the  violet  light  on  this  reaction  the  iodine  produce<l  may 
act  as  a  light  filter  and  affect  the  velocity.  Strachov,  using  Plotnikov's  Photo- 
Thermostat  with  mercury  lamp  as  source,  has  studied  this  effect,  the  outer  cylinder 
of  the  reaction-vessel  being  jacketed  with  iodine  solutions  of  varying  strengths ;  it  was 
found  that  2<cms.  of  266/1000  N.  iodine  solution  completely  absorbed  the  active  rays. 
However,  the  iodine  separated  in  the  course  of  the  reaction  only  amounts  to  a  concen- 
tration of  2/1000  N.,  so  that  no  detectable  filter-action  was  to  be  expected  from  this, 
and  experimentally  it  was  found  that  no  such  action  occurred  till  the  iodine  concen- 
tration exceeded  27/1000  N.  Further  it  was  shown  that  any  molecular  complexes 
formed  by  the  released  iodine  had  no  catalytic  effect  in  the  working  '*<*4900q1c 


124  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Patent  Abstracts 
U.  S.  Patents 

1228680  F.  W.  Kent        D1375 

A  Printing  Paper  to  be  used  for  transfering  photographfi  to  wood,  textiles,  etc. 
A  paper  base  is  saturated  with  paraffin  and  coated  with  a  substratum  of  pyroxylin, 
gelatine  and  glacial  acetic  acid.  The  sensitive  emulsion  is  coated  over  the  substratum, 
exposed  and  developed  in  the  usual  way.  The  waxing  of  the  paper  excludes  impurities 
and  permits  the  paper  to  be  readily  stripped  off. 

1228877  P.  D.  Brewster        K31     K/43 

A  Ck>lored  Motion  Picture  Process.  A  pair  of  color  sensitive  negative  films 
arranged  face  to  face  and  permanently  connected  together  along  one  edge  are  passed 
through  a  two-color  motion  picture  camera  and  complementary  color  selection  images 
printed  on  each  film.  From  these  negatives  a  two-color  positive  film  is  made.^  The 
camera  includes  two  lenses  which  are  very  close  together  and  prisms  which  reflect  the 
images  from  the  lenses  in  register  upon  opposite  sides  of  the  pair  of  negative  films. 

1225929  J.  I.  Crabtree,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  CJo.         K38 

An  Apparatus  for  Treating  the  Surfaces  of  Cine  Film,  one  surface  at  a  time.  The 
film  is  wound  in  a  helix  about  a  drum  covered  with  a  flexible  wall  which  may  be 
inflated  to  bear  against  the  inner  face  of  the  film  and  thus  prevent  the  access  of  the 
treating  fluid  thereto. 

1227075  C.  B.  Rowntree        0631 

Apparatus  and  Method  of  making  Motion  Pictures.  The  camera,  which  is  of  the 
kind  that  can  take  one  picture  at  a  time  if  necessary,  is  mounted  to  slide  vertically 
in  suitable  guides  with  its  lens  pointed  downwardly  toward  a  horizontal  ground  glaas 
illuminated  from  below.  The  picture  materials  such  as  advertising  letters,  hearts  and 
cupids  are  successively  moved  to  different  positions  on  the  glass  and  photographed  in 
silhouette. 

1228722  W.  Verbeck        0631 

An  Apparatus  for  enabling  descriptive  matter  to  be  photographed  simultaneously 
with  a  main  picture.  It  is  particularly  adapted  for  use  with  motion  picture  cameras. 
The  descriptive  matter  is  held  on  a  frame  in  front  of  the  camera  outside  the  normal 
field  of  view  and  is  brought  into  the  field  of  view  optically  by  interposing  a  section  of 
a  converging  lens  between  it  and  the  camera. 

1229159  J.  E.  Singleton  and  S.  T.  White        0631 

A  Shutter  Operating  Attachment  for  twin  motion  picture  machines.  It  includes 
a  cord  and  pulleys  whit^h  connect  the  operating  handles  of  the  shutters  of  the  two 
machines  so  that  when  one  is  open  the  other  will  always  be  closed.  When  the  film 
in  the  exhibiting  machine  is  nearly  exhausted,  the  opt»rator  sets  the  second  machine 
in  motion  and  as  soon  as  the  end  of  the  film  in  the  first  machine  is  reached  the  shutter 
thereof  is  closed  and  simultaneously  the  shutter  of  the  second  machine  will  be  auto- 
matically opened.    Thus  one  attendant  can  operate  both  mi^^hinM     (^qOqIc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 1«6 

1226655  W.  M.  Grosvenor        0649 

A  Labricated  Motion  Picture  Film  which  is  prepared  by  coating  the  edges  thereof 
with  a  mixture  of  celluloid,  graphite,  methyl  alcohol  and  amyl  acetate. 

1226663  F.  W.  Hochstetter,  Assigned  to  H.  P.  Patents  and        067 

Processes  Co.,  Inc. 

A  Device  for  Exhibiting  Tinted  Motion  Picturee.  Instead  of  actually  coloring  the 
film,  a  translucent  screen  is  used  which  is  suitably  tinted  by  various  colored  electric 
lights. 

1225681        A. A.  Ruttan  and  C.E.  Hutchings,  Assigned  to  E.K.  Co.     210 

A  Latch  Mechanism  for  Folding  Cameras.  The  latch  for  the  front  bed  and  the 
latch  for  retaining  the  focusing  frame  or  plate  holder  in  position  are  both  mounted 
apon  a  single  plate  attached  to  the  top  of  the  camera  body  in  such  a  way  as  to  also 
assist  in  holding  the  carrying  handle  of  the  camera  in  place. 

1227675        A. A.  Ruttan  and  C.E.  Hutchings,  Assigned  to  E.K.  Co.     2102 

A  Focusing  Mechanism  for  Cameras.  It  is  actuated  by  a  lever  pivoted  centrally 
of  the  folding  bed,  the  lever  carrying  a  toothed  disc  which  co-operates  with  a  rack 
opon  the  movable  extension  bed. 

1226681  C.  H.  Mansfield        215 

A  Quick  Winding  Arrangement  for  Roll  Film  Cameras.  It  is  actuated  by  a  rack 
and  pinion,  the  movement  of  the  rack  being  progressively  decreased  to  compensate 
-for  the  increasing  diameter  of  the  film  on  the  winding  roll. 

1226660  R.  D.  Herschel        2151 

A  Focusing  Device  for  Roll  Film  Cameras.  A  lens  of  the  same  focal  length  as  the 
main  camera  lens  is  carried  by  a  swinging  arm  on  the  front  board  of  the  camera.  A 
oo-operating  focusing  screen  is  pivotaUy  mounted  on  the  camera  body.  When  the 
aoxiliary  lens  is  in  focus  on  the  screen,  the  main  lens  will  be  in  focus  on  the  film. 


1227692  T.  Tamura        2151 

A  RoU  Film  Camera  adapted  to  use  a  film  carrying  alternate  sensitive  sections 
and  semi-transparent  focusing  sections.  By  means  of  suitable  doors  and  light  traps 
in  the  camera  back  the  operator  can  focus  on  the  proper  sections  of  the  film,  then 
close  up  the  back  and  wind  a  sensitive  film  into  taking  position. 

1228051  A.  D.  Rochau        2152 

A  BoU  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  device  for  preventing  double  exposure. 
The  abutter  cannot  be  operated  a  second  time  unless  its  controlling  mechanism  is 
released  by  winding  a  fresh  section  of  film  into  position.  Digitized  by  GoOqIc 


126 ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1227276  A.  Kroedel,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.        2653 

A  Spool  Holder  for  Roll  Film  Cameras.  In  each  film  chamber  there  is  a  pivoted 
frame  carrying  a  relatively  fixed  spool  center  at  one  end  and  a  pivoted  spool  center 
at  the  opposite  end.  In  use,  the  frame  is  swung  out  of  the  chamber  to  enable  the 
spool  to  be  easily  loaded  between  the  centers,  whereupon  it  is  swung  backwardly  into 
the  chamber. 

1226956  C.  H.  Eckerson,  Assigned  i  to  G.  J.  Scott        2153 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  having  a  controlled  opening  in  the  back  for  printing  writing 
on  the  edges  of  the  successive  picture  spaces  of  the  film.  The  film  is  provided  with 
a  slightly  translucent  backing  paper.  The  operator  writes  upon  a  strip  of  ground 
glass  or  celluloid  placed  in  the  opening  of  the  camera  back.  By  opening  a  suitable 
shutter,  light  is  permitted  to  strike  through  the  backing  paper  to  the  film,  thus  print- 
ing the  writing. 

1226838  A.  F.  Wolber        216-26 

In  a  half-tone  process  camera  the  provision  of  a.  rotating  mask  so  that  the  plate 
may  be  separately  exposed  in  several  parts  and  also  a  method  of  rotating  the  screen 
so  that  a  small  screen  may  be  used. 

1229125  N.  T.  Nilsson,  Assigned  i  to  Samuel  Evans        221 

A  Machine  for  exhibiting  either  transparent  or  opaque  motion  pictures  using 
either  artificial  light  or  sunlight.  It  is  contained  within  a  cabinet  which  permits  of 
one  or  a  few  people  observing  the  pictures  at  a  time. 

1 226806       W.  L .  Patterson ,  Assigned  to  Bausch  &  I^mb  Optical  Co .      2235 

A  Scene  Shifting  Device  for  Projection  Apparatus.  It  enables  one  projected  image 
to  displace  another  on  the  screen  in  such  a  manner  that  no  apparent  movement  of 
the  two  images  occurs,  one  picture  apparently  being  applied  by  being  wiped  across 
the  screen  as  the  edge  of  the  other  disappears.  It  comprises  two  projecting  systems 
together  with  a  condenser  and  lamp,  the  latter  together  with  its  diaphragm  being 
laterally  shiftable  to  co-operate  alternately  with  the  difierent  projecting  systems. 

1228784  C.  Kesses        241 

An  Apparatus  for  Printing  on  Sensitive  Paper  simultaneously  from  type  and  from 
a  negative.  The  type,  negative  and  lamp-house  are  pressed  downwardly  against  a 
continuously  moving  strip  of  sensitive  paper  and  travel  with  it  a  short  distance.  They 
are  then  lifted  up,  moved  backward  and  brought  into  contact  with  the  next  adjacent 
section  of  sensitive  paper  and  so  on. 

1228912  T.  E.  Halldorson        241-222 

A  Combined  Printing  and  Enlarging  Apparatus.  The  printing  apparatus  com- 
prises a  box  having  a  printmg  frame  in  the  top  and  a  printing  light  near  the  bottom. 
Opening  into  one  side  of  the  box  is  a  projection  apparatus,  the  image  from  which 
may  be  thrown  from  an  adjustable  mirror  against  the  printing  frame.  By  manipu- 
lating the  mirror,  printing  or  enlarging  can  be  done  as  desired.  r^  ^^^T^ 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  187 

1227092  V.  C.  Teneau        268 

An  Apparatofl  for  Drying  Photographic  Prints.  The  prints  are  carried  by  means 
of  co-operating  endless  belts  aroond  heated  drams. 

1226724  J.  G.  Torr        2612 

A  Locking  Means  for  Tripods  consisting  of  three  interconnected  radiating  arms 
which  are  attached  to  the  tripod  legs  to  prevent  the  latter  separating  on  slippery 
enrfaces. 

1227991  M.  J.  Bamett,  Assigned  to  Eber  Beaulieu        2626 

A  Regolatable  Actuator  for  Camera  Shutters  which  enables  the  operator  to  include 
himself  in  the  picture.    It  is  driven  by  a  coiled  spring  and  pneumatically  controlled. 


1227203        A.  A.  Ruttan  and  C.E.  Hatchings,  Assigned  to  E.K.Co.      2651 

A  Photographic  Plate  Holder  made  from  stamped  sheet  metal  and  having  an 
improved  means  for  locking  the  |psitive  plate  in  proper  register. 

1228389  F.  W.  Barnes,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2668 

A  Ray  Filter  Holder  provided  with  a  flexible  steel  clamping  ring  for  adjustably 
engaging  the  lens  tube,  said  flexible  ring  being  fastened  by  a  slot  and  bolt  connection. 

1228255  •       C.  Spiro        3101 

A  Motion  Picture  Camera  in  which  the  winding  reel  is  driven  from  the  crank 
shaft  through  a  spiral  spring  and  frictional  hub.  A  pawl  which  controls  the  winding 
film  sprocket  is  released  at  the  proper  intervals  by  teeth  upon  a  disc  connected  to  the 
spiral  spring. 

1227886  H.  M.  Connor  and  D.  D.  Miles,  Assigned  by  Direct        3103 
and  Mesne  Assignments  to  A.  H.  Herbert,  et  al. 

A  Shutter  Controlling  Mechanism  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus.  It  is  especially 
adapted  for  obtaining  dissolving  views  over  a  predetermined  length  of  film. 

1227081  M.  Hegel         3201 

An  Automatic  Threading  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Machines.  The  end  of  the 
film  is  placed  in  engagement  with  the  upper  sprocket  and  the  latter  rotated.  The 
downwardly  fed  film  end  is  deflected  by  suitable  guides  automatically  through  the 
gate  and  lower  sprocket,  the  usual  loops  being  also  automatically  formed. 

1227887  H.  M.  Connor  and  D.  D.  Miles,  Assigned  by  Direct         3201 
and  Mesne  Assignments  to  A.  H.  Herbert,  et  al. 

An  Intermittent  Feeding  Mechanism  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  comprising 
mn  oedUating  lever  carrying  film  engaging  teeth  which  are  alternately  moved  forward 
in  engagement  with  the  film  and  rearwardly  out  of  engagemen^.  GoOqIc 


128  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1227039  S.  M.  Coflfman,  Assigned  by  Mesne        3202 

Assignments  to  Photo  Motion  Ck>. 

A  Film  Tensioning  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus.  Two  parallel  bars  are 
held  against  the  edges  of  the  film  adjacent  the  gate  by  means  of  a  spring-pressed 
lever,  the  pressure  of  which  is  controlled  by  a  thumb  screw. 

1227094        C.  Uebelmcsser,  Assigned  to  Cru  Patents  Corporation        3208 

A  Shaft  for  Receiving  Film  Reels  during  Winding.  The  arrangement  is  such  that 
the  mere  pushing  of  the  reel  onto  the  shaft  will  hold  the  former  automatically  in 
position. 

1226883  D.  Higham         323 

A  Combined  Phonograph  and  Motion  Picture  Apparatus.  A  sound  record  and 
picture  record  are  provided  with  corresponding  indices.  A  clutch  connecting  the 
picture  and  sound  mechanism  is  si)ecially  arranged  to  avoid  a  sudden  start  of  the 
sound  mechanism  which  would  cause  the  reproducer  to  jump  out  of  the  record  groove. 

1227623  0  D.  Horsley        341 

A  Printing  Machine  for  Motion  Picture  Film  in  which  the  strength  of  the  light 
is  automatically  controlled  through  electro  magnetic  mechanism  by  means  of  ap- 
propriate notches  in  the  edges  of  the  film. 

1226282  M.  Vandal        383 

A  Machine  for  Coloring  Motion  Picture  Film.  A  stencil  film  made  by  cutting 
out  portions  of  a  positive,  is  carried  through  the  machine  in  registry  with  the  film  to 
be  colored  and  specially  moving  brushes  carry  the  coloring  matter  through  the 
stencil  openings  onto  the  treated  film. 

1227138  F.W.  Hochstetter,  Assigned  to  Paul  M.  Pierson        387 

A  Device  for  Restoring  Blemished  Motion  Picture  Films.  The  film  is  carried 
between  rotated  brushes  for  preliminary  cleaning  and  then  is  wiped  by  co-operating 
pairs  of  ribbon-like  bufiers  of  flannel  carrying  a  solvent  of  grease.  It  is  finally  cleaned 
by  a  subsequent  set  of  ribbon-like  buff*er8  together  with  cylindrical  edge  bufiers. 


British  Patents 

B1000098-1915— Color  Dye  Images  Brewster  Film  Corp.         KJ88 

British  form  of  U.  S.  Patent  1214940,  for  the  production  of  iodide  from  silver  in 
the  form  of  a  hydrogeU  so  that  after  dyeing  with  a  basic  dye,  as  in  the  Traube  pro- 
cess, it  is  not  necessary  to  remove  the  silver  iodide. 

B106102-1916-Typographic  Title  Slides  C.  Doughty        046 

This  invention  relates  to  an  improved  method  of  projecting  cinematographs  on 
lantern  slide  announcements.  The  announcements  are  set  up  in  ordinary  printer's 
type  and  transferred  to  a  ^ass  slide  by  the  simplest  form  of  offset  press,  the  inked 
type  being  printed  on  a  rubber  roller  which  is  then  printed  off  onto  a  glass  slide. 
(B.  J.,  1917,  p.  316)  .  rc^f^n]o 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  129 


Swiss  Patent 

SwL?6,  73299-1917  Compagnie  Fraiicaise  des  Papiers 

Pell iculai res  Pin. 

Film  for  Temporary  Support  in  Photography.  The  surface  to  be  covered  with 
temporary  film  is  coated  first  with  a  cocoanut  oil  soap,  and  after  this  has  dried,  the 
film  compoeition  is  poured  over  it.  The  solution  of  soap  is  made  of  soap  8  g.,  and 
water  1000  g.  The  film  composition  is  made  by  softening  1000  g.  gelatine  in  8000  g. 
of  cold  water,  heating  the  mass  on  a  water  bath  at  about  80°,  and  afU^r  the  gelatine 
has  dissolved  a  solution  is  added  composed  of  20  g.  of  a  6%  aq.  solution  of  chrome 
alum  and  200  g.  water.  This  mixture  is  maintained  in  a  liquid  statt*  for  about  30 
minutes,  when  there  is  added,  with  stirring,  first  a  solution  of  166  g.  of  soap  in  500  g. 
of  water,  and  then  100  cc.  of  28^  glycerol.     (Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  1797). 


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Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


September,  1917 


Issued  hy  the  Research  Laboratory^ 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COMPANY 

Rochester,  Ne^vYork 


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lU:(v 


rv-^c  ^o^vcw  ^ 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  131 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 

Vol.  3.  No.  7 


September,   1917 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  133 


Note 

WTH  this  number  of  the  Abstract  Bulletin  is  commenced  the 
publication  of  abstracts  of  the  scientific  communications  of  the 
Laboratory.  The  three  abstracts  in  this  number  representthe 
first  three  communications  published  since  the  making  up  of  the  second 
volume  of  the  Abridged  Scientific  Publications,  which  is  just  ready. 

Abstracts  of  the  more  generally  interesting  reports  filed  in  the 
Laboratory  during  the  preceding  month  will  also  be  published  in  this 
Bulletin  beginning  ^th  the  present  issue. 

The  references  to  the  full  scientific  communications  are  given,  and 
if  further  information  is  desired  copies  may  be  obtained  from  the  Labora- 
tory.   Fuller  information  as  to  any  report  abstracted  can  also  be  obtained. 


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134  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Additions  to  the  Numerical  Classification 


119    Miscellaneous  Plates. 
329    Mutoscopee. 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  186 


Photography 


Baryta  Coating  B13 

Phot.  Dealer,  1917,  p.  220 

It  is  stated  that  Messrs.  Rajar,  Ltd. ,  are  supplying  the  trade  with  Baryta  coated 
paper,  and  are  prepared  to  undertake  Baryta  coating  for  other  manufacturers. 

The  Parallax  Method  of  Fine  Focusing  Fl 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  322 

In  focusing  by  parallax,  a  clear  glass  screen  with  a  mark  of  some  kind  on  it  is 
ufied  in  place  of  the  ground  glass  and  the  camera  extension  is  adjusted  until  the 
image  appears  to  be  quite  stationary  in  resp^t  to  the  fixed  mark  on  the  screen  when 
the  eye  is  moved.  If  the  image  appears  to  move  with  the  eye,  then  the  focus  is  in  front 
of  the  screen  and  if  it  moves  in  a  reverse  direction  to  that  of  the  eye  the  focus  is  behind 
the  screen.  A  very  slight  movement  of  the  eye  is  all  that  is  necessary  to  detect  move- 
ment, and  with  the  use  of  a  magnifier  the  method  is  very  sensitive.  The  author  pre- 
fers for  the  greatest  sensitiveness  to  have  a  scale  ruled  on  the  focusing  screen  and 
another  scale  as  the  object,  but,  naturally,  the  method  can  be  used  with  satisfaction 
without  these  precautions. 

•Focusing  in  Portraiture  Fl 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  338 

This  article  deals  with  the  adjustment  of  the  focus  so  as  to  get  a  satisfactory  degree 
of  definition  in  the  sharpest  plane,  the  sharpness  falling  off  in  the  less  prominent 
parts  of  the  composition.  The  author  mentions  the  fact  that  operators  obtain  different 
results  from  a  lens  according  to  whether  they  are  used  to  it  or  not  and  suggest  that 
the  reason  for  this  is  a  slight  residue  of  chromatic  aberration  which  with  experience 
is  allowed  for  in  focusing.  Attention  is  called  to  the  importance  of  the  swing  back  in 
obtaining  the  best  results  in  portraiture. 

Note  on  the  Keeping  of  Chemicals  Gl 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  386 

It  is  suggested  that  deliquescent  salts  can  be  kept  in  good  condition  if  the  bottles 
are  stored  in  a  small  cupboard  containing  an  open  bottle  half  full  of  strong  sulphuric 
acid. 

Professional  Work  for  Amateur  Photographers  GJ 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  391 

A  description  of  the  photo  finishing  department  of  the  Photo  Art  Shop  of  St.  Paul, 
Minn. 

Strip  Printing  for  Midgets  D.  Charles        JS 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  379 

'  The  author  recommends  the  printing  of  images  in  the  same  way  as  postcard 
printing  by  use  of  a  suitable  mask,  making  two  rows  of  prints  on  a  sheet  rather  than 
using  a  long  narrow  strip. 

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186  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Sulfide  Toning  of  P.  ().  P.  A.  J.  Prentice        J84 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  371 

If  a  Solio  paper  be  printed  as  deeply  as  is  necessary  for  self-toning  paper  and 
tlien  fixed  in  plain  liypo,  washed  briefiy  and  placed  for  three  minates  in  a  bath  of 
ammonium  snlphide,  one  drop  to  water  eight  ounces,  a  satisfactory  tone  is  obtained. 

A  Bibliography  on  Color  Photography  K 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  July  21,  1917,  pp.  452,  886 

The  Photographic  Rendering  of  Tone  C.  E.  K.  Mees        015 

Values.     III. 

Studio  Light;  July,  1917,  p.  6 

This,  the  third  article  of  the  series,  describes  how  tht^  contrast  of  a  negative  in- 
creases during  development  at  a  gradually  diminishing  rate  until  it  reaches  a  maxi- 
mum. Development  beyond  this  results  in  the  production  of  fog.  The  magnitude 
of  the  maximum  contrast  depends  largely  on  the  nature  of  the  plate.  High  speed 
plates  have  low  values  while  process  plates  have  higher  values.  By  short  develop- 
ment, a  negative  of  low  contrast  can  be  obtained  on  a  plate  which  gives  a  high 
maximum  contrast,  though  since  such  plates  have  a  very  short  straight  line  portion, 
only  subjects  of  limited  scale  can  be  rendered  on  the  straight  line  portion  of  the 
curve.  This  is  why  it  is  not  possible  to  get  a  satisfactory  portrait  negative  on  a. 
process  plate  by  short  development. 

The  Negative  W.  F.  Slater        015 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  344 

At  the  South  I/mdon  Photographic  Society  meeting,  Mr.  W.  F.  Slater  gave  an 
address  on  "The  Ntgative**.  Mr.  Slater  for  a  number  of  years  has  given  lecture 
demonstrations  on  behalf  of  Kodak  Ltd.  The  abstract  of  this  lecture  in  the  B.  J., 
is  worth  reading  as  being  a  very  simple  explanation  of  the  theory  of  exposure  and 
development.  The  only  point  that  requires  correction  is  the  statement  that  correct 
development  of  the  negative  is  far  more  important  than  correct  exposure,  which  pre- 
Humably  is  an  error  in  transcription. 

Scientific  Theorie.s:  in  Special  Reference  to  Lenses  019 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  324 

It  is  pointed  out  that  in  jreometrical  optics  as  opposed  to  physics  in  general,  we 
are  dealing  largely  with  artificial  conceptions,  and  that  consequently  the  theories  of 
geometrical  optics  do  not  deal  with  actual  conditions  but  ^^•ith  certain  assumed  simpli- 
fied ccmditions;  so  that  although  the  theories  of  geometrical  optics  are  useful,  they 
cannot  he  rigidly  applied  to  actual  lenses. 

Perspective  and  the  Theory  of  Vanishing  Points  019 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  874 

Criticism  of  a  paper  by  Dr.  Roads  in  '  The  Optician  and  S<*.ientific  Instrument 
Maker.*' 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  137 

Essentiality  in  Hand  Cameras  '  G.  M.  Nicol        024 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  387 

The  author  deals  with  the  hand  camera  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  lens  and 
gives  some  good  advice  as  to  the  focal  length  and  aperture  required  for  particular 
branches  of  work.  The  article  also  contains  a  discussion  of  shutters.  One  of  the 
ideas  in  this  article  is  certainly  a  valnahle  one  in  presenting  facts  with  regard  to  lenses. 
It  is  pointed  out  that  while  the  focal  length  of  a  lens  governs  scale  and  angle,  and 
relative  aperture  governs  the  intensity  of  the  image, the  aheolute  aperture,  that  is  the 
diameter  of  the  stop  itself,  governs  the  depth.  The  use  of  this  classification  might 
be  valoable  in  instruction  booklets. 

Sketch  Portraiture  Complete  J.  S.  Adamson        031 

B.  J.,  1917,  pp.  326,  339 

Two  articles  dealing  with  the  illumination  of  the  sitter  and  background  in  taking 
the  negative,  with  the  after  treatment  of  the  negative  and  appliances  used  in  making 
the  print  with  the  practical  work  in  connection  with  the  mounting  of  prints  and  the 
working  up  of  prints  with  the  powder  air  brush ;  also  with  the  introduction  of  clouding 
and  sketch  work. 

Foggy  Nc^tives  041 

Studio  Light,  July,  1917,  p.  16 

It  is  considered  that  the  fog  on  a  large  percentage  of  negatives  is  directly  attribut- 
able to  a  dirty  lens. 

Locally  Controlling  the  Printing  of  Enlargements  046 

Kodakery,  August,  1917,  p.  18 

A  description  of  the  method  of  shading  during  enlarging  by  interposing  the 
fingers  or  some  other  opaque  object  in  the  path  of  the  light  rays  frsm  the  lens  to  the 
enlarging  easel. 

Copying  Photographs  and  Printed  Matter  057 

Studio  Light,  July,  1917,  p.  19 

In  order  to  copy  a  composite  picture,  such  as  a  photograph  with  printed  matter 
attached,  the  exposure  and  development  should  be  adjusted  to  suit  the  photograph 
and  the  density  necessary  for  the  line  work  is  obtained  by  local  intensification.  In- 
structions are  given  for  the  use  of  the  Monckhoven  intensifier. 

A  Paper  Prepared  by  the  Committee  on  Electrical  Devices  067 

of  the  Society  of  Motion  Picture  Engineers 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  July  21,  1917,  p.  448 
A  continuation  of  the  paper  in  the  issue  of  July  7,  on  the  science  of  projection. 

Photographing  from  the  Air  H.  Voorwalt        083 

Lux,  1917,  p.  197 

This  is  a  continued  article  of  which  at  present  we  have  only  the  second  portion ; 
the  first  is  being  obtained  and  the  next  will  be  published  in  the  August  number  of 
Lux.     The  author  deals  with  the  development  of  the  negative,  the  lens  and  the  use 

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138  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

of  stereoscopic  pictures.  There  is  little  that  is  new  in  the  article,  but  owing  to  the 
difficulty  in  obtaining  information  on  this  subject  at  the  present  time  the  article  is  of 
interest.  Some  interesting  photographs  illustrate  it  but  unfortunately  these  are  taken 
from  very  low  altitudes,  the  highest  being  less  than  4000  feet.  (This  article  has  been 
translated  from  the  Dutch  in  the  Laboratory  and  a  copy  of  the  translation  can  be  ob- 
tained if  required.) 

Simple  Photographic  Method  of  Recording  Finger  Prints  .       086 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  892 

The  method  which  is  published  by  the  Eastman  Kodak  Company  consists  in 
greasing  the  finger  with  vaseline,  wiping  off  the  excess  of  vaseline  and  pressing  the 
greasy  finger  on  a  previously  fogged  sensitive  plate,  which  is  then  placed  in  a  develop- 
ing solution,  when  the  vaseline  protects  the  part  which  it  covers  and  this  gives  a 
negative  of  the  finger  print,  from  which  ordinary  prints  can  be  made.  If  only  one  or 
two  prints  are  required,  paper  can  be  used  instead  of  a  plate,  when  a  reverse  image 
is  obtained. '  For  making  impressions  on  blue  print  paper,  a  mixture  of  lanoline 
saturated  with  stannous  chloride  is  used  instead  of  vaseline.  This  does  not  give  quite 
as  sharp  lines  as  the  vaseline  and  silver  paper. 

Experiments  Concerning  L.  A.  Bauer  and  W.  F.  G.  Swann        089 

*  *  Magnet-Photography  * ' 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  391 

L.  A.  Bauer  and  W.  F.  G.  Swann  have  repeated  the  experiments  made  by  F.  S. 
Mace  on  the  effect  of  a  magnetic  field  on  photographic  plates  and  find  some  evidence 
that  a  magnetic  field  intensifies  photographic  action,  especially  action  by  wood  or 
resin. 

Wild  Animal  Photography  H.  T.  Middletcm        098 

Kodakery,  August,  1917,  p.  8 

An  article  illustrating  what  can  be  done  in  this  direction  with  very  simple 
apparatus. 

Eastman  Commercial  Film  1218 

Studio  Light,  July,  1917,  p.  19 

A  film  intermediate  between  process  and  portrait  film,  similar  in  character  to  the 
Seed  23  emulsion,  it  is  particularly  suitable  for  making  duplicate  negatives  by  contact 
or  by  enlargement. 

Some  Trials  of  Kallitype  C.  N.  Bennett        1312/74 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  878 

The  author  uses  Burton's  formula  for  sensitizing  and  develops  in  a  solution  con- 
taining 40  grains  of  borax  and  90  grains  of  Rochelle  Salt  to  the  ounce  of  water,  with 
the  addition  of  15  minims  of  a  weak  solution  of  potassium  bichromate.  This  is  stated 
to  give  a  fine  neutral  sepia.  Cutting  down  the  borax  leads  to  a  wanner  brown  image. 
By  increasing  the  bichromate  restrainer  4  to  8  times  a  contrasty  print  is  obtained 
without  half-tones,  very  suitable  for  copying  old  engravings,  and  it  the  print  is  left 
in  the  developer  only  10  minutes  a  good  yellowing  of  the  paper  is  obtained.  An  over- 
exposed Kallitype  print  can  be  saved  by  removing  it  from  the  developing  dish  and 
fixing  in  weak  oxalic  acid ;  a  cold  black  tone  is  obtained. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  139 


The  Properties  of  Contrasty  Bromide  Papers  L.  Lobel        137 

Photo-Revue,  June,  1917,  p.  3 

A  contrast-giying  bromide  paper  has  been  introduced  in  France  in  reflponse  to  a 
demand  from  the  photographic  aviation  service.  The  paper  is  four  times  slower^than 
a  standard  bromide  paper  and  is  stated  to  have  a  scale  of  1  to  16. 

Glycerine  Substitutes  in  Germany  1528 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  346 

An  extract  from  the '  Tharm.  Ztg. ' '  giving  a  list  of  the  various  substances  adopted 
in  Germany  in  place  of  glycerine. 

Qualitative  Tests  for  the  Commoner  Developers  W.  Ermen        1631 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  390 

Six  tests  are  given  for  distinguishing  between  the  developers  on  the  market, 
the  tests  given  being  quite  satisfactory  from  the  chemical  point  of  view. 

Permanganate  Bleach  for  Bromides  1661 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  371 

When  using  this  bleach  it  is  suggested  that  an  oxalic  and  sulphite  bath  be  used 
before  sulphiding  in  order  to  remove  the  permanganate  stain. 

Drying  Frame  for  Prints  G.  Boutet        258 

Photo-Revue,  June,  1917,  p.  1 

A  double  frame  is  made  of  thin  strips  of  wood  raised  in  the  center  like  a  roof  and 
covered  with  galvanized  netting.  This  is  suspended  from  the  ceiling  by  cords  passing 
over  a  pulley  so  that  it  can  be  lowered  and  raised,  and  the  prints  are  placed  upon  it 
to  dry. 

Photographic  Lens  Names  H.  L.         263 

B.  J..  1917,  p.  326 

An  article  summarizing  all  the  names  which  have  been  given  to  lenses  and  divid- 
ing than  into  classes  according  to  their  derivation.  As  desirable  features  in  a  lens 
n«me  it  should  (1)  be  short,  (2)  sound  well,  (3)  have  some  definite  connection  with 
the  lens.  If  a  name  having  some  relation  to  construction  cannot  be  used,  a  lens  may 
be  named  after  its  inventor  or  maker  or  some  interesting  point  in  its  history  or  use. 

The  Kodak  Range  Finder  2645 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  348 

A  review  of  the  range  finder  under  the  heading  of  New  Apparatus,  the  matter 
being  considered  from  an  entirely  nontechnical  and  practical  point  of  view. 

A  New  Departure  Screen  324 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  July  21,  1917,  p.  446 

A  description  of  a  projection  screen  which  is  partly  diffusing  and  partly  reflecting, 
this  condition  being  Obtained  by  producing  a  half-tone  screen  effect,  the  dots  being 
silvered,  while  the  interstices  are  inlaid  with  a  white  pigment. 

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140  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Photographic  Materials  and  Processes  B.  V.  Storr 

B.  J.,  1917,  pp.  353,  364 

A  review  of  recent  progress  in  the  subject  for  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry, 
and  reprinted  from  Vol.  1  (1916)  of  their  annual  reports  on  applied  chemistry. 

The  Teaching  of  Photography 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  362 

The  article  lays  stress  on  the  fact  that  only  a  specially  trained  teacher  can  obtain 
the  best  results  and  that  a  knowledge  of  the  subject  is  not  sufficient  in  itself  to  make 
a  teacher.  It  is  suggested  that  the  apprenticeship  system  should  be  replaced  by 
systematic  instruction,  under  which  those  entering  the  photographic  business  should 
spend  two  days  in  the  school  each  week,  and  the  remaining  three  or  three  and  a  half 
in  the  business,  the  system  to  be  compulsory  both  for  employers  and  employees  up  to 
a  certain  age,  and  the  course  lasting  two  years,  the  first  year  being  devoted  to 
elementary  work  and  the  second  year  to  some  sjjecialized  study;  scholarships  to 
be  available  to  make  an  extension  to  a  third  year  possible. 

An  Improved  Method  of  Silvering  Glass  R.  E.  Crowther 

with  Chemicals  of  Only  Ordinary  Purity 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  375 
The  paper  should  be  read  by  those  interested  in  silvering  glass. 

The  British  Photographic  Manufacturers'  Association 
Phot.  Dealer,  1917,  p.  198 

There  are  now  forty  manufacturing  firms  who  are  members  of  this  Association, 
Mr.  E.  W.  Houghton  being  the  first  president. 

The  Photographic  Dealers'  Association 

Phot.  Dealer,  1917,  p.  204 

An  article  on  the  work  of  the  Association,  by  the  president,  Mr.  J.  A.  Sinclair. 

Calcium  Sulfide  as  an  Antidote  for  Mercuric  J.  H.  Wilms 

Chloride  Poisoning 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  2117 

As  a  result  of  experiments  on  dogs,  the  author  finds  calcium  sulfide  to  be  a  satis- 
factory antidote  for  mercuric  chloride  poisoning.  The  calcium  sulfide  is  freshly 
made  up  in  a  solution  of  one  grain  to  the  ounce  of  distilled  water  and  the  dose  is  one 
ounce  of  this  solution  to  each  grain  of  mercuric  chloride  taken.  In  advanced  cases  a 
more  concentrated  solution  should  he  used  intravenously,  but  sulfide  may  be 
administered  by  the  mouth  when  the  intravenous  method  is  not  practicable.  The  use 
of  calcium  sulfide  by  the  mouth  may  be  continued  until  all  symptoms  of  meYcurialism 
have  disappeared,  since  it  is  not  poisonous.  Deteriorated  solutions  of  calcium  sulfide 
produce  convulsions.  The  use  of  the  white  of  an  egg  for  mercurial  poisoning  is  use- 
less since  mercuric  chloride  is  so  rapidly  al)Sorbed  from  the  stomach  that  very  little 
remains  at  the  end  of  five  minutes. 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  141 


Photo-Engraving 


Commercial  Photographs  for  Half-Tone     Gatchel  and  Manning        03207 
Reproduction 

B.  J.,  July  13,  1917,  p.  366 

A  reprint  of  an  article  issued  by  the  ** American  Printer.*' 

A  Practical  Explanation  of  Photo-Engraving  T.  P.  O'Neill        07 

American  Printer,  July  5,  1917,  p.  32 
An  accoont  for  the  general  reader  that  is  not  too  technical. 

Enamel  Formula  for  Zinc  Etching  07006 

Process  Work  and  Electrotyping,  June,  1917,  p.  87 

The  following  is  said  to  give  a  fine  black  enamel  for  zinc:— Fish  Glue,  4  ozs. ; 
Albumen,  2 ozs. ;  Water,  4  ozs.  *  Am.  Bich.,  160  grains;  Am.  Ferri  Citrate,  16  grains; 
Sugar  Candy,  48  grains:  Chromic  Acid,  8  grains;  Glycerine,  48  drops. 

Some  Technical  Features  of  Wood  G.  H.  Whittle        0731 

Engraving 

Printing  Art,  July,  1917,  p.  337 

Half-tone  Etching  as  a  Fine  Art  G.  H.  Whittle        07007 

Printing  Art,.  June,  1917,  p.  257 

An  article  illustrated  with  examples  showing  the  effect  of  hand-tooling  on  half- 
tone engravings. 

Twenty-First  Annual  Convention  of  Manufacturing  Engravers' 
Association 

Photo-Engravers'  Bulletin,  July,  1917,  p.  3 

A  full  report  of  this  convention,  dealing  largely  with  questions  of  cost  of  pro- 
duction and  selling  prices. 

Technical  Requirements  for  Profitable  Photo-Engraving        A.  J.  Newton 
Photo-Engravers'   Bulletin,  July,  1917,  p.  43 
American  Photo-Engraver,  July,  1917,  p.  333 
Discusses  present  methods  and  suggests  various  simplifications. 

Reduction  of  Photos  or  Drawings  R.  G.  Wright 

American  Printer,  July  5,  1917,  p.  38 

A  suggestion  that  ordinary  rule  of  proportion  should  be  used  when  size  of  reduc- 
tion is  required  to  be  calculated. 

Preventing  Paint  Flaking  Off  Originals 

Process  Work  and  Electrotyping,  June,  1917,  p.  88 
Suggests  Ji  oz.  gum  tragacanth  to  20  ozs.  water  should  be  used  to  mix  color  with. 

Census  Returns  of  Printing  Industry 

American  Printer,  August  5,  1917,  p.  54 

The  Census  returns  for  1914  show  that  photo-engraving  employed  8J5i?5  persons. 

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m ABSTRACT    BULLETIN '_ 

Physics 

The  Optical  Properties  of  Light  Filters  C.  E.  K.  Mees        266 

Journal  of  the  Optical  Soc.  of  America,  Jan.;  1917,  p.  22 

A  theoretical  ^nd  practical  discussion.  Various  defects  of  perfect  and  imperfect 
filters  are  elaborated,  and  photographs  of  the  action  of  the  latter  class  are  given. 

A  Study  of  the  Integral  and  Luminous  Radiation  T.  Peczalski 

from  Solids 

Annales  de  Physique,  1917,  p.  224 

The  Complete  Photo-Electric  Emission  from  the  Alloy  W.  Wilson 

of  Sodium  and  Potassium 

Proc.  Roy.  Soc,  July,  1917,  p.  359 

An  experimental  investigation  of  law  governing  the  variation  of  the  complete 
photo-electric  emission  from  this  alloy,  with  the  temperature  of  the  source  of  radia- 
tion. The  author's  results  show  that  Richardson's  formula  for  the  temperature 
variation  of  the  thermionic  emission  from  metals  applied  to  this  alloy  as  the  theory 
suggests  it  should. 

The  Crystal  Structure  of  Magnesium  A.  W.  Hull 

Proc.  Nat.  Acad.  Sci.,  July,  1917,  p.  470 

First  an  X-ray  photograph  was  taken  of  single  small  crystals  to  give  the  approxi- 
mate structure,  and  then  a  photograph  was  taken  through  finely  powdered  magne- 
sium to  confirm  and  check  the  approximate  results. 

Ionization  by  X-rays  in  a  Magnetic  Field  A.  Righi 

Compt.  Rend.,  June  18,  1917,  p.  938 
The  author  contributes  new  data  on  this  subject  and  has  given  results  for  various 
values  of  the  magnetic  field. 

A  Photo-chemical  Theory  of  Vision  and  P.  G.  Nutting 

Photographic  Action 

Journal  of  the  Optical  Soc.  of  America,  Jan.,  1917,  p.  81 
An  outline  of  the  functional  relationships  between  radiant  energy  and  its  action 
otti  the  photographic  plate  and  on  the  retina.     Various  sub-hypotheses  are  framed  to 
account  for  the  known  facts.  It  is  pointed  out  that  the  general  equation  applicable  to 
the  retina  is  insoluble. 


Analytical  Chemistry 


lodometric  Determination  of  Chlorine  G.  Torossian 

in  Chlorides 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  751 

The  sample  containing  the  chloride  is  mixed  with  powdered  manganese  dioxide 
and  treated  with  sulphuric  acid  in  a  distilling  flask.  The  chlorine  is  distilled  over 
into  potassium  iodide  solution  and  the  liberated  iodine  is  titrated  with  standard  thio- 
sulphate  solution. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  143 

A  Method  of  Ashing  Organic  Materials  P.  L.  Blumenthal,  et  al. 

for  the  Detennination  of  Potassium 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  753 
To  avoid  loss  of  potassium  due  to  spattering  and  volatilization,  the  authors  recom- 
mend that  the  sample  before  ashing  should  be  evaporated  with  definite  amounts  of 
nitric  and  sulphuric  acids. 

Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide  as  a  Standard  in  Alkalimetry  G.  Incze 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  671 
The  yellow  mercuric  oxide  treated  with  an  excess  of  potassium  iodide  forms 
potassium  hydroxide  which  is  titrated  with  the  acid  to  be  standardized. 

Electrolytic  Analysis  with  Small  F.  A.  Gooch  and  M.  Kobayaschi 

Platinum  Electrodes 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  671 
Copper,  nickel  and  lead  are  each  completely  precipitated  by  employing  high  current 
densities  and  rotating  electrodes.  Loose  particles  of  metal  are  collected  by  means  of 
a  special  filtering  tube  previously  weighed.  (If  the  electrolyte  could  be  conveniently 
heated  to  a  high  enough  temperature,  the  deposit  would  in  all  probability  be  more 
adherent. ) 


Colloid  Chemistry 


Semi-permeable  Membranes  and  Negative  W.  D.  Bancroft 

Adsorption 

J.  Phys.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  441 
A  critique  of  osmotic  phenomena  in  relation  to  osmosis,  the  general  deductions 
from  which,  are: — (1)  We  may  have  osmotic  phenomena  with  a  porous  diaphragm 
provided  there  is  very  marked  negative  adsorption  and  provided  that  the  pores  are 
so  small  that  the  adsorbed  film  practically  fills  all  the  pore  space.  (2)  A  porous 
diaphragm  will  act  as  a  semi-permeable  membrane  in  case  there  is  no  measurable  ad- 
sorption of  the  solute  and  the  adsorbed  films  fill  the  pores  completely.  (3)  In  the 
asnal  case  of  a  semi-permeable  diaphragm  this  is  not  porous,  and  the  semi- 
permeability  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  solvent  dissolves  in  the  diaphragm  while  the 
solute  does  not  to  any  appreciable  extent.  (This  is  directly  contradicted  by  the  recent 
results  of  F.  Tinker,  Proc.  Roy.  Soc,  A.  93,  268,  1917.)  (4)  A  liquid  is  not  to  be 
considered  as  a  porous  substance  and  solubility  does  not  depend  on  porosity. 

Capillary  Phenomena  and  S.  L.  Bigelow  and  E.  A.  Rykenboer 

Supercooling 

J.  Phys.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  474 
The  authors  have  designed  apparatus  for  the  measurement  of  supercooling  in 
capillary  tubes.  They  show  that  much  greater  supercooling  can  be  produced  in 
capillaries  than  in  tubes  of  larger  diameter.  No  mathematical  connection  between 
the  diameter  and  the  degree  of  supercooling  could  be  obtained.  However,  a  plausible 
explanation  of  the  supercooling  under  these  conditions  is  given,  based  on  the  lower 
probability  of  appearances  of  a  single  crystallisation  centre  in  lesser  volume.  The 
material  of  the  tube  appears  to  have  little  influence,  nor  have  small  changes  of  sur- 
fnce  tension  any  importance.  In  the  case  of  sulfur,  the  amount  of  supercooling 
depends  on  the  temperature  of  pre-heating.  r^  ^^^T^ 

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144  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

The  Rhythmic  Precipitation  of  Colloidal  Mercury  H.  S.  Davis 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  8oc.,  1917,  p.  1312 
Phenomena  of  the  Liesegang  ring  type  are  obtained  by  the  reduction  of  mer- 
curous  nitrate  by  eodium  formate  in  agar  gel  at  53°  C.     It  ie  suggested  that  super- 
saturated solutions  of  colloidal  mercury  are  formed. 


Organic  Chemistry 


Experiments  in  the  Beating       O.  Kress  and  G.  C.  McNaughton         1411 
of  Sulfite  Pulp 

Paper,  July  4,  1917,  p.  13 

Gives  details  of  experiments  to  show  the  efl'ect  of  various  conditions  of  beating 
sulfite  pulp  and  the  behavior  of  the  sedimentation  tester  with  sulfite  stocks,  beaten 
under  various  conditions.  Photomicrographs  and  tables  are  given.  The  author  con- 
cludes that  the  sedimentation  test  as  an  indication  of  the  beating  treatment  is  exceed- 
ingly questionable. 

Characteristics  of  Paper  Fibres  (Part  IV)  H.  A.  Maddox         1411 

Paper,  June  27,  1917,  p.  21 
A  list  of  color  eflects  produced  by  various  reagents  on  various  fibres. 

Folding  P]ndurance  of  Paper        F.  P.  Veitch,  F.  Sammet,  E.O.  Reed     1412 
Paper,  May  30,  1917,  p.  13 
A  paper  dealing  with  the  standardization  and  accuracy  of  testers  for  determining 
folding  endurance.     Tables  of  results  are  given. 

The  Examination  of  Acetic  L.G.  Radcliffe  and  S.  Medofski     1511 

Anhydride 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  628 

Direct  titration  with  alkali  after  completion  of  hydrolysis  is  the  most  rapid 
method,  though  it  is  advisable  to  check  the  result  by  treatment  with  aniline.  Full 
details  of  procedure  are  given.  It  is  also  shown  that  crystallized  sodium  acetate  loses 
no  water  of  crystallization  on  exposure  to  the  laboratory  atmosphere,  but  that  it  can 
be  completely  dehydrated  by  standing  for  twelve  days  over  calcium  chloride  in  a 
desiccator  or  by  heating  for  twelve  hours  in  a  steam  oven. 

Solvents  of  Cellulose  Acetate  A.  Dubosc         1516 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  pp.  1)227,  9251 
Continuation  of  list  of  solvents  witli  their  properties. 

Compounds  of  Calcium  Chloride  and  Acetone  L.  S.  Bagster         1516 

Trans.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  494 
Compounds  containing  respectively  one  and  two  molecular  proportions  of  acetone 
to  one  of  calcium  chloride  are  described.  They  are  formed  by  treating  anhydrons 
calcium  chloride  with  dry  acetone,  and  are  decomposed  by  removing  the  acetone  by 
heat  or  diminished  pressure.  Their  vapor  pressures  are  compared  with  those  of 
acetone  in  tabular  and  graphic  form.  ^-^  ^ 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 145 

Hydroxyphenylglycine  Meldola,  Foster  and  Brightman         15314 

Trans.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  552 

In  the  course  of  their  work  on  optically  active  nitrogen  compounds  the  authors 
here  poblish  a  fonnola  for  the  preparation  of  p-hydroxyphenylglycine  (the  developing 
agent  ' 'glycine' ')  which  is  stated  to  give  a  better  yield  than  the  original  method  of 
Vater. 

Formaldehyde  as  a  Diastase  Prototype  G.  Woker 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  2090 

.  The  author  claims  that  formaldehyde  produces  hydrolysis  of  starch,  as  it  inhibits 
the  development  of  the  blue  color  with  iodine,     (cf.  following  abstract). 

Reaction  between  Starch  and  Formaldehyde  W.  v.  Kaufmann 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  (l)  p.  251 

Starch  combines  \nth  formaldehyde,  giving  a  compound  which  develops  no  blue 
color  with  iodine;  on  removal  of  the  formaldehyde  from  the  compound  by  boiling  or 
by  the  addition  of  ammonia,  unchanged  starch  is  regenerated. 

Effect  of  Gljxerin  on  Antiseptics  H.  P.  Goodrich 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  610 

Although  the  solubilities  of  many  antiseptics  is  greater  in  glycerol  than  in  water^ 
the  glycerol  causes  a  decrease  in  the  germicidal  properties ;  thus  a  saturated  solution 
of  thymol  in  a  mixture  of  equal  volumes  of  water  and  glycerol  has  no  better  anti- 
septic power  than  the  much  more  dilute  saturated  solution  of  thymol  in  pure  water. 
Similarly  with  boracic  acid ;  a  saturated  solution  in  water  is  much  more  ethcacious 
than  a  saturated  solution  in  aqueous  glycerol.  Other  antiseptics,  such  as  mercuric 
chloride  and  phenol,  show  a  similar  effect. 


From  Eastman  Kodak  Research  Laboratory 

Photomicrographs  in  Color  C.  E.  K.  Mees 

Amer.  Phot.,  August,  1917,  p.  448 

Communication  No.  50 

Lantern  slides  representing  photomicrographs  of  stained  sections  should,  in  order 
to  give  satisfaction,  closely  resemble  the  appearance  of  the  section  itself.  This  can 
be  attained  by  making  the  print  in  stained  gelatine  instead  of  by  the  usual  photo- 
graphic process. 

The  process  of  making  such  a  print  is  as  follows:  Lantern  plates  (See<l  or 
Standard  plates  are  satisfactory)  are  sensitized  by  bathing  for  five  minutes  in  a  2>^^ 
•  solution  of  ammonium  bichromate  containing  5  cc.  of  strong  ammonia  to  the  liter,  the 
temperature  of  the  bath  being  not  above  65°  Fahrenheit.  The  plates  are  then  rinsed 
for  two  or  three  seconds  in  clean  water,  drained  and  dried  as  uniformly  as  possible, 
the  plates  being  kept  in  the  dark  during  drying.  The  sensitized  plates  are  then 
exposed  through  the  glass  under  the  negative  to  the  light  of  an  arc  lamp,  the  average 
exposure  being  about  three  minutes  at  eighteen  inches  distance.  Printing  cannot  be 
done  by  daylight  or  sharp  images  will  not  be  obtaine<l.  The  exposed  plates  are  then 
developed  by  rocking  in  trays  of  water  at  about  120°  Fahrenheit  untiWU   soluble 

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146 ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

are  then  rinsed  in  cold  water,  fixed  in  hyi>o,  and  washed  free  of  the  hypo.    They  are  - 
then  ready  for  staining. 

The  staining  is  done  with  a  1%  solution  of  dye  containing  1^  of  acetic  acid,  the 
dye  being  selected  to  imitate  most  closely  the  original  stain  of  the  section,  the  time  of 
dyeing  being  chosen  so  that  the  necessary  depth  is  obtained.  When  sections  stained 
with  two  different  colors  are  being  photographed  negatives  are  made  through  suitable 
color  filters  and  then  dyed  in  the  two  stains  and  placed  face  to  face  so  that  a  two 
color  slide  is  obtained. 

Suppose  a  section  is  stained  red  and  green.  Two  n^atives  are  made  on  panchro- 
matic plates — one  with  a  red  filter,  which  causes  the  green  to  appear  as  clear  spaces 
in  the  negative  and  will  not  record  the  red,  and  the  other  with  a  green  filter,  which 
will  record  the  red  and  not  the  green.  The  slides  made  as  described  from  these  in 
bichromated  gelatine  are  stained — that  from  the  green  negative  with  the  original  red 
stain.  The  filters  required  can  be  chosen  from  the  set  of  filters  for  photomicro- 
graphy prepared  under  the  name  of  Wratten  M  filters.  The  choice  of  the  filter  is 
decided  by  visual  trial  under  the  microscope,  the  filters  chosen  being  those  which 
mojst  nearly  absorb  one  color  and  transmit  the  other.  Thus,  photographing  a  section 
stained  with  Delafield's  hematoxylin  and  precipitated  eosine  the  A  filter  (red)  shows 
no  trace  of  the  eosine  and  gives  a  good,  strong  negative  of  the  hematoxylin.  The  B 
and  C  filters  are  used  together  for  the  other  negative,  giving  a  blue-green  color  and 
record  the  eosine  and  hematoxylin  both  fully,  and  from  these' two  negatives  positives 
are  made  and  stained  with  a  blue  and  a  red  dye. 


The  Photographic  Production  of  a  Lithographic  Key  on        J.  I.  Crabtree 
Zinc  and  Aluminum 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  208 
National  Lithographer,  1917,  p.  45 

Communication  No.  48 

In  order  to  facilitate  the  work  of  the  lithographic  artist  when  drawing  in  crayon 
on  zinc  or  aluminum,  it  is  possible  first  to  prepare  a  photographic  image  on  the  metal 
plate  to  serve  as  a  key,  which  may  then  be  worked  upon  in  the  usual  way.  This  key 
may  be  obtained  by  an  application  of  the  blue-print  process  to  metal,though  in  order 
to  prevent  the  final  image  from  washing  off  the  plate  it  is  necessary  to  pay  attention 
to  the  following  details. 

A  suitable  sheet  of  grained  zinc  is  first  coated  with  1%  solution  of  citric  acid  and 
dried  immediately.  The  following  sensitive  coating  is  then  applied  with  a  brush  and 
hkewise  dried  immediately : 

Metric        Avoirdupois 
\    Ferric  Ammonium  Citrate  (Brown  Scales)  -  -  30  g.      1  oz.  25  grs. 

-^  Water  to-  -  -  -  -  -  -  150  cc.    5  ozs. 

"D    Potassium  Ferricyanide     -  -  -  -  -  30  g.      1  oz.  25  grs. 

"'-'    Water  to     -  -  -  -  -  -  -  150  cc.    5  ozs. 

For  use :  3  parts  A ;  1  part  B. 

After  exposing  under  a  negative  until  the  shadows  are  slightly  bronzed,  the  plate 
should  be  washed  in  water,  when  a  blue  image  results,  though  a  much  stronger  image 
may  be  obtained  if  the  plate  is  developed  in  a  solution  consisting  of  equal  parts  of  a 
1%  sol.  of  potassium  ferricyanide  and  a  1%  sol.  of  citric  acid.  The  highlights  of  the 
zinc  may  be  considerably  whitened  and  the  contrast  increased  by  treating  the  zino 
with  a  weak  solution  of  nitric  acid  and  alum.* 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  147 

gelatine  is  removed.  Under-exposure  is  indicated  by  the  highlight  detail  washing 
away  and  over-exposure  by  the  film  being  insoluble  to  too  great  a  depth.  The  plates 
A  key  may  be  prepared  on  aluminum  in  a  manner  similar  to  the  method  for 
obtaining  the  same  on  zinc.  A  suitably  grained  sheet  of  aluminum  is  first  coated 
with  a  1%  solution  of  oxalic  acid  and  dried  quickly  before  a  fan.  The  aluminum  is 
then  coated  with  the  ferric  ammonium  citrate-potassium  ferricyanide  mixture,  as  in  the 
case  of  zinc,  and  rapidly  dried.  After  exposure,  the  plate  should  be  developed  in 
plain  water,  though  if  a  solution  consisting  of  equal  parts  of  1%  oxalic  acid  and  1% 
potassium  ferricyanide  be  used,  a  bluer  and  slightly  more  intense  image  is  obtained. 

The  Photomicrography  of  Paper  Structure  •    M.  B.  Hodgson 

J.  Ind.  Eng.-Chem.,  1917,  p.  782 

Communication  No.  49 

In  the  study  of  the  ultimate  structure  of  paper  much  valuable  information  can  be 
obtained  by  means  of  photomicrographs  of  cross-sections  of  the  paper  stock. 

In  the  course  of  some  recent  work  on  the  penetration  of  various  materials  into 
paper  stocks  as  thin  as  .05  mm.,  the  following  method  was  adopted: 

The  paper  of  which  a  section  is  desired  is  mounted  between  two  pieces  of  gelatine 
coated  film,  ordinary  Kodak  N.  C.  film  being  used,  the  gelatine  being  moistened  to 
cause  it  to  adhere  to  the  paper.  The  paper  held  between  the  pieces  of  film  is  then 
placed  between  two  pieces  of  moderately  dry  castile  soap.  This  *  ^sandwich' '  is  then 
placed  in  the  chuck  of  the  microtome  with  the  paper  edge  normal  to  the  razor  edge. 
The  use  of  the  gelatine  is  important  as  it  forms  a  firm  but  slightly  resilient  binder 
for  the  paper  and  prevents  tearing  of  the  surface  fibers.  The  micrometer  adjustment 
permits  of  sections  from  .001  to  .050  mm.  in  thickness  being  made.  Sections  are  then 
cut  in  the  usual  manner  and  moimted  on  slides  in  Canada  Balsam  diluted  with  Xylol. 

In  photographing  such  sections,  the  best  results  are  obtained  using  orthochromatic 
plates  with  a  yellow  filter.  In  the  present  work  Standard  Orthonon  plates  were  used 
with  the  Wratten  *'G''  filter. 

Influence  of  Alcohol  on  Viscosity  of  Gelatine  Solutions 

Report  No.  367 

Usually  when  the  viscosity  of  a  gelatine  solution  is  measured  at,  say,  25 ""-SS"  C, 
the  solution  having  been  prepared  below  70"  C,  it  is  found  that  the  viscosities  tend  to 
rise  in  the  first  24  hours  on  keeping  at  the  lower  temperature.  This  **lag"  is  more 
pronounced  as  the  concentration  of  gelatine  is  increased,  and  is  no  doubt  due  to  the 
sluggishness  of  adjustment  of  temperature  equilibrium  in  viscous  colloids. 

The  viscosity  concentration  curve  of  a  series  of  gelatine  solutions  was  determined, 
the  concentrations  of  which  ranged  from  0.5-15%,  and  which  contained  a  certain 
proportion  of  wood  spirit  (methyl  alcohol)  as  a  * 'hardener;' '  the  viscosity  measure- 
ments were  made  at  35°,  readings  being  taken  some  5  minutes  after  placing  in  the 
thermostat  and  again  on  standing  in  closed  vessels  up  to  20  hours.  In  all  cases  the 
viscosity  /e//  on  keeping,  instead  of  rising.  This  indicates  that  some  other  internal 
change  is  taking  place  in  the  system,  in  the  opposite  sense  to  the  usual  recovery  of 
viscosity. '  It  appears  most  probable  that  it  is  due  to  the  alcohol  producing  a  slow 
internal  coagulation,  the  sol  passing  from  the  * 'emulsion"  or  emulsoid  type  to  the 
'^suspension"  or  suspensoid  type,  by  partial  dehydration  of  the  gelatine.  Both  sols 
and  gels  of  gelatine  containing  alcohol  are  less  stable  systems  than  the  straight  aqueous 
sols  and  this  may  afi*ect  the  aggregation  and  behavior  of  the  silver  halide  particles 
in  emulsions  and  plates.  ^-^  , 

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148  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Printing  with  a  Mercury  Arc 

Report  No.  377 

The  difference  in  quality  of  light  between  a  mercury  arc  and  a  gas  filled  Mazda 
lamp  has  no  effect  in  printing  upon  Artura  Carbon  Black  paper;  under  the  same 
conditions  either  light  source  will  give  the  same  quality  of  print. 

Ivcad  Foil  in  Dental  X-Ray  Packages 

Report  No.  372 

This  investigation  was  undertaken  to  determine  the  effect  of  backing  up  x-ray 
film  by  lead  foil.  The  theory  involved  in  using  such  a  lead  backing  is  a  simple  one. 
When  x-rays  strike  a  body  the  effect  on  the  incident  beam  of  rays  is  much  the  same 
as  when  a  bundle  of  ordinary  light  rays  strike  ground  glass.  That  is,  the  rays  are 
diverted  or  scattered  in  all  directions,  each  atom  of  the  substance  struck  diverting 
a  certain  portion  of  the  rays.  In  this  way  it  will  be  seen  that  some  of  the  rays  will 
return  to  the  same  spot  where  they  first  entered.  Of  those  which  strike  the  lead  foil 
shielded  half  are  stopped  and  absorbed ;  those  which  strike  the  unprotected  part  pass 
on  through  the  support  and  cause  a  grainy  fog  over  that  portion  of  the  negative. 

This  matter  has  been  tried  out  exhaustively  under  varying  conditions  of  technique 
and  using  various  thicknesses  of  foil. 

The  effect  produced  by  scattered  radiation  in  the  average  dental  negative  making 
is  not  suflicient  to  warrant  the  extra  trouble  involved  in  enclosing  the  lead  foil.  The 
thickness  of  flesh  in  the  average  face  is  not  great  enough  to  produce  much  return 
radiation.  The  most  noticeable  amount  is  produced  in  making  negatives  of  front 
teeth,  where  the  major  portion  of  the  head  is  behind  the  film.  It  is  diflicult  to  notice 
much  difference  in  negatives  taken  with  or  without  lead  backing.  There  is  an  added 
danger,  too,  of  getting  the  film  placed  film  side  to  the  tube,  and  thus  greatly  reducing 
the  effective  exposure. 

It  is,  however,  a  wise  plan  to  advise  the  use  of  lead  backing  under  film  exxKWures 
where  a  wooden  or  brass  bench  is  used  in  making  radiographs  other  than  dental.  In 
the  case  of  plates  the  scattered  radiation  is  practically  all  absorbed  by  the  glass. 


Patent  Abstracts 
U.  S.  Patents 

1231710  D.  F.  Comstock,  Assigned  by  Mesne  Assignments        K2116 

to  Technicolor  Motion  Picture  Corporation 

A  Light  Splitting  Mirror  adapted  for  use  in  color  photography.  It  consists  of  a 
surface  having  irregularly  distributed  reflecting  areas  of  small  size,  so  spaced  that  the 
light  reflected  thereby  will  substantially  equal  the  light  transmitted. 

1229546  J.  E.  Thornton,  Assigned  to  John  Owden  O'Brien         K/43 

A  Thrc»e-Color  Motion  Picture  Film  consisting  of  three  superposed  and  registered 
complementary  colored  po8itiv«*s. 

1229553  H.  F.  Waite        X423 

A  Holder  for  X-Ray  Dental  Film  having  a  pointer  which  automatically  indicates 
to  the  operator  the  direction  in  which  he  should  throw  the  X-rays. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  149 

1230744  C.  W.  Mable        0648-383 

A  Method  of  Coloring  Motion  Picture  Films.  A  set  of  tinting  ribbons  are  made 
having  raised  portions,  which  transfer  the  dyes  to  the  appropriate  portions  of  the 
fikn  picture.  These  ribbons  are  made  by  painting  a  gelatine  film  with  potassium 
bichromate  except  where  the  coloring  spaces  an*  to  remain.  When  trt^ated  with 
water,  the  non-bichromated  spaces  form  raised  transfer  portions. 

1232359  L.  Miller        0649 

A  Method  of  applying  titles  to  motion  picture  film.  When  the  pictures  are 
printed  on  the  film,  transverse  spaces  are  left  bt»tween  them  and  progressive  titles  are 
subsequently  printed  in  these  spaces. 

1229275  C.  F.  Jenkins,  Assigned  to  The  Graphoscope  Co.        067 

A  Motion  Picture  System  adapted  to  insure  the  use  of  safety  film  in  school  rooms 
and  similar  places.  The  projector  in  the  school  room  is  driven  by  a  special  sprocket 
having  extra  large  teeth  at  intervals.  The  safety  film  is  provided  with  corresponding 
extra  large  perforations.  The  driving  edges  of  the  perforations  in  the  safety  film  are 
so  located  that  the  latter  can  be  used  in  projecting  apparatus  having  the  ordinary 
sprockets. 

1228580  '  G.  W.  Miles        1412 

Method  of  Incorporating  Filler  with  Fibre.  If  an  emulsion  of  wax  or  waxy  material 
is  introduced  into  tlie  beater  with  the  fibre,  together  with  the  filler,  a  much  larger 
amount  of  filler  can  be  retained  in  the  fibre  than  by  ordinary  methods.  (Paper,  June, 
1917,  p.  17. ) 

1229882  0.  Galkway  and  G.  R.  Helsley        2151 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  in  which  the  film  chambers  are  carried  in  a  swinging  housing 
which  can  be  closed  by  means  of  a  dark  slide.  When  so  closed,  the  housing  can  be 
swung  out  of  the  way  and  the  camera  focused  on  a  ground  glass  in  the  usual  way. 
When  not  in  use,  the  ground  glass  is  carried  in  a  special  compartment  in  the  housing. 

1232125  A.  L.  Trippel        2151 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  modified  to  permit  ground  glass  focusing.  The  film  rolls 
are  contained  in  special  slidable  casings.  When  it  is  desired  to  focus,  one  of  these 
casings  is  moved  across  the  camera  into  contact  with  the  other  casing,  the  slack  in  the 
film  being  suitably  wound  up,  the  focusing  opening  of  the  camera  being  thus  freed 
for  inspection. 

1231878  C.  E.  Grenell        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  device  for  preventing  double  exposure.  The 
camera  has  a  sliding  exposure  shutter  and  pivoted  safety  shutter.  These  shutters  can 
only  be  set  by  winding  up  a  fresh  area  of  film. 

1232254  E.  G.  Ervin  and  F.  C.  Smith        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  spring  motor  winding  mechanism.  WTien 
the  operator  desires  to  wind  a  fresh  section  of  film  into  exposure  position,  he  merely 
preeees  a  button  and  the  motor  automatically  does  the  winding.  The  speed  of  the 
motor  is  controlled  by  a  governor,  and  the  motor  is  automatically  locked  when  the 
camera  back  is  removed.  , 


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150  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1230399  H.  J.  Gaisman,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.        2153 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  an  arrangement  by  means  of  which  writing 
may  be  made  and  light  printed  upon  suitable  portions  of  the  film.  The  writing  is 
done  through  a  window  in  the  camera  back  normally  closed  by  a  hinged  cover.  The 
film  is  clamped  beneath  the  window  when  the  cover  of  the  latter  is  open.  When 
writing  is  done  on  the  back  of  the  film  through  the  window,  the  sensitive.face  of  the 
film  beneath  the  stylus  is  brought  into  contact  with  a  roughened  surface,  locaUy 
affecting  the  sensitive  film.  Light  is  then  admitted  to  the  portion  of  film  beneath  the 
window  by  means  of  a  translucent  bar  co-operating  with  openings  in  the  side  of  the 
camera. 


1229945  J.  S.  Greene,  Assigned  to  Commercial  Camera  Co.        2172 

A  Commercial  Copying  Camera  of  the  type  employing  a  web  of  sensitized  paper. 
The  developing  apparatus  in  this  camera  is  provided  with  a  special  lifter  carrying  a 
wringing  roll  which  is  automatically  held  inoperative  when  the  lifter  is  snbmeiged  in 
the  developer,  but  moves  into  wringing  position  when  the  lifter  raises  the  print  from 
the  bath. 

1280096  G.  C.  Beidler        2172 

A  Commercial  Copying  Camera  of  the  type  which  uses  a  sensitive  paper  web. 
The  exposed  sections  of  paper  are  carried  successively  through  developing  and  fixing 
baths  by  means  of  endless  belts,  so  arranged  as  to  minimize  the  transfer  of  chemicals 
from  one  bath  to  the  other.  The  operating  mechanism  for  the  belts  is  timed  so  that 
the  operator  can  hold  the  prints  submerged  a  suitable  length  of  time  in  the  varioos 
baths. 

1229515  G.  N.  Pifer,  Assigned  by  Mesne  Assignments  to        2193 

F.  E.  Stewart,  Trustee 
A  Coin-Controlling  Mechanism  for  Automatic  Photographing  Machines. 

1229896  E.  Dake        241 

A  Photographic  Printing  Machine  provided  with  a  ground  glass  diflftising  screen 
between  the  printing  lamps  and  the  negative.  The  distance  between  the  ground  glasB 
and  negative  can  be  adjusted  to  vary  its  effect  and  suitable  vignetting  cards  may  be 
mounted  upon  the  ground  glass. 

1280392  W.  F.  Folmer,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.        241 

A  Photographic  Printing  Machine  provided  with  a  special  two-piece  hinged 
platen  or  presser  back.  It  also  embodies  a  special  automatic  switch  for  controlling 
the  printing  lights  and  turning  a  safety  light  on  and  off. 

1230532  E.  C.  Sterling        241 

A  Photographic  Printing  Machine  in  which  the  platen  or  preaser  back  consists  of 
two  hinged  members  which  are  connected  to  the  body  of  the  machine  and  to  tiie 
actuating  lever  by  special  hinges. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 151 

1231173  J.  K.  Knapp        241 

A  Hiotographic  Printing  Box  that  may  also  be  used  m  a  'safelif  ht.  Hm  end  of 
the  box  is  provided  with  a  niby  glass  opposite  an  electric  lamp  and  the  top  of  the 
box  constitates  a  printing  frame,  the  platens  of  which  are  formed  of  carved  spring 
■beet  metal  When  the  platens  are  fastened  down,  the  only  light  emitted  from  the 
box  is  that  which  passes  through  the  ruby  window. 

1282219  J.  A.  Chadderton        241 

A  Printing  Machine  carrying  in  its  top  a  main  printing  frame  and  a  nested 
auxiliary  printing  frame. 

1232164  A.  Allen        242 

A  Print  and  Negative  Holder  for  use  in  printing  frames.  By  providing  suitable 
gauges,  uniform  margins  are  insured  on  the  print. 

1234416  E.  W.  Sweigard        242 

An  improvement  in  pneumatic  printing  frames  whereby  the  air  seal  is  made  more 
effective. 

1238109  L.  D.  Nesbit        26207 

An  Apparatus  for  developing  and  intensifying  photographic  plates.  Consists  of 
means  for  inserting  and  removing  plates  in  a  series  of  tanks.  Applies  particularly  to 
the  intensification  of  wet  collodion  negatives. 

1230500    1230501  R.  Mathews        2626 

A  Clock-work  Mechanism  for  actuating  a  camera  shutter  after  a  predetermined 
time  to  enable  the  operator  to  include  himself  in  the  picture.  It  may  alao  be  adjusted 
to  give  accurately  a  time  exposure. 

1230568  H.  L.  De  Zeng        2629 

An  Iris  Diaphragm  comprising  a  rotatable  ring  and  a  stationary  ring,  one  of 
of  which  rings  carries  pivoted  leaves,  while  the  other  contains  slots  engaging  actuating 
projections  on  the  leaves. 

1232333  C.  B.  Knott        2645 

A  Focusing  Device  for  Cameras.  A  range  finder  of  the  pivoted  mirror  type  is 
co-ordinated  to  move  with  the  lens  carriage  through  a  series  of  links. 

1231581  B.  H.  Farmer        2668 

A  Photographic  Apparatus  using  plates  or  cut  films  and  designed  to  avoid  the 
use  of  a  dark  room.  The  plates  are  contained  in  a  special  hinged  holder  inserted  in 
the  bottom  of  the  camera.  To  expose  a  plate,  the  upper  hinged  half  of  the  holder  is 
moved  to  a  vertical  position  with  the  attached  plate  in  the  focal  plane.  After  the 
l^tes  have  been  exposed  and  the  holder  closed,  the  plates  are  developed  by  pouring 
developer  into  the  holder.  Thus  the  plates  may  be  loaded  into  the  holder  at  the 
factory  and  remain  therein  until  finally  removed  after  fixing  and  washing. 

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162  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1231740  J.  Horak,  Assigned  t6  Burke  &  James,  Inc.        276 

.  A  Retouching  Apparatus  in  which  the  frame  carrying  the  negative  is  rapidly 
oscillated  in  minute  circles,  so  that  a  pencil  held  against  the  negative  will  trace  small 
circular  lines  and  spots  at  the  points  to  he  retouched. 

1232418  C.  E.  Akeley,  Assigned  to  Akeley  Camera,  Inc.         312 

A  Motion  Picture  Camera  provided  with  a  cutter  which  severs  and  bends  back  a 
small  tongue  of  fihn  and  simultaneously  inserts  a  small  ground  glass  in  the  resulting 
opening  at  the  focal  plane. 

1230576  J.  A.  Golden        316 

A  Motion  Picture  Camera  for  taking  pictures  in  zigzag  fashion  upon  roll  film  of 
the  type  used  in  hand  cameras.  The  film  is  shifted  laterally  by  a  Geneva  movement 
and  is  wound  up  step  by  step  by  a  clock-spring  device. 

1231961     B12337-1914  E.  M.  Stoffels        317 

A  Motion  Picture  Device  using  glass  plates.  The  plates  are  fed  into  exposing 
position  one  at  a  lime  from  an  upper  magazine  and  after  exposure  are  dropped  into  a 
lower  magazine.     The  pictures  on  the  plates  are  taken  in  transverse  zigzag  series. 

1229673  V.  W.  Thomas,  Assigned  to  C.  L.  Peyton        3202 

A  Framing  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Machines.  The  lower  sprocket  is  mounted 
upon  an  eccentric  bearing.  By  rotating  this  bearing  the  sprocket  may  be  moved 
upwardly  or  downwardly. 

1232328  J.  Keller        3202 

A  Framing  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Machines.  The  lower  sprocket  is  vertically 
adjustable  while  the  machine  is  running.  Suitable  gearing  alters  the  speed  of  the 
shutter  during  the  vertical  movement  of  the  lower  sprocket,  so  that  the  sprocket  and 
shutter  will  always  be  in  synchronism. 

1229139  J.  L.  Ritchie  and  G.  L.  Yaste        8204 

A  Motion  Picture  Film  Binder  and  Protector.  It  consists  of  a  loop  of  spring 
steel  of  a  width  to  fit  between  the  flanges  of  the  ordinary  motion  picture  reel  and  of  a 
length  to  pass  completely  around  the  contained  film. 

1229697  H.  P.  Allen,  Assigned  to  New  Jersey  Patent  Co.        3204 

A  Reel  for  Motion  Picture  Film.  The  hub  is  provided  with  a  special  slot  con- 
taining smooth  radial  pins  for  engaging  perforations  near  the  end  of  the  film.  This 
avoids  mutilating  the  end  of  the  film  and  permits  such  end  to  slip  ofi*  the  reel  easily 
when  the  film  is  unwound. 

1229908  W.  E.  DeWitt        3207 

A  Motion  Picture  Projection  Apparatus  having  a  small  auxiliary  projecting  system 
arranged  on  the  side  of  the  lamphouse  so  as  to  throw  an  image  of  the  carbons  upon  a 
nearby  wall  or  screen.  The  operator  can  thus  see  the  condition  of  his  light  withoat 
gohig  back  to  the  lamphouse. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  153 

1230201  H.  S.  Morton        3209 

A  Safety  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Machines.  Whenever  the  tension  on  the 
film  is  slackened,  or  the  film  broken,  or  whenever  the  tension  on  the  film  exceeds  a 
certain  critical  value,  an  electric  drcoit  is  completed  and  a  fire  shatter  is  released  so 
as  to  cat-  off*  the  light  from  the  film. 

1282326  J.  Keller        3209 

A  Motion  Picture  ^iachine  provided  with  two  fire  doors  which  are  so  arranged 
that  no  light  will  be  admitted  to  the  film  until  the  machine  is  in  operation,  the  film 
under  suitable  tension,  and  the  cap-piece,  which  covers  the  loop  in  the  film,  is 
properly  locked.  The  motor  which  drives  the  machine  is  automatically  stopped 
whenever  one  of  the  fire  doors  cuts  off  the  light.    ' 

1230351  H.  E.  Watson,  Assigned  i  to  F.  B.  Thompson        3209 

A  Safety  Device  for  electrically  driven  motion  picture  machines.  Whenever  the 
film  becomes  torn,  or  whenever  one  of  its  edges  gets  out  of  mesh  with  the  sprockets, 
an  electric  circuit  is  closed,  causing  a  chain  of  mechanism  to  stop  the  motor  and 
interpose  a  fire  shutter  between  the  lamp-house  and  the  film. 

1230633  F.  von  Madaler,  Assigned  to  The  Rotary        323 

Photographic  Co.,  Inc. 

A  Combined  Motion  Picture  and  Talking  Machine  mounted  in  a  single  cabinet. 
The  sound  apparatus  and  picture  apparatus  are  driven  from  a  common  motor  either 
synchronously  or  independently,  as  desired  by  the  operator. 

1281727  L.  Gaumont,  Assigned  to  Soeiete  des         324 

Etablissements  Gaumont 

A  Projection  Screen  for  showing  pictures  by  transmission.  It  consists  of  a  wide 
mesh  fabric  coated  with  gelatine  carrying  in  suspension  baryta  and  finally  varnished. 

1231958  R.  K.  Snow  and  A.  B.  Perdue    325 

An  Apparatus  for  projecting  opaque  motion  pictures  mounted  in  a  helical  series 
on  a  cylindrical  drum,  the  drum  being  fed  by  meant*  of  an  inclined  screw- threaded 
shaft. 

1231360  A.  S.  Howell,  Assigned  to  Bell  &  Howell  (^o.         33-3202 

A  J*neumatic  Film  Controlling  Device  for  Motion  Hcture  Machines.  Air  under 
pressure  is  introduced  against  both  sides  of  the  film  in  the  passages  leading  to  and 
from  the  exposure  or  projection  opening.  This  suspends  the  film  with  the  minimum 
of  contact  and  friction  upon  the  gate  and  consequently  minimizes  wear  thereon. 

1229329  A.  R.  Selden         361-0631 

An  Arrangement  for  Manipulating  Motion  Picture  Camerati.  The  camera  is 
mounted  upon  a  support  having  a  single  leg,  so  that  the  operator  can  rock  it  to  any 
desired  angle  with  one  hand.  His  other  hand  operates  a  crank  attached  to  his  belt> 
this  crank  driving  a  flexible  shaft  connected  with  the  camera. 


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154  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


British  Patents 

B105920  A.  de  Brayer        G1-15S 

Storing,  Conveying,  and  Applying  Chemicals.  Chemicals  for  use  in  photographic 
operations  are  prepared  in  a  pasty  form  by  incorporating  them  in  a  finely  divided 
condition  in  a  syrupy  or  viscous  material  which  is  soluble  in  water  and  does  not 
exercise  any  deleterious  eflfect  upon  the  chemicals.  The  paste  may  be  enclosed  in 
collapsible  tubes  of  tin  or  other  material,  the  interior  surfaces  of  which  may  be  coated 
with  a  varnish  to  prevent  reaction  between  them  and  their  contents.  The  orifices  of 
the  tubes  may  be  of  such  a  size  that  known  lengths  of  the  extruded  paste  may  contain 
known  quantities  of  the  chemicals.  A  coloring  material  such  as  an  aniline  dye  may 
be  incorporated  in  the  paste  so  that  the  emulsion  of  a  plate  etc. ,  may  become  stained 
with  the  dye  etc.,  when  treated  with  the  chemical,. the  removal  of  the  dye  during- 
washing  then  indicating  the  sufficiency  of  the  washing. 

B106373  J.  Henley        068-32S 

Cinematography.  Cinematograph  pictures  with  stereoscopic  eff*ect  are  presented 
to  view  by  projecting  or  exhibiting  the  elements  of  each  stereoscopic  pair  in  succession 
and  providing  means  by  which  one  eye  of  the  spectator  has  a  clear  view  of  the  ap- 
propriate picture  and  the  other  eye  has  a  dim  view  of  that  picture,  the  clear  and  dim 
views  alternating  from  eye  to  eye  with  successive  pictures.  The  film  may  be  viewed 
directly  in  a  cabinet  containing  an  electric  lamp  and  a  pair  of  viewing  lenses,  a  steel 
ribbon  having  openings  alternating  with  and  spaced  from  groups  of  fine  perforations 
being  fed  across  the  lenses  simultaneously  with  the  feed  of  the  film  so  as  to  provide 
the  desired  views  and  also  to  act  as  a  shutter.  The  steel  ribbon  may  be  replaced  by  an 
opaque  celluloid  or  gelatine  ribbon  having  alternating,  8i>aced,  transparent  and  semi- 
tfansparent  portions  or  by  an  oscillating  member  having  similar  openings  etc. 
According  to  Provisional  Specification  13562/16,  the  oscillating  member  has  two  open- 
ings between  which  is  a  group  of  perforations.  Color  screen's  may  be  provided  for 
producing  multi-color  eff*ects.  The  pictures  when  projected  are  viewed  with  the  aid 
of  an  apparatus  which  is  held  by  the  spectator  and  comprises  a  colored  gelatine  or 
celluloid  sector  mounted  on  a  rod  which  is  vibrated  in  synchronism  with  the  film  feed 
movements  by  means  of  electro-magnets  and  a  pole-piece,  the  sector  resting  before 
each  eye  alternately  during  the  projection  periods.  The  currents  passing  to  the 
electro- magnets  are  controlled  automatically  by  the  projection  apparatus.  The  sector 
may  comprise  two  portions  of  complementary  colors,  when  the  alternate  pictures 
projected  are  separate  color  records,  each  portion  resting  before  one  eye  so  as  to  serve 
as  the  color  screens.  Each  series  of  alternate  pictures  on  the  positive  film  is  printed 
from  one  of  two  negative  films  exposed  simultaneously  in  two  cameras,  the  axes  of 
which  are  direct<?d  to  the  principal  subject  of  the  picture.  According  to  Provisiona] 
specification  11449/16,  the  background  of  one  series  of  alternate  pictures  may  be 
almost  or  wholly  eliminated. 

B104643  R.  A.  Fessenden        069 

Sound-Reproducing  Apparatus.  A  sound-reproducing  instrument  for  communi- 
cating speech  or  music  to  an  audience  in  a  room  or  hall  has  a  diaphragm  comparable 
in  size  with  the  cross-section  of  the  hall ;  and  the  diaphragm  may  be  utilised  as  a 
screen  on  which  cinematograph  or  other  pictures,  related  to  the  communicated  sounds, 
may  be  displayed. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  165 


B105589  H.  C.  Bullis        069-323 

Talking  Picture  Apparatus.  Talking  picture  apparatus  is  arranged  to  record 
sounds  and  pictures  simultaneously  on  independent  film  strips,  and  means  are  pro- 
vided for  marking  each  film  with  a  series  of  identification  marks  so  as  to  facilitate 
assembly  for  simultaneous  reproduction.  The  recording  apparatus  comprises  pairs  of 
reels  for  winding  and  unwinding  tlie  sound  and  picture  films,  which  are  arranged  side 
by  side.  A  third  opaque  strip  wound  on  dnmns  and  overlapping  the  nearer  edges  of 
the  films,  is  provided  on  its  edge  with  perforated  characters,  such  as  numerals.  The 
three  films  are  driven  by  toothed  rollers,  one  rotating  continuously  and  the  other 
inteniiittently,  a  loop  being  interposed  in  the  usual  way.  Each  roller  has  four  rings 
of  teeth,  the  two  inner  rings  engaging  both  the  marking-strip  and  the  perforated  edge 
of  one  of  the  reconls.  Sounds  are  recorded  on  the  film  by  an  incandescent  electric 
lamp  having  a  single  horizontal  filament,  the  lamp  circuit  being  connected  in- 
ductively to  a  microphone  circuit.  The  steady  current>»  in  the  microphone  and 
lamp  circuit  may  flow  in  the  same  or  opposite  direction  in  the  transformer  coils. 
The  light  is  focused  through  the  slot  to  produce  a  transN'erse  line  on  the  sound 
film  by  a  cylindrical  leus  of  double  convex  section  and  with  curved  ends.  Im- 
mediately over  the  sound-recording  aperture  is  arranged  a  lamp  adapted  to  print 
the  identification  marks  through  the  edge  of  the  marking-strip  on  to  the  edge  of  the 
sound-recording  film.  A  similar  lamp  is  arranged  above  the  picture  aperture  to 
print  corresponding  marks  on  the  edge  of  the  picture  film.  The  identification  marks 
on  one  edge  of  the  marking-strip  are  set  for\iard  relatively  to  thone  on  the  other  edge 
to  allow  for  the  film  in  the  loop.  When  numerals  are  used,  this  gap  is  preferably 
arranged  to  correspond  to  ten  pictures  spaces,  so  that  the  numerals  opposite  each 
other  differ  by  ten.  After  separate  development,  the  negative  sound  and  picture 
films  are  used  to  obtain  positives  by  contact  printing  or  otherwise,  and  the  positives 
are  assembled  by  means  of  the  identification  marks,  and,  if  desired,  cemented  together. 
The  reproducing-apparatus  comprises  drums  for  the  films  and  two  toothed  driving- 
rollers,  one  rotating  continuously,  the  other  intermittently.  Each  roller  has  three 
rings  of  teeth,  the  central  ring  engaging  perforations  in  the  overlapping  edges  of  the 
sound  and  picture  films,  the  marking-strip  not  being  required  in  reproducing.  The 
sound-ieproducing  device  comprises  a  lamp  focused  by  lenses  through  a  slit  on  to  the 
sound-film,  the  varying  transparency  of  which  allows  light  of  variable  intensity  to 
fall  on  a  selenium  cell  connects!  to  a  telephone  receiver. 

B106528  J.  Burns        069 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  Directions  for  actors  etc.,  are  projected  on  to  the 
screen  so  as  to  be  visible  only  to  the  actors,  an  obturating-device  being  provided  to 
hide*  the  directions  from  the  spectators.  The  directions  are  projected  upon  a  surface 
at  the  back  of  a  recess  placed  at  an  edge  of  and  behind  the  picture  screen.  The 
obturating-device  may  also  be  placed  in  front  of  the  picture  screen,  the  directions 
being  projected  on  the  part  of  the  screen  covered  by  the  obturating-device. 

B106643  '  G.  Eitken        07131 

Photomechanical  Printing  Surfaces.  A  design  is  drawn  with  an  opaque  pencil  or 
tiie  like  on  a  transparent  material  having  a  grained  or  roughened  surface,  and  used 
as  a  positive  in  the  production  of  intaglio  printing  surfaces.  The  material  may  com- 
prise ground  glass,  or  a  gelatine  film  made  by  allowing  the  gelatine  to  set  on  ground 

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156  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

B106680  A.  E.  Walsham,  A.  H.  F.  Perl  and  A.  Bennett         2109 

Living  Portrait  Camera.  The  device  consists  of  a  plate  holder  to  be  attached  to 
a  camera  for  use  in  the  production  of  **moving  portraits."  The  plate  is  held  between 
two  or  more  fixed  and  adjustable  slots  while  the  line  screen,  which  is  adjustable 
in  relation  to  the  plate,  is  secured  by  two  plates  in  a  metal  slide  which  is  mounted  on 
rods  and  guided  in  the  plate  holder  and  capable  of  slight  movement  in  one  direction, 
the  guiding  being  accomplished  by  means  of  slots  engaging  in  fixed  pins.  In  order 
to  eflfect  the  movement  there  is  provided  on  the  outside  or  rear  portion  of  the  plate 
holder  a  long  armed  lever,  the  pointer  end  of  which  is  proN-ided  with  a  snap  faatener,^ 
enabling  it  to  be  secured  in  any  one  of  its  successive  positions. 


B105898  A.  S.  Cramer        215 

Photographic  Cameras.  A  camera  comprises  a  frame  made  from  a  stamped  metal 
blank  of  the  form  having  a  front  part  containing  a  recess  for  the  lens  and  tabs  by 
which  a  shutter-carrying  plate  is  attached.  The  side  members  of  the  frame  have  ex- 
tensions stamped  into  the  form,  and  provided  with  slots  for  the  reception  of  the  film- 
spools.  The  frame  is  completed  by  means  of  stamped  plates  at  the  top  and  bottom 
and  the  whole  enclosed  in  a  box.  The  shutter  and  its  trigger  are  pivoted  on  tang& 
stamped  up  from  the  plate.  Stops  for  limiting  the  movement  of  the  shutter  are 
similarly  formed. 


B1054i0  W.  J.  Rider        221 

Displaying  Illuminated  Pictures,  etc.  The  apparatus  comprises  a  projection, 
apparatus,  a  reflector  of  optical  silvered  glass,  and  a  screen  upon  which  the  pictures, 
announcements,  etc.,  are  displayed.  The  reflector  is  enclosed  in  an  air-tight  box  of 
which  the  screen  forms  one  side.  The  matter  to  be  displayed  is  carried  on  trans- 
parent plates  mounted  on  an  intermittently  rotated  disk,  below  which  is  the  lamp^ 
and  condenser.  Above  is  the  projection  lens.  The  upper  part  of  the  casing  is  fitted 
with  an  air-tight  box  having  the  reflector  and  display  screen. 


B105685  J.  Halden  and  Co.,  and  J.  B.  Halden        211 

Printing- Apparatus  with  Flexible  Tensioned  Coverings.  In  printing-apparatus 
of  the  type  described  in  Specification  10183A2,  the  flexible  cover  is  made  in  stripe. 
Each  strip  is  secured  at  one  end  to  a  rod  or  other  stationary  part  of  the  frame,  passes 
over  one  of  a  number  of  separate  rollers  mounted  looeely  on  the  rod,  and  is  connected 
at  the  other  end  by  spiral  springs  or  other  elastic  connection  to  the  frame.  The 
elastic  connections  may  be  adjustable  and  may  be  applied  at  the  ends  of  the  stripe 
which  are  connected  to  the  rod.  Alternate  rollers  may  be  of  different  diameters  fronk 
the  others  so  that  the  strips  may  be  made  wide  enough  to  overlap. 


B 105401  M.  A.  Pyke        283^ 

A  device  for  exhibiting  composite  pictures  or  photographs  ^ith  changing  or  ani- 
mated effects,  comprising  a  number  of  pictures  etc. ,  arranged  in  alternating  bands,  and 
a  superposed  line  screen,  the  pictures  and  screen  being  relatively  movable,  is  pro\ided 
vnth  resilient  means  to  press  the  picture  and  screen  into  contact. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  167 

B1C6681  A.  E.  Walsham.  A.  Bennett  and  A.  H.  F.  Perl        2833 

Living  Portrait  Mounts.  The  invention  relates  to  the  mount  in  which  the  com- 
poeite  print  is  held  in  register  against  its  ruled  line  screen  and  moved  in  relation 
thereto.    Several  methods  of  accomplishing  the  movement  are  shown  in  the  patent. 

B105467  A.  Lleo  and  C.  Baradat        313 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  The  mechanism  of  a  cinematograph  camera  is  driven 
by  an  electric  motor  mounted  within  the  casing  and  supplied  with  current  from  a 
fltorage  or  other  battery. 

B104869  H.  C.  Menard         3201 

Converting  Continuous  into  Intermittent  Motion.  Relates  to  devices  for  con- 
verting continuous  rotary  motion  into  intermittent  rotary  motion,  applicable  for  use 
in  apparatus  for  taking  or  projecting  cinematographic  views.  A  pin-disk  or  its 
equivalent,  acting  intermittently  on  a  Maltese  cross  or  other  device,  is  driven  with 
variable  velocity  ratio  from  a  continuously  rotating  shaft,  the  pin-disk  making  one 
revolution  for  each  revolution  of  the  shaft.  The  invention  is  shown  applied  to  a  cine- 
matograph, the  shaft  of  which  is  rotated  by  liand  or  by  an  electromotor  and  drives  the 
abutter  directly  or  by  means  of  multiplying-gear.  The  pin  on  the  gear  is  caused 
to  describe  an  angle  of  90  degrees  during  its  engagement  with  the  cross,  whilst  using 
a  shutter  having  alternately  opaque  and  open  sectors  each  of  angle  of  60  degrees. 
This  is  eflTected  by  driving  the  pin-disk  with  variable  velocity  ratio  from  the  shaft,  so 
that  the  pin,  in  driving  the  cross,  moves  through  90  degrees  whilst  the  shaft  rotates 
through  60  degrees,  and  during  the  stoppage  of  the  cross,  moves  through  270  degrees 
whilst  the  shaft  rotates  through  300  degrees.  The  device  may  be  use<l  in  cinemato- 
graphic apparatus  to  drive  claw  apparatus  acting  on  the  film  instead  of  with  a 
Maltese  cross. 


B105970  P.  M.  Pierson        3203 

A  reciprocating  shutter  for  cinematograph  apparatus  is  operated  by  the  drive 
shaft  of  the  camera.  A  frame  is  fixed  to  the  front  wall  of  the  camera  and  is  provided 
with  a  slide- way  for  the  reciprocating  shutter  which  controls  the  opening  behind  the 
lens.  The  shutter  is  pressed  outwards  against  the  slide- way  by  a  spring  attached  to 
the  front  wall  of  the  camera,  and  is  reciprocated  by  the  connecting-rod,  the  slotted 
end  of  which  engages  with  a  pin  on  the  shutter.  The  connecting-rod  is  operated 
by  the  crank-disk  mounted  on  the  shaft,  which  also  carries  a  bevel-wheel  engaging 
with  the  bevel-wheel  on  the  drive  shaft  of  the  camera.  A  sprocket  drum  over  which 
the  film  passes,  is  also  driven  by  the  shaft  through  the  toothed  wheels. 


B105056  A.  Lampugnani        3205 

In  an  electric-arc  cinematograph  lantern,  a  concavo-convex  mirror  is  employed 
to  replace  the  lenses  of  the  usual  condenser  system. 

B105243  H.  R.  Evans        322 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  Relates  to  cinematograph  projectors,  and  comprises 
improvements  in  the  film  feeding  and  centring  mechanisms,  the  lamp-house  and  lamp, 
and  the  means  for  projecting  lantern  slides. 

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168  ABSTRACT    Bl'LLETlN 


B104884  J.  Chanteux         324 

Optical  Projection  Apparatus.  Projection  screens  having  a  metallized  surface 
are  covered  with  one  or  more  coatuigs  of  a  transparent  and  opal  solution.  The  solu- 
tion may  comprise  wliite  gum  and  silver  white  in  water.  The  metal  may  ire  applied 
to  the  screen  in  a  paste  comprif*ing,  for  example,  powdered  aluminum,  brown  varnish, 
siccatif  and  turpentine. 

B104620  R.  e.  Givler  and  M.  (Jivler        325 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  A  cinematograpii  apparatus  comprises  a  box,  in 
which  is  mounted  a  rotatable  shaft  pro\ided  with  slots  in  which  are  fixed  the  flexible 
pictures.  On  rotation,  these  pictures  engage  the  edge  of  a  mirror,  in  which  their 
reflections  are  successively  viewed  through  the  opening.  The  shaft  is  rotated  by  means  i. 
of  a  lug,  polygonal  in  cross-section  and  detachably  connected  to  the  liandle  by  means 
of  spring  catches.   The  other  end  of  the  shaft  is  moimted  in  a  bearing  hinged  to  the  box. 

1 
B105675  A.  Lleo  and  C.  Baradat        325-3-205 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  In  a  machine  in  which  a  dynamo  is  driven  from  the 
film -actuating  means,  the  driving-belt  for  the  film-feed  is  tensioned  by  a  roller  carried 
by  a  weighted  bell-crank  lever.  By  lifting  the  weight  the  film-feed  stops  but  the 
dynamo  continues  to  be  driven.  The  mainshaft  is  driven  by  pedal  gearing  compris- 
ing two  pedal  levers,  the  pedals  of  which  describe  an  inclined  arc  with  respect  to  the 
floor. 


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I 


Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


October,  1917 


Issued  hy  the  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COMPANY 

Rjochcster,  Ne'wYork 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  159 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  3.  No.  8 


October,   1917 


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160  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


'      OCI    17  '     ' 


Note 

Attention  is  called  to  the  fact  that  photostat  copies  of  any  of  the 
articles  abstracted  in  the  BuUetin  may  be  obtained  immediately  by  tele- 
phoning the  Library  at  Kodak  Park. 


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ABSTRACT    BTLLETIX  161 


Photography 


The  Sole  Swedish  Dry  Plate  Factory  J.  Hertzberg         All 

Nordisk  Tidskrift  for  Fotografi,  July,  1917,  p.  109 

An  account  of  a  new  factory  oiieneci  by  the  Swedish  Dry  Plate  Industry  Cor- 
{ioration  at  Kvarngatan  3,  Sodor,  Stockholm.  Dtst'ribee  briefly  the  sequence  of 
operations  in  the  manufacture  of  gelatine  dry  plates.  (A  translation  of  this  article 
has  been  made). 

Wet  Gelatme  Emulsions  CI  1    v 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  414 

A  report  of  the  lecture  and  demonstration  on  this  suhje<*t  by  Mr.  Charles  M. 
lliomas  at  the  Royal  Photojrraphic  Society. 

Some  Imaginary  Troubles  and  Unnecessary  Conveniences  (i 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  434 

Calls  attention  to  a  number  of  suggestions  which  frequently  recur  in  photo- 
graphic literature  but  which  do  not  seem  to  supply  any  real  want.  Among  others 
mentioned  are  methods  for  deferring  fixation  by  washing  or  treating  the  negative 
after  development  and  then  fixing  at  a  later  date,  and  for  the  use  of  developers  con- 
taining a  dye  so  that  they  can  be  used  in  daylight. 

Monomet-Hydroquinone  Developer  G 1-163 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  442 
A  number  of  correspondents  send  formula  for  a  concentrated  developer. 

Fixing  Baths  (40 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Sept.  1917,  pp.  1542,  1G98 

Heniedying  an  Over- Developed  Negative  ^         A.  E.  Thomas         HI 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  442 

Correspondent  suggests  conversion  of  the  silver  of  a  negative  into  a  blue  deposit 
by  toning  in  order  to  weaken  its  absorption  for  actinic  light. 

Drying  Negatives  H3 

Kodakery,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  22 

Toning  Platinum  Prints  J -81 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  405 

A  method  is  given  for  toning  platinum  prints  with  gold. 

Silvering  Glass  Mirrors  W.  F.  A.  Ellison 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  407 

Correspondent  makes  some  comments  on  the  process  for  silvering  glass  published 
by  Mr.  Crowther  (see  B.  J.,  p.  375.)  C^ r^r^nXo 

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162  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Color  Vision  and  Color  Photography.     Ill  C.  W.  Piper         K 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  29 

The  Hering  Theory.  The  problem  of  white  and  the  mixture  oi  colore  by 
binocular  vision. 

Douglas  Natural-Color  Motion  Pictures  K/24 

Photo  Era,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  143 

The  inventor  claiips  that  color  photographs  can  be  made  with  any  camera  by  the 
simple  addition  of  an  attachment  to  the  lens.  It  is  said  that  a  negative  and  a  posi- 
tive are  made  as  at  present  but  that  a  special  chemical  treatment  **bring8  out  the 
imprisoned  color. '*     This  treatment  is  stated  to  cost  half  a  cent  a  foot. 

Decennia  Practica— Color  Photography  K  33 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  31 

This  installment  deals  chiefly  with  the  method  of  production  and  tlie  properties 
of  the  Autochrome  screen  plate. 

Restoring  and  Copying  Daguerrotypes  B.  E.  Havelock        L7/61 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  421 

Explicit  directions  for  cleaning  daguerrotypis  with  cyanide  and  for  copying  them  ; 
the  construction  of  a  special  illuminating  box  being  de>4cribed. 

Restoring  Daguerrotypes  L7/61 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  443 

A  note  on  this  subject  by  W.  K.  Debenham. 

Restoring  Tarnished  Daguerrotypes  C.  E.  Bold         L7/61 

Phot.  Focus,  July  25,  1917,  p.  52 

The  Physical  Properties  of  Intensifying  T.  T.  Baker         X424 

Screens 

J.  Roent.  Sue,  1917,  p.  49 

Sonic  j:eneral  pr«)]H»rtie8  of  x-ray  intensilyingscrtHnis  aiii  considered  from  the  point 
of  view  of  ph(»t(>j^raphic  etticicncy.  The  author  advises  exposure  through  the  screen 
to  the  plates  instead  of  through  the  plate  to  the  screiMi  as  is  the  almost  universal 
custojn.  (This  procedure  might  be  eliicient  in  dealing  with  films,  which  are  the  most 
ettieient  material  to  use  in  screen  exposure^^. )  Some  erroneous  ideas  of  the  develop- 
uient  of  screen  and  x-ray  negatives  are  also  given.  In  general,  the  portions  of 
the  papt^r  dealing  with  the  phenomena  of  fluorescence  and  the  care  of  intensifying 
screens,  are  good.  The  portions  dealing  with  pliotographic  theory  are  a  mixture 
of  good  and  bad. 

The  Latent  Image  as  a  Ferment  H.  Thiebaut         017 

II  Corriere  Fotogratico,  1917,  p.  3110 

Suggestion  for  a  Theory  of  Development.  (Article  translated  from  tlie  Photo- 
Revue.)  The  author  considers  that  the  reaction  with  the  developer  is  a  reaction  of  tlie 
latent  image;  the  latent  image  is  thus  of  an  oxidizing  nature  and  i^J^  consequence 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  16S 


destroyed  by  reduction  in  development.  An  analogy  is  drawn  between  this  and  the 
beha^io^  of  ferments.  The  author  is  evidently  better  acquainted  with  biological  than 
'witli  physical  chemistry. 

The  Ideal  -View  Angle  019 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  410 

A  discussion  of  the  maximum  angle  which  can  be  covered  with  comfort  by  the 
eye  and  which  consequently  represents  the  most  natural  perspective. 

Covering  Power  and  Definition  019 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  411 

A  clear  and  simple  article  on  thest'  subjects  directing  attention  especially  to  the 
great  covering  power  of  some  modern  anastigmats  of  short  focal  length,  thus 
enabling  them  to  be  used  as  wide  angle  lenses. 

Essentiality  in  Hand  Cameras.     II  G.  M.  Nicol        024 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  399 

Tliis  part  deals  with  the  choice  of  plate  or  film  for  the  hand  camera  and  the 
selection  of  the  type  of  the  camera,  and  adds  some  notes  on  the  salient  advantages 
and  disadvantages  of  different  types  of  cameras. 

Carl)on  Portraits  031/82 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  893 

A  discus^'ion  of  the  use  of  tlie  carbon  prr.ct^ss  for  portrait  printing  and  of  the 
.  reasons  why  the  process  is  not  more  largely  used.     It  is  suggei»ted  that  the  Eastman 
Portrait    film  is  particularly   convenient    for   avoiding   double   transfer   in   carbon 
l>rintiug. 

Some  Furthpr  Notes  on  Sketch  Portraits  J.  S.  Adamson         081 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  412 

This  \H  a  supplement  to  Mr.  Adamson 's  n^cent  articles  giving  some  further  notes 
on  high -key  lighting,  on  papers  for  sketi'hes,  on  red  chalk  tones  and  on  the  re- 
production of  all  pencil  sketches. 

Commercial  Photography:  Photograpliing  Furniture  082 

Process  Eng.,  1917,  p.  10(5 

General  article  on  the  photography  of  furniture,  in  whicli  it  is  stated  that  satis- 
factory photographs  of  furniture  date  from  the  introduction  of  the  \V ratten  Panchro- 
matic plates.  Particulars  are  given  as  to  the  methods  of  working  the  plates  and  as 
to  the  filters  which  should  be  used  for  different  subjects. 

Drying  Marks  on  Negatives  041-H3 

Kodakery,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  14 

Drying  marks  on  negatives  caused  by  uneven  drying  of  a  softened  film,  or  film 
which  has  been  spattered  with  water,  or  on  which  drops  of  water  have  been  left  during 
drying,  may  be  removed  by  prolonged  soaking  of  the  film  in  water,  removing  all  sur- 
face moisture,  and  drying  imiformly. 

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164  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Halation  C.  E.  K.  Mees        041 

Kodakery,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  18 

An  article  on  tlie  subject,  illustrated  with  diagrams,  showing  the  path  taken  by 
light  rays  when  falling  on  a  photographic  plate.  Owing  to  the  grains  of  silver  bro- 
mide in  the  gelatine  emulsion,  the  light  is  reflected  from  one  grain  to  another,  causing 
a  diffusion  of  the  light  or  "irradiationr".  Thus  in  the  case  of  the  image  of  a  bright 
light  spot  from  an  incandescent  lamp  in  the  distance,  the  image  on  a  photographic 
glass  plate  is  not  sharp,  and  is  usually  surrounded  by  a  ring  or  halo.  The  method  of 
formation  of  this  halo  is  explained,  it  being  due  to  a  total  internal  reflection  of  the 
light  rays. 

Preparing  Transparency  Plates  by  the  Albumen  Process  045/65 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  387 

Practical  instructions  for  the  preparation  and  development  of  Bromo  Iodide 
Albumen  plates. 

Enlarged  Negatives  and  Transparencies  046-049 

Phot.  Min.,  Aug.,  1917 

Practical  methods  and  formulas  for  the  making  of  enlarged  negatives,  with  an 
account  of  the  advantages  over  the  every-day  process  of  enlarging  direct  onto  the 
paper.    The  making  of  transparencies  for  decorative  purposes. 

Photography  in  India  F.  N.         055 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  404 

This  note  contains  a  number  of  suggestions  for  manufacturers  with  regard  to  the 
trade  in  India.  The  author  considers  that  there  would  be  considerable  opportunity 
for  an  extension  of  trade  after  the  war,  especially  in  the  direction  of  supplies  for  the 
white  troops  in  the  country. 

Sepia  Toning  C.  L.  Gregory        0645 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Sept.  1917,  p.  1854 

The  method  of  bleaching  the  image  to  silver  bromide,  washing,  and  treating  with  a 
sodium  sulfide  solution  is  recommended .  If  this  method  is  used,  in  spite  of  the  statement 
to  the  contrary,  it  is  very  necessary  to  under-develop  the  black  and  white  positive  if 
anything  hke  a  sepia  image  is  to  be  obtained,,  and  with  ordinary  positive  film  it  is 
usually  necessary  to  add  hypo  to  the  sulfiding  bath  if  development  is  carried  to  com- 
pletion. The  use  of  an  acid  hardening  bath  is  also  recommended  after  sulfiding  in 
warm  weather.  With  water  at  all  warm,  this  would  produce  reticulation.  It  is  ad- 
visable to  harden  the  film  before  it  becomes  swollen ;  that  is,  either  use  the  hardener 
before  bleaching,  taking  care  to  thoroughly  wash,  or  better,  use  a  3^  solution  of 
formalin. 

The  Stencil  Process  of  Coloring  Cinematographic  A.  S.  Cory        0648 

Positives 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Aug.,  1917,  p.  1038 

A  description  of  the  method  of  multiple  tinting  of  motion  picture  film  as  origin- 
ally worked  out  by  Path6  and  known  as  Path^color.  Single  copies  are  colored  by 
hand,  but  when  a  number  of  duplicates  are  to  be  made,  these  are  produced  by 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  16,5 


stenciling.  The  stencil  band  is  cut  from  a  celluloid  film  band  by  the  aid  of  a  photo- 
graphic nia<:'hine.  This  consists  of  the  usual  tracer  and  cutting  tool,  and  the  various 
color  jxatehes  are  traced  out  by  hand  on  a  ground  glass  on  which  an  enlarged  image 
of  the  positive  is  projected.  Just  as  many  stencil  bands  must  be  cut  as  the  number 
of  different  dyes  it  is  intended  to  employ.  The  stencil  is  then  placed  in  contact  with 
the  black  and  white  positive  and  the  two  fihns  passed  over  a  rotating  brush  charged 
with  color  which  works  the  sanje  into  the  fihn.  A  second  stencil  is  then  registered  in 
contact,  and  a  further  tint  applie<l.  It  is  not  customary  to  cut  stencils  unless  three 
or  four  hundred  copies  are  required. 

Standardization  067 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Sept.  1917,  p.  187o 
Mov.Pict.  World,  Sept.  1917,  p.  1377 

The  Society  of  Motion  Picture  Engineers  has  recommended  the  adoption  of  various 
standards,  including  three  different  diameters  for  the  projector  lens  tubes,  a  standard 
picture  aperture,  and  the  B.  and  H.  stanlard  of  fihn  perforation  with  the  dividing 
line  between  the  film  image,  and  located  in  the  center  of  the  space  l)etween  the  i)erfora- 
tions.  The  author  makes  a  plea  for  the  standardization  of  the  take-up  bobbins  in 
cine  cameras.  On  the  best  type  of  cameras  the  bobl)in  as  supplied  by  the  film  maker 
may  be  slipped  over  a  spindle,  but  in  some  cameras  a  larger  core  is  used  necessitating 
either  rewinding  or  the  pulling  out  of  the  center  of  the  film  resulting  in  wastage. 

^Making  pictures  of  the  Army  and  Navy  K.  Banning        083-02 

Camera,  11)17,  p.  480 

Information  issued  by  the  Director  of  the  Division  of  Pictures  for  the  benefit  of 
.  photographers  and  artists  wishing  to  make  pictorial  records  of  army  and  navy  work. 

Photographrng  from  the  Air.     Ill  H.  Voorwalt        083 

Lux,  Foto-Tijdsehrift,  July,  1917,  p.  213 

This  part  of  the  series  deals  with  color  photography  from  the  air,  which  is  stated 
to  be  practicable  with  a  triple  camera,  though  ihe  exposure  mentioned  would  not  be 
sufficiently  short  to  get  sharp  pietur(*s,  and  it  is  doubtful  whether  any  good  results 
have  been  obtained  from  aeroplanes.  The  author  also  deals  with  the  camera  used  by 
the  Dutch  army.  This  is  a  plate  camera  using  a  lens  wt-rking  at  f/3.5  of  10"  focus  with  a 
three  times  yellow  filttr.  The  lens  is  fittid  with  stops  and  the  camera  has  a  direct 
vision  view  holder.  The  plates  are  (arriinl  in  a  magazine  carrying  six  plates,  the 
magazine  being  of  the  familiar  double  box  type  similartothat  used  in  the  Veroscope. 
The  focal  plane  shutter  Is  apparently  not  set  autf)njatically  l)ut  has  to  l.e  set  for  each 
exposure.  All  photographs  ordinarily  are  through  the  filters.  (A  translation  of  this 
article  has  been  made  and  is  available  in  the  Library. ) 

Storing  Paper  _  1 37 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  392 

The  editor  calls  atteniion  to  some  cases  of  rapid  deterioration  of  bromi«ie  paper 
which  have  come  to  his  notice,  the  deterioration  Ix^ing  due  to  storage  in  a  damp, 
warm  atraoephere  or  where  the  paper  is  expostnl  to  uas  fumes. 

Flashlight  Powders  1592 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  384 


Formula*  for  seven  flash  powders. 


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166  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


A  Triple  Exposure  Camera  21(5 

Process  Eng.,  1917,  p.  102 

The  apparatus  is  equivalent  to  three  complete  cameras  containing  three  len8t\'*, 
bellows,  and  half-tone  screens,  but  exposing  on  the  one  plate  from  the  three  different 
copies,  arrangements  being  made  to  take  a  number  of  photographs  on  tlie  same  plate, 
repeating  the  exposures  on- different  portions  of  ihe  plate.  Exposure  is  controlled  by 
an  automatic  timer  which  starts  the  exposure  for  all  three  lenses,  changes  the  stops, 
shuts  off  the  exposure,  and  drops  the  necessary  white  curtain  for  flashing.  The 
camera  is  fitted  with  an  automatic  focusing  arrangement.  The  article  is  illustrated 
with  photographs  of  the  camera. 

A  Vertical  Enlarger  W.  J.  Shaw        222 

Amer.  Phot.,  1917,  p.  495 

Describes  an  artificial  light  enlarger  of  the  vertical  type  which  has  several 
ingenious  features. 

A  Method  to  Test  Shutter  Speeds  R.  V.  Wilson        262 

Photo  Era,  1917,  p.  114 

An  image  of  a  fine  slit  illuminated  V)y  an  incandescent  lamp  using  alternating 
current  is  focused  onto  a  piece  of  sensitive  film  fastened  on  the  turn-table  of  a  disc 
phonograph.  The  shutter  is  snapped  while  the  tables  turn  at  a  known  speed.  The- 
number  of  cycles  of  the  alternating  current  being  also  known,  the  speed  of  ihe  shutter 
can  be  determined  by  counting  the  number  of  images  of  the  slit  photographetl  ui 
unit  time. 

Optical  Terms  263 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Aug.  1917,  pp.  934,  1074,  1222 

Optical  Glass  A.  S.  Cory         263 

Mot.  Pict.  Ne\vs,Aug.  1917,  pp.  1166,  1336,  1507, 

and  Sept.  1917,  pp.  1684,  1874 

An  account  of  the  pr(ii)ertie8,  uietliod  of  manufacture,  and  the  technical  uses  of 
optical  glasses.  *■ 

Light-Filters  and  Large  Apertures  266 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  410 

Attc^ntion  is  called  to  the  possibility  of  the  light-filter  disturbing  definition  witli 
long  focus  lenses  of  large  ai>orture,  and  to  the  eftcct  of  pressure  on  a  light-filter  in 
bending  it  and  thus  producing  a  disturbance  of  the  definition. 

A  Device  for  Testing  Photographic  Color  Filters  266 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Aug.  1917,  p.  887 
A  description  of  the  Bausch  &  Ix)inb  spectrum  projector. 

The  Mazda  Lamp  and  Motion  Picture  Projection  3207 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Aug.  1917,  p.  1034 

A  description  of  the  Scheck  universal  adapter  for  motion  picture  projectors,  con. 
sisting  of  a  suitable  Mazda  lamp  placed  before  a  parabolic  mirror,  and  which  is  offered 
as  a  substitute  for  the  usual  arc  lamp.  ^  t 

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ABSTRA('T    Bl^LLETlN  167 


The  Weisi^  Film  Waxer  3H7 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  11)17,  p.  1503 

An  api>aratu8  manufactured  by  the  Projection  Supply  Co.,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  for 
coating  the  edges  of  positive  motion  pii'ture  film  with  a  thin  film  of  wax  durinp 
rewinding,  in  order  to  prevent  an  accumulation  of  gelatine  on  tlie  tension  sprinp* 
daring  projection. 

The  I^ast  Amount  of  Light  Visible 

Phot.  J.  Ainer.,  1917,  p.  87l» 

Article  from  tlie  t^8tman  Kodak  Publicity  department. 


Photo-Engraving 


Transferring  Printed  Matter  S.  H.  Morgan         07001 

Anier.  Printer,  Sept.,  11)17,  p.  34 

Following  is  n commended:     S(>a[)  h^  oz. ,  water  1   pint,  spirits  of  turpentine  \ 
oz.     Apply  to  hack  of  print  and  burnish  in  one  direction  only. 

Collotype  W.  T.  Wilkinson    .    0724 

Process  Kngrav.,  19 H>- 191 7 

A  series  of  articles  on  this  process  has  Ihhmi  running  somewhat  irregularly  for 
some  time  pa>»t. 

A  New  Collodion  Formula  W.  T.  Wilkinson         07833 

Process  Kngrav.,  1917,  p.  20 

Suggests  that  in  an  emergency  collodion  can  1h»  diluted  with  etjual  amounts  of 
solvents. 

The  Mounting  of  Process  Blocks  Col.  Bemrose        07338 

Process  Engrav.,  1917,  p.  45 
A  test  of  100  blocks  showed  that  only  'JO  were  mounted  correctly  type  high. 

Half  Tones  on  Antique  Paper  S.  Henry         07339 

Amer.  Printer,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  3G 

A  dL«cui=8ion  on  the  conditions  nece.<*sarj'  to  get  gootl  n^sulU*  on  rough  ])ai>er  from 
half-tone  engravings.     The  frontispiece  is  a  verj'  good  example  of  this  work. 

Photo-Engraving  Industry  Stati.<tics 

Photo-Engravors'  Bulletin,  August,  1917,  p.  32 

The  V'H4  Census  figures  •»f  the  Department  of  Commerce  show  that  in  that  year 
there  were  37(5  plants,  and  that  $2.798,(KK)  was  sjMnt  for  materials.        ^  j 

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168  ABSTRACT     BULLETIN 


Photochemistry 


Photo-inversion  by  Light  ITikoo  Saegusa        012 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  2435 

The  action  of  reversing  the  photographic  image  is  very  intense  for  violet  and  blue 
rays,  and  becomes  gradually  less  as  the  refrangibility  of  the  rays  decreases.  The 
action  increases  with  the  intensity  of  incident  light  as  well  as  with  the  duration  of 
exposure,  but  reaches  a  maximum  after  which  it  does  not  increase.  There  is  no  in- 
crease on  the  action  by  sn|)erpo.sing  green  and  red  rays  upon  violet  and  blue  rays, 
even  though  the  intensity  of  the  former  is  greater  than  of  the  latt^.  Hence  the  less 
refrangible  rays  do  not  counteract  the  more  refrangible  ones  in  the  reversal  of  a  photo- 
graphic image  as  Luppo-Cramer  believed.  H.  Saegusa  therefore  cannot  agree  with 
W.  Abney's  view  concerning  photo-inversion. 


Physics 

An  Investigation  of  Radium  Luminous  Compound  C.  C.  Patterson, 

J.  N.  T.  Walsh  and  W.  F.  Higgins 
Proc.  Phys.  Soc,  1917,  p.  215 

Determinations  wore  made  of  the  brightness  of  the  compound  in  powder  form 
and  in  paint;  and  curves  are  given  showing  the  rates  of  decay  of  lumino.«ity. 

The  Development  of  a  Source  for  (\E.  St.  John  and  H.D.  Babcock 

Standard  Wave- Lengths  and 
the  Importance  of  their  Fundamental  Values 

Proc.  Nat.  Acad.  Sci.,  Aug.,  1917,  p.  r>05 

The  6  min. — 6  amp.  iron  arc,  adopted  as  a  source  for  the  International  Secondary 
Standards  gives  for  large  claases  of  lines  wave-lengths  vitiated  by  the  pole  effect.  It 
is  recommended  that  light  be  taken  from  a  narrow  equatorial  zc^ne  of  a  4  to  5  fohi 
enlarged  image  of  an  iron  arc  of  the  Pfnnd  type  12  mm.  long  carrying  a  current  of  5 
amperes. 

Projection  Engineering  R.  B.  Chilas 

Trans.  111.  Eng.  Soc,  1916,  p.  1097 

This  pa{)er  deals  with  certain  retjuirements  for  the  light-source,  in  order  to  pro- 
duce a  steady  picture  on  the  sc»-een  of  an  intensity  restful  to  the  eye  and  yet  great 
enough  to  give  clear  detail.  The  characteristic g  of  the  alternating  current  and  direct 
current  arcs  are  analyzed.  It  is  pointed  out  that  the  present  lens  system  permits  the 
utilization  of  only  17%  of  the  light,  whilst  the  optical  system  of  the  searchlight  pro- 
jector has  a  possible  efficiency  of  7rf%  ;  the  paper  clost^s  with  several  suggestions  for 
improvement. 

Absolute  System  of  Colors.     IL  W.  Ostwald 

J.  V.  S.  Absts.,  1917,  ii.  p.  281 

The  general  equation  expressing  colur  in  the  author's  system  involves  three  terms 
connected  by  the  nOation  /•  ii's—/,  where  /*  refei-s  to  a  pun*  coloiv-«f^  represents 

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ABSTRACT    BCLLETIN 


white,  and  s  black.  The  frequency  of  liplu  in  the  visible  Mi)ectrum  ie  discussed,  and 
a  table  is  ^iven  showing  the  Filiation  between  the  fix»quency  and  the  classification  of 
the  various  colorH  according  to  the  author's  system. 

A  Study  of  the  Fouche  Acetylene  Light  Standard  J.  Baillaud 

Ann.  do  Phys.,  1917,  p.  300 

The  author  claims  tliat  thi.s  burner  has  the  qualitications  of  a  fundamental 
standard.  The  entire  flame  is  uswi,  the  dimensions  being  defined  and  the  consunip- 
tion  of  gas  (volume  per  unit  time)  maintained  constant  by  means  of  a  ditterential 
manometer.  In  short,  the  consum[)tion  of  ihe  burner  characterizes  the  flame.  It 
is  found  that  the  luminous  intensity  "I"  of  the  burner  is  a  linear  function  of  the 
consumption  **D,"i.  e.,  I=a  (D-Dq).  Investigations  of  various  ty[>e8  of  tips  were 
carried  out  and  studies  of  the  efli^ct  of  impurities  in  the  gas,  atmospheric  pressure  and 
the  humidity  of  the  air  were  ma<le.  It  is  of  inter(»st  to  note  that  the  author  em- 
ployed photographic  methods  of  photonietry  in  this  n»search. 

Maintaining  Photographic  Standards  A.  B.  Hitchens    ^ 

Jour.  Frank.  Inst.,  Aug.,  1917,  p.  179 

This  paper  consists  largely  of  a  review  of  the  known  metluxi  of  measuring  plate 
speeds  by  the  H  and  D  system.  Several  pieces  of  apparatus  devised  in  the  past  by 
various  workers  in  sensitometry  are  describetl. 

The  Physical  Basis  of  Color  Technology  M.  Luckiesh 

Jour.  Frank.  Inst.,  Aug.,  1917,  p.  227 

In  this  paper,  which  is  a  continuation  from  the  preceding  issue  of  the  same 
journal,  a  large  amount  of  data  is  presented  on  the  spectral  transmission  factors  of 
about  100  different  dyes  of  all  colors.  Some  space  is  devoted  to  a  theoretical  treat- 
ment of  the  subject  and  various  graphical  methods  for  analysis  of  the  data  presented. 

Submarines  in  Periodical  Literature  from  1911  to  1917  H.  R..  Hosmer 

Jour.  Frank.  Inst.,  Aug.,  1917,  p.  251 

This  paper  consists  essentially  of  a  very  complete  bibliography  of  the  various 
papers  on  this  subject  published  during  the  past  6  years,  covering  all  phases  of  the 
subject,  among  which  are  the  propulsion,  armament,  and  equipment  of  the  submarine. 

The  Purple  Color  of  Lamp  Globes  M.  Luckit'sh 

Gen.  Elect.  Rev.,  It)l7,  p.  671 

The  introduction  of  manganese  in  glass,  to  neiUralize  the  gret^nish  tint  due  to 
iron  oxide,  produces  a  purplish  color  and  a  loss  in  total  transmission.  It  is  recom- 
mended that  in  outdoor  illumination  ^rlasswaie  the  manganese  be  omittwl. 

Photometric  Tests  of  Flood  Lighting  Projectors  S.  L.  E.  Rose 

Gen.  Elect.  Rev..  Sept.,  1917,  p.  743 

The  author  outlines  the  commercial  tests  essential  to  the  determination  of  the 
beam  candle  power  distribution  of  flood  lighting  apparatus,  and  tabulates  constants 
necessary  for  calculating  beam  candlt*  power  in  lumens  underpYjafj^iJJgyConditions. 


170  ABSTRACT    lUTLLETIN 


Colloid  Chemistry 

8tudy  of  the  Swelling  of  Caoutchoucs  A.  Dubosc 

.  Le  Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9265 

Meai'urenient  of  the  Hwelling  rate  and  power  of  rubbers  in  different  dispersion - 
liquids  said  to  be  better  indicator  of  the '  'nerve' '  t  han  viscosity  measurements.  Methods 
of  working  are  discussed. 

A  Simple  Ultra-Microscope  C.  C.  Kiplinger 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc. ,  1917,  p.  1616 

A  simplified  form  of  the  "sHt"  ultra-microscope,  using  orthogonal  illumination 
of  a  slit-width  cell  made  by  placing  a  cover  glass  on  a  plane  faced  piece  of  hard 
rubber,  the  solution  being  between.  (Since  the  method  uses  a  thin  film  bet>^een  solid 
surfaces  it  cannot  replace  the  usual  slit  ultra  for  the  examination  of  colloid  particles 
in  free  solution). 

Ultra-Microscopic  Investigation  of  Tanning  Phenomena  W.  Noeller 

in  Jellies 

J.  C.  8.  Abst.,  1917,  ii.,  p.  132 

The  structures  develojR^  by  tanning  agents  in  gelatine  jellies  are  similar  to  those 
characteristic  of  the  tanning  of  hide  fibers.  It  is  assumed  that  the  main  difference 
consists  in  the  circumstance  that  on  hides  the  fibrils  are  orientated,  while  in  gelatine 
they  are  distributed  in  every  direction;  also  that  gelatine  consist^s  of  alpha  gelatine  in 
structure-forming  fibrils,  and  structureless  beta  gelatine.  Tanning  induces  a  re- 
orientation of  the  fibrils. 

Adsorption  by  Precipitated  Barium  Sulphate  H.  B.  Weiser 

J.  Phys.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  314 

Barium  sulphate  shows  a  marked  tendency  to  adsorption  of  many  other  substances. 
Since  any  adsorljed  substance  seems  to  act  as  a  peptizer,  the  sulphate  is  precipitated 
in  the  most  fret»ly  divided  form  in  presence  of  tho-se  substances  which  it  adsorbs  most. 
It  shows  a  marked  adsorption  for  its  own  ions.  Details  are  given  (»f  the  effect  of 
various  salts,  etc.,  upon  the  state  of  subdivision  on  precipitation. 

The  Theory  of  Dyeing  J.  Traube 

Ber.  Chem.  Qes.,  1915,  p.  938 

The  effect  of  the  presence  to  the  extent  of  0.06%  of  each  of  65  dyes  on  the  time 
of  melting  at  26°  C  of  a  2.4%  gelatine  gel  was  observed.  The  following  dyes  increased, 
more  or  less,  the  time  of  melting:— the  basic  dyes,  Indazine  N,  Malachite  Green  BX, 
Nile  Blue,  Crystal  Violet,  Chrysaniline  S,  Gentian  Violet  BR,  Diamond  PhosphineR, 
Safranine  G,  Fuchsine,  Thi(mine  Blue,  Methyl  Green,  Methylene  Green  BX,  Bismarck 
Brown,  Tannin  Heliotrope,  Neutral  Ii«^d,  New  Blue  R,  Toluidine  Blue,  Naphthindone 
2B,  Isaniine  Blue,  Victoria  Blue  B;  and  the  acid  dyes,  F.rythrosine,  Rose  Bengal, 
Fast  Red,  Azo  Blue,  Thiocaimine  R,  Brilliant  Walkblau.  The  following  diminished, 
more  or  less,  the  time  of  melting: — the  acid  dyes,  Crystal  Ponceau,  Congo  Red, 
Orange  I,  Methyl  Orange,  Wool  Viol(»t  S,  Eosine,  Acid  Violet  6BS,  Trypan  Red, 
Indigo  Carmine,  Na[)hihol  Green  B,  Anthraquinone  Green  (tXN,  Benzopurpurine  B, 

Diamine  Blue  SB,  Naphthol  Yellow  S,  Acid  (^reen.  Marti  us  Yellow,  QjfiilolipeA'ellow, 

igi  ize      y  ^ 


ABSTRACT    lU'LLETIN  171 


Azoriibine  S,  Bordeaux  R.  AVIiilst  for  the  fi)llowinp  no  apprt*ciable  effect  was  f»)un<l : 
^lethylene  Blue,  KJuxlamine  B,  Chrjsoidine  S,  Forrnyl  \iokt.  Patent  Blue  V,  C'yanol 
Oreeii  6G,  Cyanol  FF,  Guinea  Green  B,  Brilliant  Congo,  Picric  Acid,  Fast  Brown  G, 
Light  Green  S,  Alizarine  Saphirol,  Water  Blue  and  Heliotrope  2B.  It  was  thus  setMi 
that  the  greater  numl>er  of  the  acid  dyes  have  a  swelling  a<tion  on  gelatine,  and  ihat 
the  basic  dyes  mostly  have  the  opposite  eflect.  Impurities,  such  as  dextrin  in  ihe 
basic,  and  sodium  salts  in  the  acid,  dyes  were  proved  to  have  little  or  no  effwt  as 
ct >mpared  with  that  of  the  dyes  themselves.  When  aided  in  dilute  solution  to  a 
g:elatine  gel,  the  highly  colloidal  dyes  showed  the  tendency  to  deposit  on  the  surface 
of  the  gel  and  not  to  diffuse,  w  hilst  the  highly  disperse  dyes  diffuseil  readily  into  the 
gel.  The  author  hatl  previously  shown  that  swelling  and  similar  effects  observed  on 
^*latine  gels  an*  api»licable  to  other  gels,  and  hence  also  to  swollen  fibers. 


Organic  Chemistry 


The  Estimation  of  Oxycellulose  G.  Kita         1411 

Chem.  Absts.,  1917,  p.  2405 

The  amount  of  basic  dye  taken  op  by  the  sample  is  not  directly  proportional  tf> 
the  oxycellulose  content. 

The  Chemical  Constitution  of  C'otton  Cellulose        H.  Barthelemy         1411 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9274 

The  author  has  developed  yet  another  structural  formula  for  cellulo8(s  but  brings 
forward  no  new  evidence.  The  article,  however,  is  worth  reading  as  a  cursory  review 
of  the  problem. 

The  Microscopy  of  Paper  Fibres.     Method  of  Stain-     C.G.  Bright         1412 
ing  to  Distinguish  Between  Bleached  and  Unbleached  Sulfite  Pulps 
Paper,  Aug.  29,  1917,  p.  11 

The  method  is  based  upon  the  fact  that  ferric-ferricyanide  colors  unblcacheii  sul- 
fite green  as  given  by  Cross  and  Bevan.  To  increase  the  contrast  the  fibres  are  then 
treated  with  a  solution  of  Benzopurpurin  4B  and  Oxamine  Brilliant  Red  BX.  This 
gives  the  unbleached  a  blue  color  while  the  bleached  becomes  red.  Formukc  and 
manipulation  are  given. 

The  Artificial  Silk  Industry  L.  P.  Wilson         1512     1514     1515 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  817 

Very  full  accounts  are  given  of  the  nitro,  cuprammoniunj,  and  viscose  process(  s. 
^lention  is  made  of  the  use  of  cellulose*  acetate,  cellulose  formate,  ethylcellulose,  and 
proteins.  Methods  are  quoted  for  distinguishing  fibres  product^d  by  the  different 
pr()ce8e«»8,  including  cuts  of  photomicrograi)hs. 

The  Scientific  Needs  of  the  Rubber  Industry  B.  I).  Porritt 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  789 

A  plea  for  more  research  of  a  purely  scientific  nature.  r^^r-kr^T/> 

^  *  ^  Digitized  by  V^OOQ IC 


172  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

First  Aid  in  the  Laboratory 

First  Aid  in  the  Laboratory 

Chemisch  Weekblad,  July  14,  1917,  p.  646 

Inhalation  of  Chlorine  and  Bromine 

Inhale  a  mixtun^  of  turpentine  and  strong  alcohol. 

Bromine  on  the  Skin 

Wash  the  skin  immediately  with  the  following  mixture. 
1  part  of  26%  ammonia, 
1  part  turpentine, 
10  parts  alcohol  96%  or  better  absolute  alcohol. 

The  dilute  soda  solution  which  is  usually  recommended  is  insufficient,  because  il)e 
reaction  betwa'n  bromine  and  soda  is  slow  and  the  bromine  spreads  in  the  skin  more 
quickly  than  the  remedy  itself.  Moreover,  the  bromine  forms  a  loose  combination 
with  the  skin  and  that  may  cause  the  wounds  to  become  more  serious  if  the  bromine 
is  not  destroyed.  If  the  solution  of  soda  destroys  it  at  all  it  is  done  very  slowly,  while 
the  so-called  **antibromine"  immediately  penetrates  the  skin  and  decomposes  the 
yellow  bromine  combination.  By  using  this  mixture  immediately  no  wound  will  be 
formed. 

Alkali  Wounds 

Wash  with  a  mixture  of  600  grams  glycerine,  300  grams  water,  100  grams  S0% 
acetic  acid.     Cover  the  wound  with  boracic  salve  and  renew  it  from  time  to  time. 

Acid  Wounds 

Wash  with  a  mixture  of  700  grams  of  glycerine,  100  grams  of  water,  200  grams 
25%  ammonia.  Cover  the  wound  with  the  following  mixture:  100  grams  vaseline, 
15  grams  parafhn-oil,  20  grams  magnesium  oxide.  Renew  it  from  time  to  time.  As 
the  organic  acids  penetrate  right  into  the  skin  it  is  advisable  to  use  subsequently  an 
alkaline  salve. 

Ethereal  Oils  and  the  Like  on  the  Skin 
Wash  with  50%  alcohol. 

Oii-s  IN  THE  Eyes 

Wash  with  an  eye  cup  filled  with  6%  alcohol.     The  eyes  can  stand  this  strength. 

Alkali  in  the  Eves 

Wash  with  an  eye  cup  filled  with  8%  horacic  water  or  rub  with  your  hand  wjth 
1%  acetic  acid. 

Acids  in  the  Eyes 

Wash  with  3%  solution  of  sodium  bicarbonate  and  rub  with  your  hand. 

All  thi^»  solutions  must  ho  ready  and  placed  where  they  can  be  easi^v  rpaplKd. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  173 


From  Eastman  Kodak  Research  Laboratory 

The  Preparation  of  Sticky  Back  Print?  J.  I.  Crabtree         NM(>97 

Report  No.  394 

A  suitable  adhesive  for  coating  the  back  of  prints,  so  that  on  moistening  the 
same,  the  print  may  be  mourtted  on  a  suitable  support,  may  be  made  as  follows: 
Water        -  -  -  -  -  -.5  parts 

Fish  Glue  or  Liquid  Glue  -  -  -  10     ** 

(Glucose  (liquid)  -  -  -  -  6      '* 

Alcohol  (denatured)        -  -  -  -  5     " 

Heat  the  water  and  stir  in  the  fish  glue,  glucose,  and  alcohol.  Add  a  little  car- 
lK>lic  acid  to  prevent  fermentation,  and*  thin  down  with  water  to  the  required 
consistency. 

The  following  modified  dextrin  formula  also  gives  good  results. 

Dextrin  (yellow)  .  -  -  .  10  parta 

Water 10     '* 

Acetic  Acid  (glacial)        -  -  -  -  6     ** 

Glucose  (liquid)    -  -  -  -  -  5     *' 

Alcohol  (denatured)        -  -  -  -  5     " 

Warm  the  dextrin  and  water,  add  the  acetic  acid  and  heat.     Stir  in  the  glucose 

and  finally  add  the  alcohol  and  a  little  carbolic  acid.     Thin  with  water  as  recjuired. 

The  function  of  the  glucose  is  to  prevent  the  adhesive  coating  from  cracking.     If  the 

coating  is  too  tacky  when  dry,  use  less  glucose. 

The  Burnishing  of  Motion  Picture  Film,  and  J.  I.  Crabtree        0649 

Other  Methods  of  Prolonging  the  Life  of  the  Same 

Report  No.  365 

It  is  considered  that  developed  positive  motion  picture  film,  even  after  cleaning, 
is  not  finished  unless  it  has  been  treated  in  some  way  to  prevent  both  the  accumula- 
tion of  particles  of  gelatine  on  the  tension  springs  when  the  film  is  passed  through 
the  projector,  and  scratching  of  the  film  (hiring  rereeling.  So  far,  it  ap})ears  tlxatthe 
best  method  of  doing  this  is  to  treat  the  film  either  along  the  perforations,  or  over 
the  entire  surface  with  a  suitable  oil  which  acts  as  a  lubricant  to  the  film  surface. 
As  it  is  perhaps  simpler  to  treat  the  whole  width  of  film  in  this  way,  and  as  by  so 
doing  scratching  of  the  film  is  prevented  during  rewinding,  this  method  is  to  be  rec- 
commended.  Experiments  were  made  on  the  cold  burnishing  of  the  edges  of  the  film 
by  using  a  highly  polished  rapidly  rotating  steel  burnisher  but  tliese  were  unsuccessful. 


Patent  Abstracts 
U.  S.  Patents 

1232702  F.  W.  Tx)vejoy,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         B1212 

A  Motion  Picture  Film,  the  base  of  which  comprises  in  separate  layers  two  sub- 
stances which  develop  static  electric  charges  of  opi)osite  sign  when  acted  upon  friction- 
aUy.  The  electric  effects  thus  neutralize  each  other,  and  static  marks  on  the  ennilsion 
are  avoided. 


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174  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1232077  E.  Planchat        H3 

A  Prow^  for  the  C^uick  Drying  of  Films.  The  latter  are  <lra\vn  through  a  mer- 
cury bath  of  sufficient  depth  to  sijuceze  out  a  large  part  o(  the  moisture  through 
hydra^tatic  pressure.   The  partly  de-hydratO(l  film  is  then  drie<i  in  a  heated  chamber. 

12:V2.'>01        I).  F.  Comstock,  Assigned  to  Technicolor  K()67     K/23 

Motion  Picture  Corporation. 

A  System  for  Facihtating  Registration  of  the  Projictt'd  Positives  in  Multi-Color 
Motion  Picture  Work.  The  green  pietnrcij  may  have  a  small  target  printed  in  one 
corner  and  the  red  pictures  a  larger  target  in  the  corresponding  comer.  When  the 
projected  red  and  gretm  pictures  are  properly  superposed,  these  targets  will  appear 
concentric  on  the  screen. 

123317(>  P.  D.  Brewster         K345     K/43 

An  Apparatus  for  Printing  Two-Color  Motion  Picture  Film  of  the  type  in  which 
the  nnl  and  green  images  are  on  opix)8ite  sides  of  the  film.  An  optical  system  pro- 
ject.s  the  images  from  the  negative  film  gate  alternately  upon  opposite  sides  of  the 
positive  film  gate,  the  negative  film  being  advanced  two  image  spaces,  while  the 
positive  film  is  advanced  one  image  space. 

1233772  L.  Gauniont,  At^signed  to  E.  K.  Co.         K363     K/23 

A  Lens  for  Three-Color  Motion  Picture  Projection.  It  consists  of  three  relatively 
adjustable  objectives  placed  siiie  by  side.  The  adjusting  mechanism  of  the  outer  ob- 
jectives is  relatively  detachable  to  permit  of  their  individual  removal. 

1231390  F.  F.  llenwick  and  B.  V.  Storr,  Assigned  to        PI 
Ilford  Limited. 

A  Process  for  the  ^c»co^•ery  of  silver  from  dilute  waste  photographic  enmlsions. 
Alum  is  added  and  then  ammonia,  the  floccTulent  precipitate  thus  formed  carrying 
down  the  silver  salts. 

1231391  F.  F.  Renwick  and  B.  V.  Storr,  Assigned  to        PI 
Ilford  Limited. 

A  Process  for  the  recovery  of  silver  from  diluted  emulsions  representing  the 
waste  in  the  manufacture  of  photographic  sensitive  material.  A  coagulant  of  gelatine 
such  as  ferric  chloride  is  added  and  the  precipitated  gelathie  carries  the  silver  salts 
down  with  it. 

1235871  C.  M.  Aument        0631 

A  Method  of  Making  xVni  ma  ted  Cartoon  Motion  Pictures.  Th(»  pictures  are  drawn 
upon  a  ground  glass  plate  and  by  sketching  dotted  lines  cm  the  rear  side  thereof;  the 
artist  can  gauge  the  position  of  each  succeeding  picture  on  the  front  face  of  the  plate. 

123404<;  P.  J.  Landin        0649 

A  Motion  Picture  Film  in  which  titles  are  printcil  at  the  bottom  of  the  picture 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BTLLETIN  175 

1233076  F.  Ix)wenstein         ()6o 

A  Card  Index  System  for  Motion  Picture  Films.  Tin*  cardg  carry  not  only  printed 
itientification  data  but  a  series  of  speiimen  pictures  from  different  part-^  of  the  film. 

1235229  II.  F.  Stowell         ()(>7-32 

.Sjxctacles  for  Viewing  Motion  Piclni-e.-*.  'Uiey  comprise  opaque  plates  provided 
with  narrow  slits  to  cut  off  the  marginal  light  rays  and  reduce  flicker. 

1234888  Wihna  Eppers         072 

A  methoii  of  making  a  stipple  grain  Fcu»en  by  preparing  a  reticulated  surface 
from  bichromaled  gelatine,  inking  up  and  transferring  an  hnpression  onto  glass. 

1235804  J.  A.  H.  Hatt         072 

A  Photomechanical  Screen  having  an  air  space  bcMwt^n  its  two  glasses.  Also 
patents  an  inside  rabbet  filled  with  a  sealing  romp.iund  to  prevent  silver  nitrate 
entering  between  the  screen. 

1235997  A.  J.  Mottlau,  Assigned  to  G.  K.  M.         088-219 

Engineering  Co. 

An  Automatic  Roll  Film  Camera  adai)tcd  for  aeroplane  use.  The  film  is  moved 
automatically  across  the  exposure  aperture  and  is  exposed  while  stationary  through  the 
movement  of  a  curtain  shutter  of  the  endless  band  tyr>e. 

123(>419  \V.  F.  Folnirr,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  (\>.         nS;>>-219 

An  Aviator's  Cansera.  It  is  provided  with  a  front  han<l  grip  arrangtMi  foiwauUy 
bt*neath  the  camera  bo<ly,  a  rear  \\hUA  giip  arranged  reaiwardly  Ix^ieath  the  body, 
a  neek  strap  comprising  a  looj)  having  its  ends  attaclaKl  c<  ntrally  of  the  camera  lody 
and  a  trigger  adjacent  the  pistol  grip  for  operating  the  shutter.  A  focal  plane 
shutter  is  eniployeil  which  iscaj^ptHl  by  a  fiap  slmtter  mounted  in  front  of  the  K'us  and 
yo  eonntK*ted  with  the  trigger  that  it  «'i»ens  jtist  prior  to  the  release  of  the  focal  plane 
shutter. 

1286272  E.  E.  (Ustley         0S6-219 

A  Device  for  photographically  and  simultaneously  rtrording  a  person's  height 
and  weight.  The  fX'rsim  stands  in  front  of  the  camera  upon  weight  srales  and  in 
front  of  a  height  scale. 

1237289  Isaac  S.  BiiniuH         21 

A  Photographic  Method  and  Apparatus  for  reprodiK  in;i:  texts  trom  faii<  y  alphalx  ts. 

1233095  (\  M.  March         2U)l 

A  Stop  Mechanism  for  })reventing  the  closing  of  a  folding  camera  wlien  the  rising 
and  falling  front  is  not  pro{K?r]y  centered,  thus  preventing  injury  to  the  bellows  })y 
improper  folding. 

1283929  L.  K.  At  rate         21") 

A  Roll  Film  (^amera  provided  with  a  (juick  winding  mechanism  driven  by  a 
spring  motor  and  controlle<l  from  a  measuring  roll  operated  by  the  ni</v>iig  tilmi 

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176  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1285320  II.  L.  Ide,  Assigned  i  to  Roy  W.  Ide         215 

A  Roll  Film  Caniora  in  which  the  usual  opening  in  the  back,  tlirough  which  the 
nuniben?  of  the  tihn  are  observed,  is  extended  in  the  line  of  travel  of  the  film  sotliat 
the  numbers  may  be  oliserved  before  they  reach  the  correct  poskion.  The  object  is 
to  avoid  overwinding  without  the  usi»  of  warning  marks  on  the  film. 

128(>271  '  L.  F.  Corrodi         215 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provideil  witli  a  winding  indicator  upon  the  shaft  of  the 
supply  spool.  A  special  arrangement  permits  the  film  to  be  wound  backwards  if  it 
be  accidentally  wound  too  far  forwanL 

1232828  R.  H.  Moore  and  R.  P.  Saffold        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  an  automatic  film  winding  mechanism  driven 
by  a  spring  motor  controlled  from  a  steel  tape  which  is  wound  simultaneously  with 
the  film.  The  shutter  is  so  connected  with  the  winding  mechanism  that  a  fresh  sec- 
tion of  film  is  automatically  wound  mto  position  shortly  after  an  exposure  is 
completed. 

1235073  C\  Spiro        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  an  automatic  winding  device  driven  from  a 
spring  motor.  When  the  operator  pneumatically  releases  the  shutter,  the  winding 
mechanism  is  released  immediately  afterward  to  draw  a  fresh  section  of  film  into 
position.  The  winding  roll  can  be  disconnected  while  the  film  is  being  wound  to  its 
first  position  and  after  the  film  is  all  exposed  it  may  l)e  rewound  upon  its  original 
spool,  thereby  winding  up  the  spring  motor.  Provision  is  made  to  compensate  during 
winding  for  the  increasing  diameter  of  the  film  upon  the  winding  roll. 

1234770  E.  G.  Kesling        2153 

A  Print  Titling  Film  Roll.  '  The  film  is  provided  at  each  end  with  an  attached 
lead  strip  of  opaque  paper.  In  rear  of  the  film  and  sc*parat<»  therefrom  is  a  backing 
strip  of  translucent  paper,  the  ends  of  which  are  provided  with  adhesive.  It  is  used 
in  a  special  camera  which  enables  the  o|)erator  to  write  upon  the  backing  paper  with- 
out fogging  the  film  and  subsequently  to  light  print  the  writing  onto  the  film.  In  the 
final  print  the  writing  appears  as  a  black  line  on  a  white  field. 

1235222  W.  I).  Marshall,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2153 

A  Roll  Film  (^amera  which  enables  titles  to  hr  written  and  then  light  printed  upon 
the  film.  The  film  includes  a  backing  pajxr  that  is  translucent  in  a  single  layer,  but 
opaque  when  there  are  several  layers  The  camera  back  is  provided  with  a  trans- 
verse window  and  chambers  at  either  side.  A  web  of  carbon  paper  is  wound  from 
a  reel  in  one  chamber  acroas  the  window  to  a  reel  in  the  opposite  chamber.  The 
oj>erator  writes  on  the  carbon  paper  through  the  window  and  then  light  prints  the 
writing  onto  the  film  through  the  backing  paper. 

1236007  A.  A.  Ruttan,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2153-214-213 

An  arrangement  for  Marking  Titles  on  Plates  or  Film  Packs.  The  slide  in  the 
plate  holder  or  film  pack  adapter  is  provided  with  a  translucent  panel  adapted  to  re- 
ceive writing  and  the  arrangement  is  such  that  the  panel  may  be  moved  into  the 
exposure  opening  of  the  holder  to  light  print  the  writing  upon  the  plat«;.  or  filnruand 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  177 


may  then  be  moved  into  a  suitable  passageway  in  the  holder.  The  bottom  of  the 
dark  slide  moves  in  an  especially  deep  groove  in  the  holder,  which  permits  the  move- 
ment of  the  panel  without  injuriously  exposing  the  plate  or  film. 

1232993  C.  G.  Tanquary  and  W.  J.  Caldwell         2155 

A  Panoramic  Attachment  for  View  Cameras.  A  spring  motor  rotates  the  camera 
and  simultaneously  winds  the  film  past  an  exposure  slit. 

1235685  August  C.  Hansch"        216 

An  Automatic  Copying  Camera  of  complicated  construction  evidently  designed 
for  screen  negative  making. 

1236928  O.  V.  Greene         2171 

A  Photographic  Copying  Apparatus  of  the  vertical  type  in  which  the  parts  are 
actuated  by  graWty.     A  cam  arrangement  focuses  the  camera  automatically. 

1234746  E.  B.  Fish,  Assigned  to  The  Canieragraph  Co.         2172 

A  Spool  Centering  DeWce  for  use  in  commercial  copying  cameras  of  the  type 
which  Employ  a  web  of  sensitive  paper.  The  shaft  upon  which  the  supply  spool  is 
placed  is  provided  with  stepped  portions  of  different  sizes  co-operating  with  the  clamp. 

1235282  O.  A.  Bradshaw        231 

A  Flash  Light  Apparatus  which  is  ignited  by  sparks  from  a  pyrophoric  alloy 
abraded  ty  carborundum. 

1236683  C.  DeMarco        241 

A  Printing  Frame  for  roll  film  in  which  the  film  is  wound  from  a  supply  roll  in 
one  compartment  across  the  printing  area  to  anotlier  compartment.  A  ribbon-shaped 
mask  with  different  sized  openings  can  also  be  wound  back  and  forth  between  the 
compartments  to  bring  the  desired  openings  over  the  film  in  the  printing  aperture. 

1234554  F.  F.  Metzger        247 

A  Blue-Printing  Machine  of  the  type  in  which  an  endless  belt  carries  the  paper 
and  negative  over  a  curved  glass  printing  window. 

1232900  B.  M.  Dickson        251 

A  Device  for  Loading  Film  Pack  elements  or  cut  films  into  the  specially  grooved 
container  of  a  developing  tank. 

1234346  R.  Kereten        252     256 

An  Apparatus  for  Washing  or  Developing  Photographic  Plates.  The  plates  are 
loaded  in  frames  which  are  secured  in  radial  position  upon  the  periphery  of  a  rotating 
drum.    The  rotation  of  the  drum  drags  the  frames  and  plates  through  the  liquid. 

1232796  L.  M.  Hardenbrook         243 

A  Photographic  Post  Card  bearing  a  colored  border  design,  the  design  being 
treated  so  as  to  be  uninjared  during  developing  and  fixing. 

•  Digitized  by  Google 


178  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN      v 


1234641  B.  M.  Dickson        2542 

A  Developing  Tank  designed  for  the  treatment  of  film  packs  or  cut  films.  Vertical 
grooves  at  the  sides  of  the  tank-rack  are  so  turned  that  the  loaded  film  will  be  held 
in  an  arched  form,  permitting  the  films  to  be  placed  close  together  and  tending  to 
avoid  contact  during  expansion  in  the  developer. 

1236092  A.  C.  Killius        2543 

A  Developing  Holder  for  Cut  Film. 

1234410  W.  E.  Stromberg,  Assigned  i  to  E.  H.  Schmicking        258 

A  Print-Drying  Machine  of  the  type  in  wliich  the  prints  are  carried  by  endless 
belts  around  a  heated  drum.  • 

1233441  A.  Benko        259 

A  Portable  Collapsible  Dark  Chamber  of  the  type  having  light-trapped  sleeves  at 
the  sides  through  which  the  operator  introduces  his  arms  while  looking  into  the 
chamber  from  an  observation  window  in  the  front. 

1286947  G.  Landis        2614 

A  Camera  Support.  The  camera  is  mounted  at  the  forward  end  of  a  gun  and  its 
shutter  is  actuated  from  the  trigger  of  the  gun  by  a  cable  or  pneumatically. 

1233571  P.  J.  Hansen        2621 

A  Studio  Camera  Shutter  having  pivoted  leaves  which  are  interconnected  to  turn 
in  opposite  directions  by  a  crossed  belt. 

1232768  L.  P.  Carhart        2623     2162 

An  Attachment  for  a  Between- 1 he- I^ns  Shutter  which  indicates  the  number  of 
the  film  area  that  was  exposed  by  the  last  operation  of  the  shutter.  The  shutter  is 
locked  after  each  exposure  to  call  the  operator's  attention  to  such  number  with  the 
objwt  of  avoiding  a  double  exposure. 

1234061  P.  J.  Marks,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2623 

A  Photographic  Sliutter  hi  whicli  the  ])ivot('d  loaves  are  driven  from  a  motor 
spring.  The  retarding  dtnice  which  controls  the  motor,  and  therefore  the  duration 
of  exposure,  comprises  a  train  of  ^'cars  so  conneclc<l  with  the  motor  through  a  switch 
device  that  they  have  a  idarJin^  niovcmcit  in  two  directions,  the  retarding  effect 
beinjj  the  same  whether  the  ♦zeais  are  tnrninp  forward  or  backward.  The  gears  may 
he  successively  thrown  into  or  out  of  mesh  to  alter  the  retarding  action. 

128527;>  A.  W'olloiisak,'  Assigned  to  Wollensak  Optical  Co.         2626 

A  C  ihle  iiel«  asr  for  Pho(o;,Maj)hic  Shutiers,  the  front  end  of  which  is  provided 
with  a  cup-sha|.e<l  head  which  cnp:a|i(^s  a  pointed  projection  on  tlie  end  of  the 
releasing  lever  of  the  shutter. 

123510f)  J.  [..  Bliekenstair  and  J.  H.  Werking         264 

An  Aut<»matic  Masking  Device  for  liliing  rtnders.  It  comprises  two  masks  at 
right  angles  mountcfl  ii|(m  a  c(.mmon  shaft  and  so  arranged  that  the  horizontal  ma^k 
co-o}x  rates  when  the  Under  is  turned  for  h.orizontal  p:ctur(\'^  and  the  vertical  mask 
co-operates  \\\\vu  the  linder  iM  uirnc\l  for  vertical  pictures. 

Digitized  by  CjOOQFC 


ABSTRACT    Bl'LLKTIN  179 

1236895  M.  Zwillinger,  Assigned  to  Crown  Optical  Co.         2684 

A  Photographic  Lens  in  which  the  alx^rrations  an' corivctetl  withont  using  barium 
crown  glass,  common,  dense,  Hint  glass  and  common  crown  glass  l)eing  us<»<I. 

1236201  8.  A.  Misrhansky,  Assigned  4()/l()0  to  F.  Busin         2()r>2 

A  Photographic  IMate  Magazine.  The  forward  j)late  in  the  magazine  is  slid  into 
a  special  plate  holder,  which  is  then  used  in  a  camera  like  an  <»nlinary  plate  holder. 
After  exposure,  the  plate  is  return<Hl  to  the  magazine  and  a  f n  sh  plate  slid  into  the 
holder,  and  so  on. 

1234339  II.  L.  Ide,  Assigned  i  to  Hoy  W.  Ide         2671 

A  Depth  of  Focus  Scale  for  Folding  (^ameras,  there  Ix'ing  a  sliding  cover  con- 
taining two  spaced  openings  beneath  which  the  limits  of  field  automatically  apinmr 
during  focusing. 

1232589  J.  R.  Mettler  and  G.  M.  l^tfoon         275 

A  Retouching  Pencil  or  tool  in  which  the  point  is  rapidly  vibrattnl  electro 
aiagnetically. 

1234136  II.  M.  Connor  and  I).  1).  Miles,  Assigned  to         312 

Albert  H.  Herbert,  et  al. 

A  Motion  Picture  Camera  in  which  the  supply  reel  and  winding  reel  an*  locate<l 
side  by  side  in  the  rear  of  the  camera,  their  axes  being  in  alignment  with  the  axis  of 
the  lens.  Fihn  can  bt^  wound  backward  or  forward  from  one  reel  to  the  other  merely 
by  turning  the  winding  crank  forward  or  backward ;  thus  facilitating  the  making  of 
dissolving  views. 

1236639  W.  F.  Williams        319     325 

A  Motion  Picture  Film  providiil  \Nitli  two  s<Ties  of  pictures  arranged  alternately. 
Tlie  perforations  opfxjsite  th(»  pictures  of  one  series  are  of  a  diflerent  sha|K'  and 
tlitferently  spaced  from  the  perforali(  ns  adjacent  the  other  stories.  The  margins  of 
one  of  the  series  art-  also  diti'erently  shaded  to  minimize  tlu'  possibility  of  a  mistake 
in  locating  the  film  in  the  camera. 

1232327  J.  Keller         3203 

An  Inteniiittent  Gearing  for  Motion  Picture  Machines  to  enable  the  shutter  to 
act  sixty-four  times  jht  second,  while  the  tilm  is  mo\(*d  <»nly  sixtetMi  times  perstH'ond. 

1233186  L.  W.  Clark,  Assigne<l  to  Photo  Motion  Co,         3203 

A  Motion  I*icture  ShutUT  in  which  ihe  usual  opatpie  segments  are  replacetl  by 
.semi-opaque  fabrics  or  other  foraminous  light  ditriising  material. 

1233816  C.  R.  Smith,  Assigned  .J  to  F.  R.  Smith         3203 

A  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Machines  carrying  a  pair  of  relatively  movable 
shutter  blades  whereby  the  timing  of  the  bla<lt^  relative  to  the  lens  oi)ening  may  be 
varied  and  a  dissolving  effect  will  be  obtained. 

1231945  F.  A.  Rupert         3204 

A  Fireproof  Film  Case,  the  doubl(^  walls  of  which  are  filled  with  an  absorbent 

material  to  moisten  the  air  in  the  case  an<l  kei»p  the  tilm  in  "rJ^lj^^J^J^^^W'^ijI^ 

igi  ize      y    ^  g 


180  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


12B275H  L.  S.  Balura        3204 

An  Attachment  for  Motion  lecture  Reels  to  facilitate  the  joining  of  the  film  end 
to  the  hub.  It  includes  a  clamp  for  engaging  the  reel  hub,  a  flexible  strip  and  a  clip 
carried  by  the  free  end  of  the  strip. 

1233868  *      M.  A.  Godwin         3204 

An  Indicator  for  informing  the  operator  of  a  motion  picture  projector  that  the 
end  of  a  reel  is  approaching.  A  pivoted  arm  carries  a  roller  which  bears  upon  the 
film  in  the  reel.     Its  motion  moves  a  pointer  over  a  scale. 

1234545       C.  F.  Jenkins,  Assigned  to  The  Graphoscope  Co.       321     3204 

A  Motion  Picture  Film  Container  in  which  the  winding  and  supply  reels  are 
located  side  by  aide  upon  a  common  axis  but  out  of  contact.  The  film  passes  from 
the  supply  reel  over  special  guides  out  of  the  container  through  the  projecting  or 
exposing  mechanism  and  then  back  into  the  container  onto  the  winding  reel. 

123577G  F.  L.  Dyer        321     322 

A  Motion  Picture  Projecting  Machine  in  which  the  film  is  intermittently  moved 
with  respect  to  the  light  beam  and  a  system  of  reflectors  is  provided  which  co-act 
with  the  light  beam  to  compensate  for  the  movement  of  the  film  to  hold  the  image 
stationary  on  the  screen  and  keep  it  constantly  illuminated  to  avoid  flicker. 

1234127  W.  H.  Bristol,  Assigned  to  The  Bristol  Co.         323    069 

A  System  for  Electrically  Operating  Motion  JPicture  Apparatus  and  a  phonograph 
in  synchronism. 

1286319         J.  kleidnmn,  Assigned  to  The  Aheadofit  Pictorial  Co.         325 
A  Home  Motion  Pietuiv  Device  provided  with  a  special  focusing  mount. 

12:u;819  F.  J.  Bulask,  and  F.  E.  Koella         327 

A  Motion  I^icture  Projector  of  the  type  which  employs  a  series  of  pictures  arranged 
spirally  upon  a  disk. 


British  Patents 

BHm8()()  V.  W.  R.  Campbell  and  F.  (}.  A.  Roberts        0<> 

Pictures.  Cinematographic  or  non-cinematographic  pictures  are  presented  to  the 
view  of  a  moving  observer  by  means  of  a  number  of  pictures  on  a  back -ground  and  a 
slotted  strt^n  lx*t\v(^n  the  background  and  the  observer.  The  background  and  screen 
may  constitute  hoardings  parallel  to  a  road  or  railway  so  that  the  virtual  picture  is 
visible  to  an  observer  traveling  along  the  road,  etc.  Cinematographic  eflecta  may  be 
obtaini-d  by  varying  the  successive  pictures  or  by  modifying  the  slots.  For  example, 
the  slots  may  be  inclined,  successive  slots  beiog  at  diflferent  inclinations  so  that 
identical  pictures  r)f  a  pendulum  produce  a  virtual  picture  in  which  the  penduluna 
api)ears  to  swing.  Alternatively,  the  slots  may  be  inclined  for  successive  slots.  The 
distance  between  the  background  and  screen  may  be  different  at  difl*erent  places  so  as 
to  cause  the  width  of  the  virtual  picture  to  vary.  This  may  be  efiected  by  making 
the  background  sinuous  or  by  arranging  the  screen  in  lengths,  the  ends  of  which  are 
at  diflerent  distances  from  the  background.  ^-^  t 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  1«1 


B107025  B.  C.  BuUis        069 

Sound  Recording  and  Rt^produring.  A  phonographic  strip  reconl,  consisting  of 
a  deposit  of  variable  thickness  of  iron  or  other  magnetic  inetai,  is  producefl  by  a 
photographic  printing  process  from  a  negative  of  variable  transparency.  The  negative 
is  obtained  by  traversing  a  photographic  film  past  a  slot  illuminates!  by  an  incan- 
descent electric  lamp,  the  circuit  of  which  is  connected  inductively  to  a  circuit  con- 
taining one  or  more  microphones,  in  such  a  way  that  an  incre-ase  of  current  in  the 
microphone  circuit  causes  a  diminution  of  the  brightness  of  the  lamp.  The  record  is 
reproduced  by  traversing  it  between  the  poles  of  an  electro  magnet  having  ita  coils 
connected  to  a  telephone  receiver.  The  film  is  traversed  past  the  slit  by  rotating  the 
drums  and  the  slit  is  illuminated  by  a  single  tungsten  filament  lamp  and  lens.  The 
lamp  circuit  contains  a  battery  and  is  coupled  inductively  to  a  second  battery  circuit 
including  microphones.  The  master  record  thus  produced  shows,  on  development, 
alternate  transparent  and  opaque  transverse  lines.  This  record  is  then  placed  in  con- 
tact with  a  film  strip  having  a  bichromated  gelatinous  coating  containing  particles  of 
iron  or  other  magnetic  metal  in  suspension.  When  the  films  are  exposed  to  light, 
the  gelatine  hardens  to  a  depth  corresponding  to  the  intensity  of  the  light.  After 
exposure,  the  film  and  its  attached  gelatine  coating  are  mounted  on  a  pennanent 
backing  strip,  and  the  whole  is  immersed  in  a  bath  which  removes  the  temporary  film 
and  the  soft  portions  of  the  gelatine,  thus  leaving  an  undulating  surface  of  magnetic 
material.  This  record  may  be  reproduced  by  passing  it  between  the  poles  of  an 
electro-magnet  having  its  coils  connected  through  a  relay  device  to  a  receiver.  The 
varying  thickness  of  metal  in  the  record  varies  the  reluctance  of  the  magnetic  circuit 
and  causes  corresponding  variations  of  current  in  the  telephone  circuit.  The  sound 
record  is  preferably  made  simultaneously  with  a  picture  film  arranged  at  the  side  of 
the  sound  film,  and  suitable  identification  marks  are  printed  on  each  by  a  lamp  and 
an  overlapping  strip  carried  on  reels.  The  films  are  matched  by  the  identification 
marks  after  development  and  printing. 

B107167  W.  B.  Vansiz(>        069 

Ck>mbined  Moving-Pictures  and  Phonographic  Apparatus.  In  synchronously 
recording  correlated  light  and  sound  variations,  as  in  the  joint  production  of  moving- 
picttire  films  and  phonograph  records,  the  sounds  are  transmitted  to  the  recording 
apparatus  by  wireless  telephony.  Each  performer  carries  transmitting  apparatus. 
In  reproducing  the  recorded  sounds  by  the  Poulsen  telcgraphone  method  loud -speaking 
telephones  are  suspended  from  the  ceiling  in  the  auditorium.  Amplifying  valves  are 
preferably  employed,  and  three  such  vaU^es  may  be  conuecteil  in  cascade  in  known 
manner.  ^ 

B107213  J.  P.  Murray         2645 

Focusing-devicefl.  The  object  for  which  the  camera  is  to  be  focused  is  viewed 
directly  through  a  pivoted  trans|)arent  reflector  and  by  double-reflexion  from  the 
mirrors,  the  two  images  being  brought  into  register  by  moving  the  objective  in  or  out 
and  so  altering  the  angular  position  of  the  mirror,  which  is  connected  by  the  rods,  to 
the  part  carrying  the  objective.  The  reflector  may  be  of  amber-colonni  glass.  In  a 
modification,  the  mirrors  are  carried  on  the  front  of  a  camera  and  the  transparent 
mirror  is  fixed,  the  other  mirror  being  angidarly  adjustt^d  by  the  movements  of  the 
objective  through  a  system  of  rods  and  links. 

B106900  W.  J.  M.  Jackson        07226 

Photographic  Printing.  Relates  to  improvements  in  photographic  printing  ap- 
pwatoi  of  the  kind  deecribed  in  Specification  23684/08  for  printing  upon  sensitive 
W^rfwes  on  platies  of  met^l  or  other  materia}  or  on  lithographic  '^^Pfg^^^S^^^Q^Mg 


182  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


wards  finished  for  printing  in  one  or  more  colors.  The  apparatus  is  fitted  with  ad- 
justing means  so  as  to  adapt  it  (a)  for  repeating  a  nmnber  of  like  prints  upon  a  single 
plate  for  printing  simultaneously  a  nunib(»r  of  impressions,  (b)  for  arranging  different 
subjects  in  a  specified  way  for  composing  purposes,  and  (c)  for  multi-color  printing 
where  exact  register  is  recjuirc^d  upon  the  difl'erent  plates. 

8107156  W.  G.  Kidd        283 

Mounts.  The  invention  relates  to  mounts  in  which  photographs  are  displayed. 
The  object  is  to  provide  a  mount  the  area  of  whose  opening  may  be  readily  increased 
to  suit  the  particular  size  of  photograph.  The  mount  is  provided  with  a  rectangular 
opening  to  admit  a  photograph.  Parallel  to  each  side  of  the  opening  incisions  are 
made  through  the  mount,  the  strips  remaining  attached  to  the  mount  owing  to  the 
incisions  not  meeting  at  the  corners,  thus  leaving  small  portions  uncut  whidh  provide 
sutticient  material  to  connect  the  strips  to  the  mount.  AVhen  it  is  desired  to  remove 
one  or  more  of  the  strips  S(»  as  to  enlarge  the  area  of  the  opt.*ning,  the  blade  of  a  pen- 
knife is  inserted  in  the  desired  incisions  and  the  incisions  at  the  corners  are  completed 
so  that  the  detached  strips  may  be  removed,  thus  incre^asing  the  size  of  the  opening 
and  permitting  a  larger  photograph. 

B106856  J.  W.  Vickers        3104 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  A  light-tight  casing  for  containing  a  cinematograph 
film  and  i)ermilting  loading  or  unloading  of  a  camera  in  dayhght  is  constructed  of 
paper,  card,  sheet  metal,  opaque  or  colored  celluloid,  etc.,  and  has  a  central  tubular 
support  for  the  film  which  is  carried  by  the  bottom  of  the  casing  and  extends  to  or 
close  to  the  top  of  the  casing. 

B 107 188  T.  H.  Blair        3203 

(Cinematograph  Shutters.  A  cinematograph  shutter  comprises  a  disk  having  an 
opaque  portion  to  cut  ott'  the  light  during  the  film  movement,  and  a  series  of  openings 
which  are  arninged  in  pairs  with  an  opaque  bar  between  them,  and  are  separated  by 
pi^rforated  sections  or  sections  of  semi-opaque  material.  The  perforations  in  the 
sections  are  preferably  arranged  in  radial  rows  and  in  staggered  relation. 


German  Patents 

1)RP21KS47S-1915  J.  Lewisohn         K/42 

Productions  of  Prints  in  Natural  Colors  by  Means  of  Three  Printings.  The  prints 
in  the  projier  colors,  from  negatives  taken  through  color  screens,  are  superimpose<L 
The  usual  technique  is  followed. 

DRP2932 18-1915  '    W.  R.  B.  Larsen        07332 

Screen  for  Photographic  Work.  A  portion  of^the  lines  of  the  screen  is  made  with 
transi)arent  parts,  in  order  to  secure  a  varying  effect  on  the  light  sensitive  plate  in 
the  high  lights  and  half  tones.  Transparent  or  translucent  color  flakes  are  superposed 
upon  the  transparent  parts,  on  the  cover  glass  of  the  screen,  so  that  when  the  two 
glasscvs  are  placed  together  the  light  opiuiings  are  covered  by  the  flakes. 

I)RP293193-19ir)  Rotophot-Akt.-CJes.  fiir  Graphische  Ind.         07131 

Diapositives  with  Inverted  Half-tone  Pictine  and  Text  or  Drawing.  By  means  of 
these  (liapositives,  simultaneous  etx-hing  of  half-tone  pictures  and  text  may  be 
accomplished.  ^  t 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


Npvember,  1917 


Issued  hy  the  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COVIPANY 

Rochester,  Nev^^  York 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  183 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  3,  Na  9 


November,   1917 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


184  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


(      r  j' 


Erratum 

In  the  Abstractt  Bulletin  for  October,  page  165,  line  1, 
for  photographic  read  pantographic. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


^ 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  186 


Photography 


Removing  Developer  Stain  by  Redevelopment  H-041 

Studio  Light,  Aug.,  1917,  p.  22 
An  article  compiled  from  data  furnished  by  the  Research  Laboratory. 

Stains  on  Negatives  and  Prints  H-041 

Photo  Era,  Aug. ,  1917,  p.  66 

An  article  prepared  by  the  Publicity  department  of  the  E.  E.  Co.  from  data 
supplied  from  the  Research  Laboratory.  Oxidation  stains,  ink  stains,  drying  marks, 
etc.,  are  removed  by  first  hardening  the  negative  in  formalin,  washing,  bleaching  in 
a  permanganate-chloride  bath,  removing  the  manganese  stain  with  sodium  bisulfite, 
and  redeveloping  in  daylight  with  a  non-staining  developer.  Silver  stains  may  be 
removed  by  means  of  a  weak  solution  of  potassium  cyanide  or  by  copying  the  nega- 
tive on  a  panchromatic  plate  through  a  yellow  filter. 

The  Technicolor  System  of  Color  Photography  A.  S.  Cory        K28 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  2606 

An  article  describing  the  technicolor  process  of  Kalmus,  Comstock  and  Westcott, 
including  a  criticism  of  a  seven  reel  drama  in  color  recently  exhibited  in  the  Aeolian 
Hall,  New  York  City.  The  process  appears  to  be  a  two  color  additive  process ;  the 
n^ative  is  taken  through  one  lens  placed  before  a  compound  prism  fitted  with  a  grid 
mirror  which  splits  the  beam  of  light.  With  such  a  beam  splitting  prism  the  ex- 
posure required  under  given  conditions  is  approximately  twice  that  required  when 
using  two  lenses;  it  is  stated  that  this  has  been  compensated  for  by  the  use  of  hyper- 
aensitized  film.  With  such  an  arrangement,  however,  stereoparallax  is  eliminated  so 
that  close-ups  free  from  color  fringing  may  be  taken. 

Commenting  on  the  screen  results  the  author  states  that  be  experienced  no  eye 
fatigue  even  after  a  three  hours  run.  The  rendering  of  flesh  tints  was  good,  though 
with  the  filters  used  the  whites  were  yellowish. 

Decennia  Practica — Color  Photography  K38 

B.  J.,  Col.  Supp.,  1917,  p.  35 

This  deals  with  compensating  filters  and  safelights  for  the  Autochrome  process 
and  with  M.  Gravier's  three-solution  process  for  treating  the  Autochrome  plates. 

A  Use  for  Old  Bromide  Paper  S.  W.  Webster        Jl 

Photo  Era,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  175 

The  writer  states  that  old  bromide  and  gaslight  papers  can  be  used  for  rough 
proofe  by  fuming  with  ammonia  and  using  as  print-out  papers. 

The  Effect  of  Moisture  J3-014 

Studio  Light,  Aug.,  1917,  p.  14 

Attention  is  drawn  to  the  fact  that  the  latent  image  on  exposed  prints  will  fade, 
even  in  the  course  of  a  few  hours  if  the  prints  are  allowed  to  stand  in  a  moist  atmo- 
sphere before  development.  The  action  of  red  light  appears  to  accelerate  the  rate  of 
fading.  It  is  important  therefore  to  develop  prints  as  soon  as  possible  after  exposure, 
but  if  it  is  necessary  to  store  before  development,  the  prints  should  be  k^t  in  a,  tin 
box  containing  a  desiccating  agent  such  as  calcium  chloride.    Digitized  by  L:iOOQIC 


186  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Double  Fixation  of  Prints  J4 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  469 

The  editor  urges  that  the  use  of  a  double  fixing  bath  originally  recommended  by 
A.  and  L.  Lumi^re  should  be  followed. 

Developing  Stale  Bromide  Paper  J4 

Photo  Era,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  199 

Advises  the  use  of  potassium  bromide  and  potassium  cyanide  as  a  restrainer. 
This  is  said  to  give  bright  prints  on  old  paper. 

The  Production  of  Sepia  Tones  by  A.  H.  Nietz  and  K.  Huse        J83 

Direct  Development 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  405 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  497 

It  is  well  known  that  slow  developing-out  photographic  papers  will  give  warm 

tones  if  overexposed  and  developed  with  a  strongly  restrained  developer.    Observationa 

recorded  in  this  paper  were  made  in  order  to  find  the  best  conditions  for  producing 

sepia  tones  by  this  method. 

The  process  is  attended  by  uncertainties  and  is  not  by  any  means  easy,  but  with 
great  care  in  manipulation  excellent  sepia  prints  can  be  obtained  with  some  subjects. 
The  tone  depends  only  upon  the  time  of  development,  and  with  this  time  fixed  good 
reproduction  of  tone  can  be  secured,  the  exposure  then  being  adjusted  to  get  the 
necessary  depth  of  print.  For  obtaining  good  sepia  tones  corresponding  to  the  sepia 
water-color  manufactured  by  Winsor  &  Newton,  and  free  from  the  objectionable 
smokiness  in  the  shadows,  this  process  is  particularly  suitable.  Since  in  development 
the  print  starts  as  a  red-brown  and  passes  through  brown,  sepia-olive,  sepia,  and 
olive,  any  of  these  tones  can  be  obtained  under  given  conditions. 

Artura  chloride  is  the  only  paper  with  which  the  writers  could  obtain  satisfactory 
results,  and  it  is  to  be  understood  that  all  subsequent  statements  imply  the  use  of 
this  material. 

The  most  satisfactory  developing  agent  was  found  to  be  chlorhydroquinone. 
Elon,  hydroquinone,  and  other  substituted  hydroquinones  were  investigated,  but 
chlorhydroquinone  has  the  necessary  properties  for  use  as  a  restrained  developer — 
proper  sensitiveness  to  restraining  agents,  freedom  from  fog  and  staining,  and  stability. 
The  best  working  formula  was  found  to  be 

Chlorhydroquinone 5  gm. 

Sodium  sulfite 30  gm. 

Sodium  carbonate 16  gm. 

Potassium  bromide 6  gm. 

Potassium  metabisulfite 6  gm. 

Water to  1000  cc. 

With  this  as  a  basis,  a  systematic  series  of  experiments  on  the  effect  of  each  con- 
stituent was  carried  out.  The  principal  fact  brought  out  was  the  necessity  of  securing 
a  proper  balance  between  the  concentration  of  potassium  bromide  and  that  of  the 
potassium  metabisulphite. 

That  the  tone  is  dependent  only  on  the  time  of  development  was  indicated  by  the 
manner  in  which  the  print  changed  continuously  in  color  while  in  the  developer,  as 
already  stated.  Any  of  the  colors  can  be  obtained  by  stopping  development  at  the 
proper  time.  As  the  prints  change  color  in  the  fixing  bath  and  again  on  drying, 
judgment  of  tone  should  be  based  entirely  on  the  appearance  of  the  finished  print. 
By  developing  test-strips  for  different  known  lengths  of  time,  the  correct  time  of 
development  for  any  desired  tone  is  determined.  Digitized  by  GoOqIc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  187 


The  exposure  being  excessive  (aboat  75  to  100  times  normal),  the  use  of  nitrogen- 
filled  tungsten  lamps  or  other  powerful  light  sources  is  recommended.  When 
correctly  exposed,  the  image  is  slightly  printed  out. 

Since  the  process  tends  to  shorten  the  scale  of  the  paper  by  increasing  the  con- 
trast, the  range  of  negatives  suitable  is  more  limited  than  for  ordinary  reproduction. 
With  soft  portrait  negatives  of  a  certain  type,  good  prints  may  be  obtained  using 
such  tones  as  olive-sepia  or  decided  olive,  but  another  class  of  work  for  which  this 
process  is  perhaps  best  adapted  is  the  reproduction  of  paintings  and  etchings.  A  rich 
etching-sepia  is  readily  secured  in  the  latter  case. 

The  image  is  not  due  to  any  oxidation  product,  but  consists  of  silver,  and  the 
color  depends  on  the  state  of  division.  For  this  reason  prints  made  by  this  method 
are  permanent. 

Specific  directions  for  working  the  process  are  given  in  the  full  paper. 

Hydrochinon  Toning  J84 

Camera,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  537 
Mentions  the  characteristic  tone  given  by  old  hydrochinon  developers,  and  gives 
the  following  formula  for  toning  bromide  prints  to  a  reddish  tone :  200  parts  water, 
5  parts  potassium  bromide,  1  part  quinone.     Subsequent  treatment  with  alkaline 
sulfides  is  said  to  produce  all  possible  brown  tones. 

System  in  Retouching  for  the  Trade  Ll-031 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  472 
This  concerns  the  establishment  of  a  system  by  which  the  trade  retoucher  may 
fix  a  price  for  his  services  to  avoid  disputes  with  customers  and  at  the  same  time  may 
obtain  uniformity  over  a  batch  of  work  whatever  the  grade  of  work  may  be.    There 
are  other  suggestions  regarding  the  business  handling  of  the  work. 

A  Copying  Press  for  Dry  Mounting  A.  Buchanan        N 1-285 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  455 
Account  illustrated  with  photograph  of  method  of  using  a  copying  press  for  dry 
mounting  prints. 

Photographic  Resolving  Power  A.  S.  Cory        014    J 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Sept.,  1917,  pp.  2065,  2231,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  2411 
A  resume  of  the  work  of  Scheffer,  Groldberg,  Nutting,  Mees,  and  others  on  the 
subject. 

Tone  Rendering  and  Quality  in  Gaslight  Papers       T.  D.  Tennant       015 
Photo  Era,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  172 

The  Photographic  Rendering  of  Tone  Values,  IV.  C.E.K.  Mees  015 
Studio  Light,  Aug.,  1917,  p.  6 
In  this  article  the  properties  of  printing  papers  are  discussed.  By  an  application 
of  the  Hurter  and  Driffield  system  to  paper,  measuring  density  in  terms  of  the  amount 
of  light  reflected,  the  various  properties  of  a  printing  paper  such  as  the  maximum 
black,  contrast,  scale,  and  quality  can  be  stated  in  definite  figures.  The  **scale**  of 
a  paper  is  defined  as  the  range  of  exposures  which  will  reproduce  all  the  tones  of  the 
paper,  while  * 'quality'*  is  measured  by  the  length  of  the  straight  line  portion  of  the 
H.  &  D.  curve.  Just  as  the  Seed  30  plate  stands  out  amongst  negative  making 
materials  by  reason  of  the  length  of  the  straight  line  portion  of  the  curve,  so  A.rtura 
Iria  paper  is  distinguished  by  its  straight  curve,  marking  an  even  rapge  of  tones 
throughout  its  entire  scale.  Digitized  by  LjOOQ IC 


188  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Some  Points  in  Copying,  I.  and  11.  067 

B.  J.,  1917,  pp.  447  and  469 

Suggestions  for  a  professional  photographer  who  wishes  to  take  up  copying  work. 
The  second  part  gives  suggestions  for  the  use  of  color  sensitive  plates  with  filters  and 
for  the  calculation  of  exposure. 

Some  Points  in  Copying,  III.  067 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  470 

This  deals  especially  with  the  treatment  required  hy  different  kinds  of  prints  when 
they  are  copied  and  also  with  the  use  of  contrast  filters  to  remove  stains. 

Trick  Work  and  Double  Exposure  C.  L.  Gregory        0631 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Sept.,  1917,  pp.  1864,  2002,  Oct.,  1917,  pp.  90,  238 

A  series  of  articles  describing  in  detail  the  various  trick  methods  employed  by  the 
modem  camera  man.  The  fade-in,  fade-out  effect  formerly  seen  in  almost  every 
picture  may  be  obtained  in  four  ways;  (A),  by  closing  the  iris  while  cranking;  (B), 
by  means  of  a  dissolving  shutter;  (C),  by  the  use  of  a  graded  screen  or  wedge  before 
the  lens;  or  (D),  chemically.  The  dissolving  shutter  gives  the  best  results,  since  on 
closing  the  diaphragm  the  effect  on  the  increased  depth  is  invariably  noticeable.  The 
effect  can  be  produced  chemically  by  graded  reduction,  using  a  solution  of  iodine  in 
potassium  cyanide  or  Farmer's  reducer.  The  roll  of  negative  film  should  be  wrapped 
in  rubber  cloth  leaving  the  portion  to  be  treated  protruding  and  the  solution  swabbed 
on  with  absorbent  cotton.  A  short  stop  of  bisulfite  should  be  at  hand  in  which  the 
treated  portion  is  immersed  as  soon  as  reduction  is  complete.  If  a  **fade-in  ta 
the  other*'  effect  is  required,  it  is  necessary  to  over-lap  the  **fade-out"  and  **fade-in" 
portions,  make  a  duplicate  negative,  and  splice  this  into  the  film.  The  circle-in, 
circle-out  effect  has  now  largely  replaced  the  fade-in,  fade-out  effect.  This  is  produced 
by  means  of  a  diaphragm  fitted  into  a  tube  and  working  before  the  lens,  the  degree 
of  sharpness  of  the  shading  being  adjusted  by  varying  the  distance  of  the  diaphragm 
from  the  lens.  The  method  of  masking  and  synchronizing  for  producing  vision  and 
split-stage  pictures  is  also  described  in  detail.  This  is  accomplished  by  using  inside 
and  outside  mattes  or  masks.  In  case  the  mask  can  not  be  supported  at  the  side,  as 
in  the  case  of  producing  the  effect  of  a  girl's  head  inside  a  flower,  a  glass  matte  is 
employed. 

Concentrated  Hydrochinon  Developer  H.  Green         163 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  476 
Formula  for  making  up  such  a  developer  with  the  aid  of  spirit. 

Monomet  Developers  163 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  478 

Further  letters  from  various  writers  with  regard  to  Monomet  formulae. 

Empty  Spools  Wanted  2668 

In  the  September  number  of  the  Kodak  Trade  Circular,  London,  a  request  is 
made  for  the  return  of  empty  spools  (Vest  Pocket  and  Brownies  Nos.  1  and  2)  for 
which  a  price  of  six  cents  per  dozen  in  addition  to  carriage  will  be  paid-r^^^^T^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  189 

Exposure  Meters  With  Subject  Scale  P.  Tripp        2683 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  490 
A  description  of  a  method  of  modifying  a  Bee  meter  so  that  it  carries  a  subject 


The  Album  Question  2835 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  470 

An  editorial  note  referring  to  this  subject  and  mentioning  the  new  album  recently 
introduced  by  the  Company. 

An  Efficient  Shutter  Dissolve  for  Pathe  Cameras  3203 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  2413 

A  description  of  the  construction  and  mode  of  operation  of  a  new  shutter  dissolve 
as  supplied  by  G.  Gennert  &  Co. ,  New  York  City. 

British-made  Metol 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  452 

Johnson  and  Sons  have  placed  on  the  British  market  a  British  made  Metol  that 
is  the  sulfate  of  mono-methyl-paraminophenol. 


Photo-Engraving 

Photographer  I^eams  from  Printers  0311 

Amer.  Printer,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  58 

A  letter  stating  that  photographers  do  not  keep  track  of  costs  and  that  one  at 
least  is  indebted  to  the  organized  master  printers  for  their  cost  finding  methods. 

Place  of  Photo-Engraving  in  Advertising  L.  Flader        07 

Amer.  Printer,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  35 

Shows  the  very  large  use  uf  engraving  in  advertising,  by  counting  the  illustrated 
advertisements  in  some  of  the  big  magazines,  from  59  to  98  per  cent  use  engravings. 

Sidereographic  Engraving  0714 

Inland  Printer,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  801 

This  is  engraving  in  intaglio  in  soft  metal  afterwards  hardened  and  transferred 
to  soft  steel  roller  which  is  in  turn  hardened  and  rolled  into  soft  steel  plate  from 
which  the  engravings  (such  as  postage  stamps)  are  printed. 

Copper  for  Half-tones  in  New  Form  07334 

Inland  Printer,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  802 

Description  of  method  of  electrolytically  depositing  thin  sheets  of  copper  which 
are  backed  up  by  type  metal  and  used  for  engraving  in  order  to  save  cost  of  usual  16 
gauge  copper  used.  Digitized  by  GoOglc 


190  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Physics 


The  Determination  of  Coma  from  a  Central  Ray  T.  Smith 

Proc.  Phys.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  293 

This  paper  is  likely  to  be  of  value  to  optical  computers  as  the  results  established 
fonn  one  of  a  series  of  reciprocal  relations  which  exist  between  aberrations  of  an 
object  and  those  of  the  effective  stop. 

Chromatic  Parallax  and  its  Influence  on  Optical  Measurements     J.  Guild 
Proc.  Phys.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  311 

When  an  object  illuminated  by  colored  lights  is  viewed  through  an  aperture 
smaller  than  the  pupil  of  the  eye  various  parallax  effects  are  observed  due  to  the 
chromatic  aberration  of  the  eye.  When  observations  are  made  in  the  blue  and  violet 
the  necessary  conditions  for  such  parallax  are  present  in  most  optical  instruments  of 
precision.  This  results  in  a  serious  diminution  of  accuracy  and  the  writer  describes 
several  methods  of  overcoming  the  difficulty. 

The  Mechanism  of  Color  Vision  J.  Guild 

Proc.  Phys.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  354 
A  well-founded  criticism  of  Dr.  R.  A.  Houstoun's  theory  of  color  vision. 

The  Use  of  Monochromatic  Interference  Rings  for  the         S.  D.  Chalmers 
Measurement  of  Curvature 

Proc.  Phys.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  362 

A  sodium  flame  or  mercury  lamp  is  used  to  produce  the  light,  a  fairly  good 
measuring  microscope  is  used,  and  an  accuracy  of  1  in  1000  is  claimed  in  some  cases. 

A  New  Chronoscope  and  Fall  Apparatus  P.  E.  Klopsteg 

J.  Exper.  Psychology,  1917,  p.  263 

A  simple  form  of  chronoscope  suited  to  the  measurement  of  intervals  up  to  a  half 
second,  though  adaptable  to  greater  or  shorter  ranges.  A  constant  current  can  be 
sent  through  a  galvanometer  fitted  with  a  direct  reading  time  scale.  The  fall  api>ar- 
atus  is  used  to  adjust  and  control  the  scale  readings. 

Elimination  of  Pole-Effect  C.  E.  St.  John  and  H.  D.  Babcock 

Astrophys.  J.,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  138 

An  important  paper  on  the  pole-effect.  It  is  sliown  that  the  international  arc  is 
not  free  from  the  pole-effect  error,  in  consequence  of  which  some  groups  of  the  inter- 
national standards  are  erroneous  to  an  appreciable  extent.  It  is  found  that  the  Pf und 
arc  operated  under  certain  conditions  is  free  from  this  error.  When  pole-effect  is 
eliminated  the  spectral  lines  are  found  to  be  much  sharper. 

Penetrating  Power  of  the  X  Radiation  from  a  E.  Rutherford 

Coolidge  Tube 

Phil.  Mag.,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  153 

The  author  gives  an  account  of  some  experiments  made  to  determine  the  maximum 
penetrating  power  of  the  X-rays  excited  by  high  voltages  in  a  Coolid 

Digitized  by 


AB8TRACT    BULLETIN 191 

principally  lead  as  the  absorbing  material ;  he  finds  an  interesting  relation  between 
the  exciting  voltage  and  the  thickness  of  lead  through  which  the  radiation  was 
measarable ;  the  probable  wave-lengths  of  the  penetrating  gamma  rays  from  radio- 
active substances  are  discussed. 


Radiation  and  the  Electron  R.  A.  Millikan 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  337 

This  paper  reviews  the  various  radiation  theories  giving  the  evidence  for  and 
against  each.  The  author  shows  that  although  the  Einstein  equation  appears  to  hold 
in  all  cases,  the  theory  which  led  to  the  formulation  of  that  equation  is  no  longer 
tenable.  He  further  discusses  various  theories  that  have  been  advanced  but  concludes 
Uiat  none  of  these  at  present  have  sufficient  evidence  in  their  favor  to  warrant  their 
adoption. 


Characteristics  of  Small  Dry  Cells  C.  F.  Burgess 

Electrician,  1917,  p.  786 

Standard  tests  of  dry  cells  are  outlined  and  the  performance  of  various  kinds  of 
cells  is  given. 


Insulating  Lacquers  M.  Bottler 

Electrician,  1917,  p.  822 

The  requirements  of  a  good  insulating  lacquer  are  given  and  the  relative  valueE 
of  various  kinds.     Methods  for  making  good  lacquers  are  indicated. 


The  Lubrication  of  Refistance  Box  Plugs  J.  J.  Manley 

Electrician,  1917,  p.  862 

Plug  resistance  remains  most  constant  when  the  plugs  are  smeared  with  vaseline. 


An  Apparatus  for  Separating  Visible  from  Invisible  Light    W.S.  Andrews 
Gen.  Elect,  Rev.,  1917,  p.  817 

light  from  the  source  is  condensed  by  a  quartz  lens  and  a  pinhole  diaphragm  is 
placed  at  the  mean  focus  of  the  ultra-violet  light. 

A  Temperature  Scale  Adopted  by  the  General  Electric  E.  P.  Hyde 

Company  and  the  Radiating  Properties  of  Tungsten 
with  Reference  to  this  Scale 

Gen.  Elect.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  819 

The  scale  is  based  on  the  best  determination  of  radiation  constants,  melting 
points,  and  the  emifisive  power  of  tungsten.  A  table  gives  the  brightness  temperatures, 
color  tempeiatores,  and  lumens  per  watt  corresponding  to  true  temperatures  of 
tungsten  filaments.  Digitized  by  GoOglc 


J 


192  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Analytical  Chemistry 


Use  of  the  Platinized  Glass  Anode  in  F.  A.  Gooch  and  M.  Kobayashi 

Electrolytic  Determination  of  Manganese 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  945 

The  anode  is  a  lead  glass  tube  with  a  thin  coating  of  platinum  burnt  into  the 
glass.  This  coating  is  obtained  by  painting  upon  the  glass  a  viscous  emulsion  of 
glycerin  and  dry  chloroplatinic  acid  then  volatilizing  off  the  glycerin  (oil  of  lavender 
is  usually  employed  instead  of  glycerin).  With  this  rotating  anode  the  manganese 
was  successfully  deposited  from  the  electrolyte  containing  acetic  acid  and  manganese 
ulphate. 

The  Analysis  of  Coal,  and  a  New  Scheme  for  the  H.  Groppel 

Examination  of  Coal 

J.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  ii,  p.  384 

Moisture,  coke  and  ash  are  estimated  with  the  same  weighed  sample  of  coal  in 
the  same  api>aratus  consisting  of  a  '^ duck" -shaped  hand  glass  tube. 

Alpha-Benzildioxime  (Reagent  for  H.  Grossmann  and  J.  Mannheim 

Nickel) 

J.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  ii,  p.  391 

This  reagent  is  employed  for  the  separation  of  nickel  from  zinc,  magnesium, 
manganese  and  copper.  The  nickel  precipitate  may  be  heated  to  180°  C.  without 
decomposition. 


Organic  Chemistry 


New  Plastic  Material  126 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  983 

Gelatine  or  glue  solutions  are  treated  with  oxalic  acid  and  a  decoction  of  hops; 
this  clears  the  gelatine  and  renders  it  softer  when  dried.  Dried  sheets  of  this  material 
are  then  hardened  in  a  bath  containing  formaldehyde,  alcohol,  oxalic  acid,  tannin, 
and  glycerin.  The  product  resembles  celluloid,  but  it  is  odorless  and  non-inflammable. 

Determination  of  Wood  Gum  in  Cotton  M.  Freiberger        1411 

J.  Soc  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  923 

A  method  baaed  on  the  solubility  of  this  impurity  in  6%  caustic  soda  solution, 
from  which  it  is  isolated  by  fractional  precipitation  with  alcohol. 

DyestuflFs  Containing  the  Pyridine  Ring  W.  Harrison         1681 

J.  Soc  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  959 

In  addition  to  certain  pyridine  dyes,  quinoline  derivatives  of  the  isocyanine  series, 
such  as  Ethyl  Red,  Orthochrome  T,  Pinaverdol,  and  Pinacyanol,  are  discussed  with 
regard  to  their  constitution  and  photographic  sensitizing  action. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  193 

Bstimation  of  Nitrogen  in  Nitro  Compounds  A.  P.  Sachs 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  916 

The  nitro  compound  is  heated  with  a  standard  solution  of  stannous  chloride  in 
dilate  hydrochloric  acid,  and  the  excess  of  reducing  agent  estimated  by  titration  with 
iodine.    The  method  is  accurate  to  0.06^  on  samples  of  nitrobenzene  and  picric  acid. 

Spectroscopic  Identification  of  Phenols  J.  Formanek  and  J.  Knop 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  922 

About  0. 1  gram  of  the  phenol  is  converted  to  the  phthalein  by  heating  with 
phthalic  anhydride  and  zinc  chloride,  and  the  absorption  spectrum  of  aqueous  and 
alcoholic  solutions  of  the  dye  is  observed. 

Process  for  Converting  Cellulose  into  Glucose  R.  A.  Kocher 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  973 

A  patent  (B-107219)  on  the  process,  worked  out  by  WillstHtter  some  four  years 
ago,  of  hydrolyzing  cellulose  in  such  materials  as  sawdust  with  forty  per  cent  hydro- 
chloric acid.    A  quantitative  yield  of  glucose  is  thus  obtainable. 


Adolf  von  Baeyer,  professor  of  organic  chemistry  at  Munich,  died  in  August.  To 
his  researches  more  than  those  of  any  other  German  may  be  ascribed  the  foimdation 
of  the  German  dye  industry. 

Eduard  Buchner,  of  Wurzburg,  distinguished  for  his  researches  on  the  chemistry 
of  fermentation,  died  recently  of  wounds  received  at  the  front. 


From  Eastman  Kodak  Research  Laboratory 

A  Method  of  Waterproofing  Paper  Prints  J.  I.  Crabtree        L6 

Report  307 

A  method  has  been  worked  out  for  rendering  prints  waterproof  so  as  to  withstand 
rain  and  damp  weather  by  the  use  of  Eodalak  W.P.  which  is  soon  to  be  placed  on 
the  market.  The  lacquer  is  brushed  over  the  surface  of  the  printfl,  or  these  may 
be  dipped,  drained  and  hung  up  to  dry. 


A  Method  of  Preventing  the  Curling  of  Paper  Prints        J.I.  Crabtree     L6 

Report  391 

A  method  of  preventing  prints  from  curling  up  when  dry,  simpler  than  that  of 
applying  a  sheet  of  backing  paper,  is  to  coat  the  back  of  the  print  with  Kodalak 
W.P.  The  lacquer  should  be  applied  to  the  back  of  the  dry  print  with  a  brush,  and 
the  print  allowed  to  dry  in  a  warm  atmosphere,  away  from  a  flame,  since  the  lacquer 
and  the  solvent  are  inflammable.  If  necessary,  the  lacquer  may  be  thinned  to  the 
desired  consistency  with  the  Eodalak  Thinner.  Digitized  by  CjOOQIc 


194 ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

The  Reduction  of  Contrast  and  Increase  of  R.  B.  Wilsey        016-J3 

Scale  of  Photographic  Papers 

Report  401 

Measurements  on  several  papers  confirmed  the  result  obtained  by  J.  Sterry  that 
immersion  in  dilute  potassium  bichromate  solution  after  printing  and  before  develop- 
ment gives  a  large  reduction  of  contrast  and  increase  of  scale,  with  very  little  loss  of 
maximum  black.  There  is  no  loss  of  quality  or  speed.  Sodium  sulfite  used  in  the 
same  way  is  less  advantageous. 

A  White  Deposit  on  N.  C.  Film  J.  I.  Crabtree        041 

Report  412 

A  sample  of  exposed  and  developed  N.  C.  film,  as  submitted  by  an  amateur,  had 
the  appearance  of  a  negative  made  on  white  or  opal  celluloid.  On  scraping  away  a 
portion  of  the  image  and  of  the  gelatine  backing,  it  was  observed  that  the  milkineas 
existed  equally  in  the  gelatine  layers  on  both  sides  of  the  film,  while  the  support  was 
perfectly  clear.  It  was  considered  that  the  milkiness  was  due  to  a  colloidal  precipitate 
of  sulfur  within  the  gelatine  and  this  opinion  was  confirmed  when  a  similar  effect  was 
obtained  by  precipitating  sulfur  in  a  film  of  gelatine  by  alternately  placing  the  same 
in  a  solution  of  hypo  and  then  in  a  6%  solution  of  hydrochloric  acid.  The  milkiness 
in  question  was  probably  caused  by  bathing  in  an  alum  solution  either  before  or 
after  fixing,  or  the  film  may  have  been  left  in  the  fixing  bath  while  the  same  was 
depositing  sulphur. 

Minimum  Radiation  Visually  Perceptible  P.  Reeves 

Astrophys.  J.,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  167 

Communication  No.  61 

The  previous  investigations  of  this  subject  have  in  most  cases  used  stellar  light 
sources  and  have  been  uncertain  about  the  area  of  the  pupil.  The  writer  used  a 
direct  laboratory  method  in  which  all  physical  stimuli  were  under  accurate  control 
and  easily  measured  and  obtained  the  diameter  of  the  observers'  pupils  from  instan- 
taneous flashlight  photographs.  The  conditions  of  stellar  observations  were  approxi- 
mated by  viewing  a  1  mm.  aperture  from  a  distance  of  3  meters.  The  average  of 
observations  over  a  wide  range  of  time  shows  the  least  perceptible  radiation  to  be 
17.1  X  10-^®/erg8  per  sec.  Observations  were  also  taken  by  two  other  subjects  and 
averaged  with  the  writer's  results  for  the  same  days,  the  average  of  the  three 
observers  giving  19.6  x  10-^  Vergs  per  sec. 

The  Effect  of  Various  Physical  Stimuli  on  the  Pupillary  P.  Reeves 

Area  and  Retinal  Sensibility. 

J.  of  Ophthalmology,  Otology  and  Laryngology,  Sept.  1917 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  415. 

Communication  No.  52 

On  account  of  the  close  analogy  between  the  Kodak  and  the  eye,  an  extensive 
series  of  investigations  is  being  carried  on  in  physiological  optics  in  this  laboratory 
and  this  paper  contains  a  brief  summary  of  some  of  the  results  obtained  so  far.  The 
eye  and  the  photographic  plate  are  the  most-  widely  used  instruments  for  studying 
light  problems  and  in  practically  all  cases  the  final  judgments  are  reixd^^^Ji^y  the 


g' 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  106 

eye.  The  eye  operates  through  a  range  of  ten  billion  to  one  and  maintains  a  re- 
marimble  efficiency  throughoat  a  greater  part  of  this  extensive  range. 

When  a  spot  3  cm.  square  was  viewed  from  a  distance  of  35cm.  an  eye  adapted 
to  darkness  could  just  perceive  a  brightness  of  44  x  10-^  millilamberts  while  if  the  eye 
was  adapted  to  the  brightness  of  the  average  bright  sunny  day  the  least  it  could  see 
was  about  two  ml.  In  the  former  case  the  eye  could  just  tolerate  a  brightness  of  2 
ml  and  in  the  latter  case  the  limit  was  16,000  ml.  Throughout  the  range  of  ordinary 
vision  the  eye  is  able  to  detect  a  difference  of  1^  per  cent  in  brightness  between  two 
adjacent  fields. 

The  adaptation  of  the  retina  was  determined  for  changes  from  one  brightness  to 
another  and  with  several  colors  of  light.  The  change  in  the  pupillary  diameter  was 
also  studied  for  the  entire  range  of  illumination  and  the  average  pupil  varies  from  a 
minimum  diameter  of  2  mm.  to  a  maximum  of  8  mm.  The  efifect  of  exposing  one 
or  both  eyes  to  the  given  brightness  was  tried  and  the  pupil  was  found  to  be  larger 
when  one  eye  was  closed. 


Patent  Abstracts 
U.  S.  Patents 

1237342  J.  D.  Johnsen        K0733 

A  Method  for  Producing  Color  Plates  by  photo-engraving  in  which  the  colors  are 
flrat  selectively  hand-drawn  as  in  ordinary  chromolithography.  Similar  methods 
bave  been  used  for  many  years. 

1238775  F.  E.  Ives        K2116 

An  Optical  System  for  CJolor  Photography  in  which  the  customary  platinized  or 
silvered  light-splitting  mirror  is  replaced  by  a  mirror  surfaced  with  a  layer  of  dichroic 
dye  such  as  eosin.  The  dye  surface  is  color  selective  with  regard  to  its  reflecting  and 
tiansmitting  ability. 

1234450  T.  A.  Edison        1512 

Dyeing  Celluloid.  Celluloid  sound  record  blanks  are  treated  with  a  solution  of 
^  aniline  dye  in  25%  aqueous  acetone  and  then  washed  with  water  and  dried.  Ace- 
tone of  this  strength  does  not  dissolve  out  the  camphor. 

1234720  E.  L.  Bloch-Pimentel        1614 

Ck>mpounds  of  Cellulose  with  Trioxymethylene.  Cellulose  in  the  form  of  arti- 
^l  silk,  films,  or  moulded  articles,  is  treated  with  trioxymethylene  and  a  condensing 
*S^t  whereby  its  resistance  to  water  is  increased  without  causing  change  in  shape  or 
Appearance.    The  product  yields  formic  acid  on  hydrolysis. 

1240027  John  I.  Crabtree,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         1592 

A  Flash  Powder  which  gives  an  illumination  similar  to  that  from  Nitrogen 
^^luigsten  electric  lamps  and  is  therefore  useful  in  color  photography  adapted  to  such 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


196  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1239469  P.  Dietz,  Assigned  to  Defiance  Mfg.  Co.         2102 

A  FocusiDg  Device  for  Cameras.  It  includes  a  plate  movable  transversely  of  the 
camera  bed  by  means  of  an  adjusting  screw.  This  plate  carries  lugs  which  engage 
in  oblique  slots  cut  in  the  main  focusing  plate,  whereby  lateral  movement  of  the 
adjusting  plate  causes  longitudinal  movement  of  the  focusing  plate. 


1239017  R.  Kroedel,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2105-215 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  detachable  back,  the  camera  body  and  back 
having  cooperating  flanges  and  grooves  to  render  the  joints  light-tight.  A  resilient 
flange  at  one  end  of  the  back  is  grooved  so  as  to  serve  not  only  as  a  light  trap,  but  as 
a  latch. 


1237333  H.  H,  Heckman,  Assigned  i  to  R.  C.  Rowen        2162 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  quick  wind  mechanism  driven  from  a 
spring  motor.  The  shutter  and  winding  mechanism  are  connected  to  prevent  double 
exposure. 


1238504  H.  J.  Gaisman,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2153 

A  Method  of  and  Means  for  Producing  Designations  on  Photographically  Sensi- 
tive Elements.  The  specific  illustration  given  in  the  drawing  includes  a  sensitized 
fllm  and  a  translucid  paper  backing  bearing  an  opaque  carbon  coating,  which  may 
be  displaced  by  a  stylus  to  render  it  locally  light  permeable. 

1238505  H.  J.  Gaisman,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2163 

A  Photographic  Apparatus  illustrated  in  the  form  of  a  roll  fllm  camera  having  an 
opening  in  the  back  through  which  the  operator  may  write  on  the  rear  face  of  suitably 
prepared  film.  The  opening  in  the  camera  back  is  provided  with  a  hinged  opaque 
cover  and  the  interior  of  the  camera  opposite  the  opening  is  provided  with  a  ledge  for 
supporting  the  section  of  film  on  which  the  writing  is  done. 

1238506  H.  J.  Gaisman,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2153 

Method  of  and  Device  for  Designating  Photographic  Exposures.  The  apparatus 
illustrated  includes  a  roll  film  camera  having  an  opening  in  the  back  through  which 
the  operator  can  write  upon  a  strip  of  carbon  transfer  paper  held  in  the  rear  of  the 
backing  paper  of  the  film.  This  backing  paper  is  translucid  in  single  layers,  but 
opaque  in  multiple  layers.  The  carbon  paper  is  carried  in  a  suitable  receptacle  in  the 
camera  back  and  may  be  locally  withdrawn  to  allow  the  transferred  inscription  to 
be  light-printed  through  the  translucid  backing  paper  onto  the  film. 

1238674  Z.  E.  House,  Assigned  i  to  Ira  C.  Curtis        2153 

A  Camera  provided  with  means  for  light-printing  inscriptions  onto  the  borders  of 
the  pictures.  The  writing  is  done  on  a  translucid  strip,  which  is  then  inserted 
through  a  light-trapped  opening  in  the  side  of  the  camera  in  front  of  the  sensitive 
film.    The  carrier  of  the  translucid  writing  slip  is  held  in  place  by  special  stripe^ 

Digitized  by  -C 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  197 

1237701  J.  A.  Robertson,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Ck).         242 

A  Printing  Frame  in  which  one  of  the  hinged  memhers  of  the  preeeer  back  or 
platen  carries  a  pair  of  perforated  ears  engaging  over  centering  lugs  on  the  frame^ 
This  arrangement  prevents  slipping  when  inspecting  the  progress  of  printing-out. 

1239438  C.  R.  Grey        261 

A  Developing  Tray  having  integrally  formed  at  the  ends  thereof  two  fluid  re- 
ceptacles connected  with  the  main  part  of  the  tray  through  valved  openings. 

1237657  R.  Kroedel,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2541 

A  Tank  for  Developing  Roll  Film.  The  film  is  drawn  through  two  parallel, 
looped  guides.  The  guides  are  formed  of  a  pair  of  flanged  plates  nested  inside  each 
other  and  spaced  to  admit  developing  fluid  between  them. 

1237562  A.  M.  Schoenberg        2543 

A  Holder  for  Cut  Film  during  development,  comprising  a  rectangular  frame  hav- 
ing film  gripping  clips  adjacent  each  comer.  The  clips  are  carried  by  spring  arms 
which  stretch  the  film  flat  during  immersion. 

1237563  A.  M.  Schoenberg        2543 

A  Device  for  Loading  Cut  Film  into  tlie  holders  shown  in  patent  No.  1,237,662. 
The  loading  device  not  only  serves  as  a  guide  for  the  cut  film,  but  automatically  opens 
the  clips  of  the  holder  and  manipulates  the  spring  arms  which  carry  the  clips. 

1237428  W.  H.  Watrous        2614 

A  Foldable  Bracket  adapted  for  attachment  to  poles,  trees,  door  frames,  etc. ,  for 
Bupporting  cameras.  Two  of  its  legs  are  spring  pressed  against  the  sides  of  the  tree^ 
while  the  third  1^  bears  downwardly  against  the  front  face  tliereof . 

1238422  P.  J.  Marks,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2623 

A  Photographic  Shutter  which  is  illustrated  in  connection  with  a  three-color 
«w»era.  The  shutter  blades  are  actuated  to  open  position  through  the  medium  of  a 
spring  and  then  driven  positively  to  the  closed  position. 

1238471  A.  WoUensak,  Assigned  to  Wollensak  Optical  Co.         262* 

A  Photographic  Shutter  provided  with  a  pneumatic  retarding  means.  This  in- 
cludes two  dash  pots  having  their  movable  members  counter-balancing  each  other 
^d  arranged  to  move  in  paths  directed  at  acute  angles  to  each  other.  This  insures 
^  same  retarding  action  for  any  position  of  the  shutter. 

1239025  P.  J.  Marks,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2623 

^  Between-the-Lens  Shutter  of  the  setting  type,  the  speeds  being  controlled  by  a 
^^  train,  the  retarding  action  of  which  is  varied  through  a  variably  moved  sector, 
^e  movement  of  the  latter  is  altered  through  a  shifting  fulcrum.  Digitized  by  GoOQlC 


198  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1240073  P.  J.  Marks,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2623 

A  Photographic  Shutter  provided  with  a  convenient  gear  for  controlling  the 
leaves  of  the  diaphragm. 

1238621  H.  C.  Atwood        2626 

A  Clock-Work  Mechanism  for  actuating  a  camera  shutter  after  a  time  interval 
to  allow  the  operator  to  include  himself  in  the  picture. 

1238473  J.  E.  Woodbury,  Exclusive  License  to  E.  K.  Co.         2645 

A  Combined  Finding  and  Focusing  Mechanism  for  Cameras  in  which  a  range  finder 
is  coordinated  with  the  moving  lens  carriage.  This  finder  is  of  the  moving  mirror 
type  and  is  connected  to  the  lens  carriage  through  a  cam  and  two  links.  The  finder 
is  of  the  direct  vision  type  and  is  arranged  to  fold  compactly  on  the  camera  top. 

1238474  J.  E.  Woodbury,  Exclusive  License  to  E.  K.  Co.         2645 

A  Focusing  Device  for  Cameras  in  which  a  range  finder  is  coordinated  with  the 
moving  lens  carriage.  The  range  finder  is  of  the  type  in  which  the  images  of  two 
adjacent  parts  of  an  object  are  brought  into  alignment,  the  light  rays  being  deviated 
in  the  range  finder  by  refraction  instead  of  by  a  moving  mirror. 

1236498  R.  P.  Stineman  and  O.  O.  Taylor        3101 

An  Intermittent  Movement  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  designed  to  impart  a 
very  swift  movement  to  the  film  during  the  periods  when  the  latter  is  moved. 

1237046  A.  S.  Howell,  Assigned  to  Bell  &  Howell  Co.         3101 

A  Brake  Mechanism  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  designed  to  avoid  strain  when 
the  machinery  is  suddenly  stopped.  Another  purpose  is  to  stop  the  mechanism  in  a 
predetermined  position  relative  to  the  film. 

1238520  A.  S.  Howell,  Assigned  to  Bell  &  Howell  Co.         3101 

A  Device  for  Feeding  Motion  Picture  Film.  It  includes  an  oscillating  shuttle 
carrying  spaced  pairs  of  teeth  for  insertion  in  the  perforations  in  the  film.  After  the 
teeth  enter  the  perforations  preparatory  to  making  a  feeding  stroke,  the  upper  and 
lower  members  of  each  pair  are  separated,  thereby  grasping  the  film  firmly  and  secur- 
ing a  registry  of  the  perforations  during  printing. 

1238694  G.  R.  Macomber        3208 

A  Device  for  Handling  Motion  Picture  Film  so  that  it  may  be  repeatedly  and 
continuously  displayed  without  rew^inding.  A  rotating  fork  alternately  forms  a  roll  of 
doubled  film  in  the  rear  of  the  apparatus  and  then  automatically  releases  it. 

1239504  W.  E.  Millar        3208 

A  Reel  for  Motion  Picture  Machines  in  which  the  film  is  fed  from  the  inner  con- 
volution of  the  coil  80  as  to  avoid  rewinding.  ^.^.^.^^^  ^^  GoOqIc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN         199 

1239800  A.  Luciano        828 

A  Combined  Talking  and  Motion  Picture  Projecting  Machine  of  the  cabinet  type 
for  home  nae. 

1237047  A.  S.  HoweU,  Assigned  to  Bell  &  Howell  Co.        387 

A  Device  for  Cleaning  Motion  Picture  Film,  particularly  after  the  latter  leaves 
the  perforating  machine.  It  includes  a  pair  of  rotary  brushes  and  a  vacuum  device 
for  drawing  away  the  separated  particles. 


British  Patents 

B107795  T.  Terashima        068-326 

Cinematographic  Apparatus.  A  cinematographic  stereoscope  for  viewing  the  hori- 
zontally-moving film  described  in  Specification  107797  comprises  a  lamp,  reflector, 
and  condensers  for  illuminating  the  film  as  it  passes  through  the  gates.  The  two 
condensers  are  at  the  inter-ocular  distance  apart,  and  one  of  them  is  nearer  to  the 
front  of  the  stereoscope  than  the  other,  corresponding  respectively  with  the  positions 
of  the  members  of  the  stereoscopic  pair  of  pictures,  namely  one  in  an  upper  and  the 
other  in  the  lower  row.  The  pictures  are  projected  on  a  glass  diffusing  screen  by 
means  of  objectives  set  so  that  the  pictures  will  be  formed  at  the  same  level.  The 
eye-pieces,  which  may  be  adjusted  by  a  pinion  and  the  focus  of  which  may  be 
altered,  may  be  set  in  a  straight  line  with  or  at  an  angle  to  the  objectives.  In  the 
latter  case  a  mirror  is  employed.     An  ordinary  cinematographic  fe(»d  is  fitted. 

B107796  T.  Terashima        068-326 

Stereoscopic  Cameras;  Cinematographs.  A  stereoscopic  camera  has  one  objective 
placed  higher  than  the  other  and  the  vertical  projections  are  disposed  at  the  inter- 
oenlar  distance  apart  so  that  the  members  of  the  stereoscopic  pairs  of  images  will  be 
formed  respectively  in  an  upper  and  lower  row  on  a  single  horizontal  film,  the  posi- 
tive of  which  may  be  viewed  in  the  stereoscope  described  in  Specification  107796.  The 
camera  is  fitted  with  an  ordinary  cinematographic  feed  mechanism,  a  rotary  shutter, 
and  focusing-mirrors  which  are  moved  to  or  from  the  operative  position  by  a  handle. 

B107797  T.  Terashima        068-326 

Stereoscopes;  Cinematographs.  Relates  to  stereoscopic  picture  films  for  stereo- 
scopes, cinematographs,  etc. ,  in  which  the  stereoscopic  pair  members  are  arranged 
one  in  an  upper  and  one  in  a  lower  row  and  spaced  longitudinally  at  about  the  inter- 
ocular  distance,  and  consists  in  arranging  about  seven  pairs  within  the  said  distance 
on  a  film  of  about  half  the  normal  width.  Such  a  film  may  be  used  with  the  stereo- 
scope described  in  Specification  107795. 

B108193  E.  Blendel  la  Rougery        127-0137 

Sensitive  Silver  Mixtures.  The  invention  comprises  a  process  of  making  a  sensi- 
tive layer  intended  for  taking  negatives,  consisting  in  sensitizing  gelatine  by  a  mix- 
tare  of  a  solution  of  55  gms.  silver  nitrate  in  250  ccs.  distilled  water,  to  which  is 
added  the  quantity  of  ammonia  required  to  dissolve  the  precipitate,  and  of  a  solution 
of  10  gms.  potassium  bromide,  SO  gms.  ammonium  bromide,  0.50  gm.  cadmium  bro- 
mide and  0. 50  gm.  potassium  iodide  in  250  ccs.  distilled  water.    The  invention  also  com- 


200  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

prises  a  process  of  prodacing  a  translucent  paper  base  for  the  sensitized  layer.  If  it 
is  desired  to  obtain  very  fine  and  detailed  positives,  an  extremely  translucent  paper 
without  grain  is  selected,  while  if  it  is  desired  to  obtain  positives  without  too  much 
fineness,  producing  certain  artistic  effects,  a  comparatively  opaque  and  grained  paper 
is  selected. 

For  instance,  in  order  to  obtain  a  translucent  paper  without  visible  grain,  pore 
rag  paper  is  taken  and  chemically  deprived  of  any  impurities,  then  calendered  three 
times  under  a  heavy  pressure,  then  raised  to  a  temperature  of  about  80°O.,  and  sub- 
sequently calendered  at  a  lower  pressure  while  at  a  temperature  of  about  18°C.  This 
paper  is  coated  with  a  layer  of  sensitized  gelatine,  an  emulsion  of  the  following  com- 
position being  used: — 55  gms.  of  silver  nitrate  are  dissolved  in  250  gms.  of  distilled 
water,  adding  the  necessary  quantity  of  ammonia  to  dissolve  the  precipitate,  10  gms. 
of  bromide  of  potassium,  30  gms.  of  ammonium  bromide,  one-half  gm.  of  iodide  of 
cadmium  and  0.50  gm.  of  iodide  of  potassium  are  dissolved  in  250ccs.  of  distilled 
water.  Afterwards  sensitized  gelatine  is  prepared  with  these  solutions  by  one  of  the 
ordinary  methods.  The  sensitized  paper  is  used  either  cut  into  sheets,  in  the 
manner  of  a  plate,  or  still  better,  cut  into  bands  like  a  roll  of  film.  The  paper  is  ex- 
posed in  a  camera  in  the  same  way  as  would  be  done  in  the  case  of  plates  or  films. 
The  negatives  on  paper  are  then  developed  and  fixed. 

The  negatives  thus  obtained  are  then  utilized  for  printing  positives  in  the  ordi- 
nary manner,  and  if  the  paper  of  the  negative  is  very  translucent  and  without  a 
visible  grain,  positives  are  obtained  which  are  as  beautiful  as  those  that  could  be  ob- 
tained with  negatives  on  glass  or  on  celluloid.  The  specific  claims  are:  1.  A  pro- 
cess of  making  a  sensitive  layer  intended  for  taking  negatives  in  photographic  appara- 
tus, consisting  in  sensitizing  gelatine  by  a  mixture  of  a  solution  of  55  gms.  silver 
nitrate  in  250  ccs.  distilled  water,  to  which  is  added  the  quantity  of  ammonia  required 
to  dissolve  the  precipitate,  and  of  a  solution  of  10  gms.  potassium  bromide,  30  gms. 
anmionium  bromide,  0.50  gms.  cadmium  iodide,  and  0.50  gm.  potassium  iodide  in  250 
ccs.  distilled  water.  2.  A  process  of  producing  a  translucent  paper  base  for  the 
sensitive  layer  as  claimed  in  Claim  I,  consisting  in  calendering  three  times  at  a  high 
pressure  a  pure  rag  paper  deprived  of  any  impurities,  then  raising  the  temperature 
of  the  paper  to  about  80°C.  and  then  calendering  it  again  at  a  lower  pressure,  at  a 
temperature  of  about  18^C. 

B107643  J.  A.  Maker        215 

Photographic  Cameras.  In  a  roll  film  camera,  the  center  pins  or  pivots  of  the 
spool  are  moveable  outwardly  simultaneously  to  release  the  spool  by  means  of  a  lever 
pivoted  about  a  fixed  rod  and  pivotally  connected  to  one  pin,  the  lever  being  con- 
nected also  by  a  rod,  fitted  with  a  film-guiding  roller  to  an  arm  on  the  outside  of  the 
pin.  A  spring  normally  holds  the  pins  in  engagement  with  the  spool,  and  a  braking- 
spring  is  secured  to  a  fixed  sleeve.  The  winding-on  spool  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
camera  is  fitted  with  a  pin  connected  to  a  pivoted  lever  in  turn  connected  by  a  rod  to 
a  plate  in  which  the  other  pin  is  free  to  rotate.  These  pins  are  released  by  pulling^ 
out  a  folding  handle,  which  is  used  also  for  winding,  a  ratchet  mechanism  of  ordi- 
nary form  being  fitted  to  the  pin.    A  spring  holds  the  pins  normally  in  engagement. 

B108215  J.  B.  CampbeU        241-243 

Printing  Apparatus  with  Vignetting  Masks.  A  vignetting  device  comprises  a 
number  of  moveable  plates  which  are  secured  to  a  base,  having  an  opening  therein,  by 
means  of  screws  or  their  equivalents  and  slots,  the  plates  being  thus  capable  of  adjust- 
ment to  vary  the  size  and  shape  of  the  vignetting  opening.  The  plates  have  curved 
and  serrated  edges,  and  may  have  tumed-up  edges  to  facilitate  adiustm^QQ^Tp 

igi  ze      y  g 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  201 

B107810  R.  C.  Givler         315 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  Relates  to  cameras  of  the  kind  which  includes 
mechanism  whereby  manipulation  of  an  operating  handle  causes  the  film  to  be  drawn 
out,  positioned  relatively  to  the  lens,  and  the  shutter  to  be  oj)erated,  intermittently, 
so  that  a  succession  of  pictures  showinjr  diffen»nt  stajrt  s  in  the  movement  of  an  ob- 
ject may  be  obtained;  it  consists  of  a  roll-spool  camera  in  which  the  take-up  spool 
may  be  manually  operated  independently  of  the  shutter  mechanism  so  that  the  film 
may  be  primarily  po.^itioned  f<*r  the  first  exposure,  or,  if  desired,  a  portion  of  the 
film  utilized  in  making  exposures  in  rapid  sucee&«ion  followed  by  single  exposures. 
The  operating  handle  drives  gearing,  l»y  means  of  which  the  film  spool  is  rotated  and 
the  shutter  actuated.  A  mutilated  pear  preventfl  movement  of  the  film  while  the  cam 
acting  on  the  lever  operates  tlie  shutter.  The  shutter  comprises  a  mutilated  disk  hav- 
ing abutments  and  engaging  a  stop  to  limit  its  oscillation.'  An  escapement  attached 
to  the  lever  carries  a  spring  which  acts  upon  the  disk. 

On  oscillating  the  escapement,  the  spring  is  strained  and  tends  to  move  the  disk, 
which  movement  is  restrained  until  the  wtdgc  from  the  escapement  is  removed  from 
under  the  abutment  when  the  shutter  will  rotate  until  the  stop  comes  against  the 
stop,  during  which  movement  the  opening  movts  past  the  lens  The  take-up  spool 
is  rotated  by  the  gearing  and  also  may  be  rotated  by  means  of  the  handle  when  the 
mutilated  part  of  the  gear  Is  opposite  the  gear  wheel.  This  position  is  indicated  by 
menns  of  indexes.  If  single  pictures  are  Required,  the  gearing  is  set  in  this  position 
and  an  expo.^ure  made  by  a  slight  movement  of  the  handle.  The  take-up  spool  has  a 
slot  engaged  by  projections  on  the  gearing,  and  is  sup{>orted  at  its  lower  end  by  a 
casing,  attached  by  a  ratchet  gearing  to  the  spindle  which  carries  the  handle.  A 
carrier  engages  flats  on  the  member  and  holds  the  spool  in  position. 

B107839  W.  Branson         3203 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  The  masking-blade  of  a  cinematograph  shutter  is 
made  of  glass  or  lik«'  transparent  mat(»rial,  and  has  one  or  l)oth  surfaces  fluted, 
riiibed.  corrugated,  or  the  like,  so  as  to  refract  and  diffuse  the  light  beam;  the 
ma.'-king-blade  may  be  colored  or  covered  with  a  colored  film,  and  the  shutter  may 
also  comprise  one  or  more  flicker-blades,  these  blades  being  transparent  and  tinted, 
opaque  and  imperforate,  or  opaque  and  perforated  with  apertures  of  variable  width. 
The  majsking-blade  in  the  shutter  has  a  widely  fluted  surface,  and  an  apertured  opaque 
flicker-blade,  the  widths  of  the  apertures  being  variable  by  means  of  adjustable 
apertured  sectors  which  are  pivoted  one  on  each  side  of  the  blade,  and  are  adjusted 
by  means  of  a  stud  passing  through  a  slot  in  the  blade.  The  flutings  in  the  masking- 
blade  are  preferably  parallel  to  the  direction  of  travel  of  the  film  when  the  film  is  in 
the  light  Ijeam.  Slotted  blades  may  be  provided  between  the  blades.  The  colors  of 
the  masking  and  fiicker  blades  may  be  complementary,  and  the  color  of  the  masking- 
blade  may  vary  in  depth,  being  preferably  deeper  at  the  part  of  the  blade  which 
traverses  the  light  beams  when  the  film  movement  is  about  half  completed.  The 
invention  may  be  applied  to  shutters  having  two  or  more  m asking-blades. 

B1082t7  W.  Vidler         3203 

Cinematograph  Projector  Shutters.  The  claim  is  for  a  pattern  of  shutter  by 
whirh  flicker,  even  at  low  speeds,  is  minimized.  The  shutter  is  formed  from  a  disk 
of  metal  provided  with  cut-portions,  leaving  three  blades  joined  together  by  a  rim. 
These  plates  are  perforated  from  the  ci*nter  to  the  edges  in  a  particular  manner  so 
to  pr*Mluce  the  result  desired.  ^-^  t 

Digitized  by  VjOOQiC 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


.  Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


December,  1917 


Issued  hy  the  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COMPANY 

Rjochcstcr,  Ncvt'York 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN     '  203 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  3,  No.  10 


December,   1917 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  206 


Photography 


The  Use  of  Gelatino-Bromide  Plates  Saturated        R.  Namias        Go-0582 
with  the  Developing  Bath  Before  Exposure,  and  Night  Photography 

II  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  142 
The  author  concludes  that  the  treatment  of  a  plate  with  a  developing  bath  before 
exposure  does  not  oflfer  any  advantage  in  the  direction  of  increased  sensitiveness;  the 
only  advantage  would  be  in  decreasing  the  time  necessary  for  development.  For 
night  photography  it  is  recommended  that  the  plate  be  sensitized  with  a  mixture  of 
pinachrome  and  pinacyanol. 

Some  Points  in  Strip  Printing  M.  I^vy         J8 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  507 
This  deals  with  the  making  of  bromide  prints  in  strips,  using  some  of  the  com- 
mercial printers  arranged  to  make  a  series  of  prints  on  the  same  sheet  of  paper. 
Suggestions  are  made  for  the  adjustment  of  negatives  and  for  time  saving  methods 
for  handling  the  paper.     The  whole  article  is  practical  and  valuable. 

Quantity  Production  of  Photographic  Prints  J3-241 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  511 
Description  of  two  recent  patentE  for  a  strip  printer  for  rapid  enlarging  apparatus. 
(See  al)8tract8  of  British  patents  108931  and  108691). 

The  EfiFect  of  the  Use  of  Parallel  or  Divergent  Light        R.  Namias        J3 
in  Printing 

II  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  pp.  20,  49,  77,  111 
Points  out  the  advantage  of  using  parallel  light  for  printing,  especially  if  contact 
is  not  perfect. 

A  Printing  Apparatus  using  Parallel  Light  R.  Namias        J3-241 

II  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  185 

Following  the  previous  series  of  articles  upon  the  use  of  parallel  light,  the  author 
has  BQade  a  printer  fitted  with  a  condenser  and  arranged  to  make  use  of  parallel  rays. 

Regression  of  Image  on  Development  Papers  of  the  Character  J8-014 

used  for  Portrait  Work 

Portrait,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  1 

An  account  of  a  series  of  experiments  on  the  effect  of  humidity  on  the  rate  of 
fading  of  the  latent  image  on  Gyko  paper,  after  exposure  and  before  development. 
Attention  was  drawn  to  this  phenomenon  in  the  August  number  of  Studio  Light. 

A  Developer  for  Producing  Prints  of  Exceptional  Beauty  J4 

Phot.  J.  Amor.,  1917,  p.  461 

The  author  recommends  the  following  solution  for  the  development  of  gaslight 
and  bromide  paper.  Ammonium  oxalate,  2  ozs. ;  ferrous  oxalate,  3  drams;  oxalic 
acid,  1  dram.  Dissolve  in  12  ozs.  of  boiling  water,  then  add  8  oz.**.  of  cold  water  and 
2  drams  grain  alcohol.  Development  is  complete  in  from  10  to  15  sees.,  when  the 
prints  should  be  placed  in  a  stop  bath  of  acetic  acid  before  placing  in  the  hypo  solu- 
tion. It  is  recommended  to  employ  a  bath  of  alum  after  the  hypo,  though  the  autlior 
does  not  say  why  a  combined  hypo  alum  fixing  bath  cannot  \x^  employed.      OQ IC 


206  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Decennia  Practica— The  Autochrome  Process;  Exposure,  KG5-K33 

Development,  etc.,  Part  III. 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  38 

Contains  the  Lumifere  methods  for  the  control  of  Autochrome  development  and 
for  a  simplified  treatment  of  the  Autochrome  plates,  also  methods  of  using  acid  Amidol 
and  sodium  hydrosulfite. 

Waterproofing  Soldier  Prints  with  Kodalak  W.  P.  L6 

Studio  Light,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  18 

Detailed  directions  for  waterproofing  prints  with  Kodalak  W.  P.  as  recommended 
by  the  Research  Laboratory. 

Sensitometry  A.  S.  Cory        016 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  2972  and  Nov.,  1917,  pp.  3148,  3328 
A  brief  resume  of  the  subject. 

Depth  of  Field  in  Cinematography  A.  Lockett        019 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  546 

An  article  on  the  optics  of  depth  of  field  giving  a  rule  applicable  to  the  special 
conditions  which  occur  in  cinematography.  This  rule  is  as  follows:  Multiply  the 
focal  length  of  the  lens  in  inches  by  60.  The  result  gives  the  hyperfocal  distance  in 
feet  with  a  stop  of  the  same  F  number  as  the  focal  length  and  a  circle  of  confusion  of 
l/600th  inch. 

Exposures  Indoors  •  023 

Phot.  Min.,  Jan.,  1917 

Gives  practical  infonnation  concerning  indoor  photography. 

New  Business  and  More  Business  0311 

Studio  Light,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  14 
An  article  explaining  the  nature  and  advantages  of  the  portrait  gift  certificate. 

Fog  and  How  to  Deal  with  it  041 

Studio  Light,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  6 

Real  Causes  of  Blisters  041 

Studio  Light,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  16 

Brooch  and  Pendant  Portraits  C.  U.  Cooke         048 

Amat.  Phot.,  Oct.  S,  1917,  p.  229 

Describes  a  method  of  making  photographic  pendants  by  transferring  either  a 
carbon  print  or  a  Kodak  transferotype  print  to  a  watch  crystal  and  backing  this  up 
with  a  reflecting  surface  of  plaster  of  Paris. 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Doretypes  and  How  to  Make  Them  048-Nl 

Studio  Light,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  12 

A  Doretype,  as  introduced  to  the  trade  through  the  Eastman  8chool  of  Pro- 
fessional Photography,  consists  of  a  black  antf  white  or  toned  positive  on  film  or  glass 
and  painted  on  the  emulsion  side  with  gold  bronze,  or  backed  with  tinted  paper  or 
fabric.  The  positive  should  be  thin,  and  the  bronze  very  finely  divided,  while  it  m 
recommended  that  the  finished  Doretype  be  displayed  in  a  suitable  frame  or  case. 

Wide  Angle  Views  from  Matched  Negatives  051 

Studio  Light,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  6 

The  article  describes  how  to  make  a  panoramic  print  from  two  or  more  negatives 
taken  from  the  same  viewpoint,  by  means  of  a  suitable  vignetting. 

Telephotography  R.  Namias         052 

II  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  pp.  11,  43,  72,  104,  129,  153,  177,201,225 

This  series  of  articles  deals  very  fully  with  the  theory  and  practice  of  telephotog- 
raphy, the  optical  principles  involved  being  discussed  as  well  as  their  application  in 
practice. 

A  Theoretical  and  Practical  Study  of  Orthochromatisni      R.  Namias    050 
11  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  pp.  1,  33,  65,  97,  135,  158,  190 

This  series  of  articles  deals  with  orthochromatism  in  general  and  in  particular 
with  plates  sensitized  with  erythrosin  and  eosin,  very  little  being  said  about  panchro- 
matic plates.  Methods  of  sensitizing  are  di.**cu8sed,  also  the  use  of  filters  and  of 
self-screened  plates. 

Some  Points  in  Copying— IV  057 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  494 

This  section  of  the  series  deals  chiefly  with  the  illumination  of  the  co[>y  including 
the  various  methods  of  using  artificial  light  .sources. 

Flashlight  Portraits  0581-1592 

B.  J,,  1917,  p.  541 

In  an  editorial  note  some  of  the  practical  precautions  necessary  for  flash-light 
portraiture  are  dealt  with.  It  is  stated  that  when  flash  powder  is  kept  the  light 
becomes  yellow  so  that  a  larger  quantity  of  the  powder  is  required  and  it  is  conse- 
quently important  to  use  freshly  mixed  flash  powder. 

Half  Watt  Installations  -     Practicus        0583 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  543 

Suggestions  for  the  use  of  nitrogen  tungsten  lamps  in  portraiture.  Various 
arrangements  of  the  lamps  are  shown  and  the  article  contains  a  number  of  valuable 
suggestions. 

Cinematography  Prophesied  06 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  542 

An  abstract  of  an  article  in  the  Photographic  News,  1860,  by  Sir  John  Ilerschel  in 
which  he  foresees  the  motion  picture  of  to-day  and  the  stereoscopic  motion  pictf^^. 


208  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Efficiency  for  Motion  Picture  Studios  C.  L.  Gregory        06 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  698 

Although  in  the  past  the  motion  picture  industry  has  provided  profits  for  pro- 
ducers, in  view  of  the  present  keen  competition,  the  author  offers  several  suggestions 
for  increased  efficiency  in  working. 

Trick  Work  and  Double  Exposure  0631 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  542 
This,  the  concluding  article,  deals  mainly  with  "stop  crank"  and  **  reverse"  effects. 

The  Camera  Man's  Job  0631 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  698 
A  few  words  of  advice  to  the  ambitious  camera  man. 

The  Mechanics  of  Film  Splicing  0649 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  3324 

It  is  recommended  to  splice  fihn  in  such  a  way  that  the  spliced  portion  lies  en- 
tirely between  two  perforations  and  not  on  either  side  of  the  same. 

Important  Data  on  Illumination  067 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  3498 

The  first  of  a  series  of  articles  on  scret^n  illumination,  the  efficiency  of  various 
light  sources,  and  the  optical  systi^m  of  the  projector.  Deals  with  the  various  standard 
light  units  as  defimni  by  the  Illuminating  Engineering  Society. 

Practical  Advice  for  Camera  Men  Bound  for  the  Front  083 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  3504 
Mov.  Pict.  World,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  1018 

An  abstract  of  a  letter  from  a  former  staff  man  of  the  Gaumont-Mutual  Weekly. 
The  writer  recommends  film  pack  as  the  most  reliable  and  compact  method  of  making 
exposures.  A  useful  method  for  purifying  muddy  water  consists  in*  adding  an  ounce 
of  alum  to  a  barrel  of  water  and  allowing  the  same  to  stand  over  night  when  the  clear 
water  may  be  drained  off.  The  trace  of  alum  thus  introduced  has  no  appreciable 
effect  on  the  developer.  * 

Photographing  from  the  Air.     I.  H.  Voorwalt        083 

Lux  Foto-Tydschrift,  June,  1917,  p.  181 

The  first  part  of  this  serit^s  of  articles,  of  which  the  remaining  parts  have  already 
been  abstracted,  has  now  come  to  hand.  This  deals  with  the  use  of  orthochromatic 
plates  and  filters,  which  are  stated  to  be  essential,  and  with  the  question  of  the  ex- 
posure, which  is  calculated  on  the  basis  of  the  exposure  necessary  to  give  a  sharp 
image,  having  regard  to  the  movement  of  the  plane.  No  oscillatory  or  vibratory 
movements  are  taken  into  account,  only  those  due  to  the  horizontal  speed  of  the 
plane  being  considered. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  209 

The  Phot<^raphic  Service  in  the  Italian  Army         A.  Gianbrocono       083     s 
n  Progreeso  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  26 

The  article  deals  ahnost  entlTely  -with  photography  from  the  ground.  This  work 
is  divided  into  two  branches— the  technical  work  for  the  anny  and  the  documentary 
work,  which  is  devoted  to  the  maintaining  of  a  record  of  the  war.  The  military 
photographic  service  is  in  the  hands  of  the  Photographic  Service  of  the  Signal  Corps. 
This  section  is  divided  into  four  divisions :  ( 1 )  Field  photographers,  who  work  on 
flat  ground.  Each  section  uses  an  automobile  with  three  photographers  and  one 
ftfficer.  The  cameras  used  are  13  x  18cm.  and  18  x  24cm.  (2)  The  Mountain  Telephotog- 
raphers,  who  employ  mules  and  use  a  large  telephotographic  apparatus  taking  plates 
24  X  30cm.  (3)  Tlie  Siege  section,  which  utilizes  wagons,  each  section  having  two  pho- 
tographers. (4)  The  Aeronautical  Division,  who  are  stated  to  use  cameras  13  x  18cm. 
employing  telephoto  lenses  and  also  apparatus  with  arrangements  for  rapidly  changing 
the  plat€*8,  apparently  to  take  a  continuous  series  of  photographs. 

The  Obtaining  of  Critical  Definition  in  Photo-  L.  T.  Reicher    094    v/ 

micrography  at  High  Magnifications 

Lux  Foto-Tydschrift,  1917,  p.  293 

The  authgr  describes  the  difficulties  which  arise  at  high  magnifications  and  dis- 
cusses the  so-called  Hookers  joint  and  improvements  made  by  Mathet  in  it.  For 
critical  definition  the  following  points  are  of  importance :  (1)  rigidity  of  the  apparatus; 
(2)  freedom  from  vibration;  (3)  elimination  of  the  influence  of  heat. 

Some  Consideration  on  Radiographic  Technique      E.  Giovanetti    099-XF6 

II  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  pp.  7,  38 

Suggestions  with  regard  to  exposure  and  development  in  radiographic  work. 

An  Interesting  and  Economical  Process  of  Photo-  R.  Namias        /74 

graphic  Printing 

II  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  pp.  208,  238 

Paper  is  mynmiized  with  a  mixture  of  oxalic  acid  and  ferric  chloride,  dried,  and 
after  exposure  developed  with  an  ammoniacal  solution  of  silver  nitrate. 

The  Bromoil  Process  /89 

II  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  114 

Collected  opinions  of  a  number  of  readers  giving  their  methods  of  working  the 
Bn>moil  process. 

Episcopic  Projection  and  a  Particular  Type  of  C.  Bonacini         221 

Opaque  Projector 

n  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  228 

General  discussion  of  opaque  projection  with  sketches  of  several  types  of  projec- 
tion apparatus,  including  one  designed  by  the  author,  of  simple  construction  and 
udng  two  nitrogen  tungsten  lamps.  A  suitable  magnification  for  this  apparatus  is 
stated  to  be  7)4  diameters.  r^r^r^ri]r> 

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210  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


A  Rapid  Enlarger  G.  Rovetta^       222 

II  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  81 

Describes  an  apparatus  arranged  for  tlie  rapid  production  of  a  number  of  en- 
largements from  a  negative,  the  apparatus  being  of  a  vertical  fonn,  the  light  source 
at  the  bottom,  then  an  enlarging  camera,  and  aboje  an  apparatus  corresponding  to 
a  contact  printer. 

Concerning  the  Lens  Hood  J.  Thomson         2672 

Photo  Km,  1917,  p.  221 

Illustrates  many  forms  of  lens  hoods  and  phows  means  of  attaching  these  to  the 
lens. 

A  Cine  Camera  of  Novel  Design  312 

Mot.  Plct.  News,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  2797 

A  description  of  a  camera  supplied  by  the  Motion  Picture  Specialty  Co.,  a  feature 
of  which  is  the  relative  arrangement  of  the  lens  and  film  magazines,  the  lens  being 
situated  between  the  two  film  boxes  or  magazines,  which  are  placed  side  by  side  and 
are  of  400  feet  capacity.  As  a  result  of  this,  the  exposure  aperture  and  film  moving 
mechanism  are  located  at  the  back  of  the  camera.  The  camera  crank  is  located  cen- 
trally on  the  camera  base  thus  minimizing  vibration.  The  film  magazines  are  fitted 
with  mouthpieces  or  light  traps  which  open  wide  when  the  camera  is  closed,  thus  re- 
lieving the  film  of  any  undue  pressure  or  frictional  contact.  The  magazines  and  the 
casing  are  made  of  fiber  composition  and  are  practically  indestructible. 

The  Akeley  Camera  312 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  1018 
The  Akeley  camera  has  been  adopted  by  the  U.  S.  government  for  the  use  of  the 
photographic  division  of  the  Signal  Corps. 

The  Most  Wonderful  Sensitive  Mat(a-ial  C.  E.  K.  Mees 

Kodakery,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  23 
The  retina  of  the  eye  is  likened  to  a  sensitive  photographic  emulsion,  with  this 
difi*erence,  that  the  sensitiveness  of  the  eye  is  not  fixed  as  in  the  case  of  a  film  or 
printing  paper,  but  changes  with  the  brightness  of  the  light.  The  eye  behaves  like  a 
film  which  could  automatically  adjust  its  .sensitiveness  to  the  exposure,  so  that  if  the 
light  were  bad  it  could  become  more  sensitive  than  the  most  rapid  film  made,  while 
when  exposed  to  full  sunlight  it  could  adjust  itself  to  the  intensity  until  it  became  lesB 
sensitive  than  the  slowest  photographic  paper. 

New  Goods         ' 

Studio  Light,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  19 

A  description  of  several  conveniences  devised  for  the  user  of  Eastman  Portrait 
Film.  Tliese  include  a  ground  glassing  frame  for  holding  the  film  when  coating  with 
ground  glass  varnish  so  as  to  prevent  the  solution  from  reaching  the  opposite  side  of 
the  film ;  a  floating  lid  for  film  developing  boxes  which  floats  on  the  top  of  the  solu- 
tion and  prevents  oxidation  and  evaporation ;  the  Eastman  margin  gage  for  leaving 
a  uniform  white  margin  around  the  print  when  trinuning. 

Mr.  Charles  Mendel,  a  leading  figure  in  French  photographic  life,  and  publisher 
of  many  photographic  journals  and  books,  died  on  July  28.  OoOqIc 


X 


AB8TRACT    BULLETIN  211 


Photo-Engraving 

Waste  Material  07 

Photo- Engravers'  Bulletin,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  10 
A  firm  keeping  careful  account  finds  that  over  45%  of  copper  and  39%  of  zinc 
were  used  over  and  above  that  sold. 

Adherence  of  CoUodion  07004 

Process  Work  and  Electrotyping,  §ept.,  1917.  p.  91 
It  is  stated  that  if  a  film  leaves  glass  easily  it  is  due  to  too  much  alcohol  in  the 
solvents,  or  too  much  water.     It  is  recommended  to  add  ether  I  part  to  5. 

A  New  Cold  Enamel  Process  .  07005 

Process  Work  and  Electrotyping,  Sept.,  1917,  p.  92 
Consists  in  fiowing  plate  first  with  a  black  varnish,  then  with  bichromated  glue 
solution,  after  exposure  and  development  the  black  varnish  is  removed  from  the 
white  spaces  by  means  of  special  oil  developer  applied  with  a  pluj<h  pad. 


Phy 


SICS 

Relative  Sensibility  of  the  Average  VV^.  W.  Coblentz,  W.  B.  Emerson 

Eye  to  Light  of  Different  Colors  and  Some 
Practical  Applications  to  Radiation  Problems 

Bureau  of  Standards,  Scientific  Paper,  Sept.,  1917,  No.  303 

The  spectral  visibility  of  radiation  curve  of  the  eye  was  obtained  for  one  hundred 
and  thirty  observers,  of  whom  seven  were  color-blind.  The  energy  measurements 
were  based  on  the  spectral  energy  curve  of  acetylene,  which  was  determine<i  anew 
and  found  to  check  with  the  authors'  previous  determinations.  Determinations  of 
the  visibility  curve  were  made  by  both  the  flicker  and  the  equality  of  brightness 
methods;  more  consistent  results  being  obtained  with  the  flicker  arrangement.  Some 
striking  results  deduced  were: —  ( 1 )  The  visibility  curve  seems  to  change  perceptibly 
with  increasing  age.  (2)  The  same  cur\es  were  obtained  for  the  right  and  left  eye  of 
a  given  observer.  (3)  The  curves  of  no  two  persons  were  exactly  alike,  although 
some  were  very,  similar.  (4)  The  point  of  maximum  visibility  of  the  average  of  one 
hundred  and  tiiirty  subjects  was  A=0.6576vi.  (5)  The  minimum  radiation  visibly 
perceptible  was  somewhat  doubtfully  calculated  to  be  an  8  x  !()-»•  erg  per  second. 
(The  value  found  by  exact  methods  at  the  Research  Laboratory  is  19.6  x  10-*®  erg 
per  second. ) 

The  Resonance  and  Ionization  Potentials  J.  T.  Tate  and  P.  D.  Foote 

for  Electrons  in  Sodium  Vapor 

J.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.,  1917,  p.  517 
The  authors  find  tliat  electrons  having  a  velocity  corresponding  to  2.12-}-  0.06 
voltB  collide  inelastically,  without  ionization,  with  the  atoms  of  sodium  vapor.  The 
energy  lost  by  the  colliding  electrons  is  probably  radiated  in  light  of  wave  lengths 
corresponding  te  the  I)  lines.  Electrons  having  a  velocity  corresponding  to  5. 13-+-0. 10 
▼olta  are  able  to  ionize  the  sodium  \  apor  and  cause  it  to  emit  a  brilliant  light.  They 
further  maintain  that  the  results  of  their  work  afibnl  another  instance  of  the  funda- 
mental correctness  of  deductions  based  upon  Bohr's  theory  of  atomic  i 

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ABSTRACT    BTLLETIN 


The  Photoelectric  Sensitivity  W.  W.  Coblentz  and  W.  B.  Emerson 

of  Various  Substances 

J.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.,  1917,  p.  525 
The  paper  summarizes  the  results  of  an  investigation  of  various  substances  ( 1  > 
for  an  increase  in  electrical  conductivity  caupe*l  by  the  action  of  light  upon  them  and 
(2)  for  electrical  discharging  acti\ity  when  they  were  charged  to  a  negative  potential 
in  an  evacuated  chamber  and  exposed  to  light.  One  disappointing  feature  of  the  in- 
vestigation, as  pointed  out  by  the  authors,  is  that  no  substance  was  foimd  which  is 
comparable  in  sensitivity  with  the  potassium  photoelectric  cell  and  with  the  selenium 
ceU. 

The  Structure  of  Atoms,  and  the  Evolutions  of  the  W.  D.  Harkins 

Elements  as  Related  to  the  Composition  of  the 
Nuclei  of  Atoms 

Science,  Nov.  2,  1917,  p.  419 

A  very  interesting  paper  dealing  with  the  constitution  of  matter,  bringing  out  a 
novel  proposed  structure  for  the  26  elements  of  low  atomic  weight. 

Notes  on  the  Absorption  and  Scattering       C.  G.  Barkla  and  M-P.  White 
of   X-Rays  and  -the  Characteristic 
Radiations  of  J  Series 

Phil.  Mag.,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  270 

This  paper  gives  some  very  intei-esting  t^xperimental  results  showing  the  relation 
between  wavelength  and  absorption,  together  with  a  general  discussion  of  some  of  the 
important  relations  connecting  the  j)henomena  of  absorption,  scattering,  and  fluor- 
escence. The  characteristic  radiations  of  J  series  and  absorption  formulse  are  also 
discussed. 

On  the  Origin  of  the  Line  Spectrum  Emitted  by  G.  A.  Hemsalech 

Iron  Vapor  in  the  Explosion  Region  of  the 
Air-Coal  (ras  Flame 

Phil.  Mag.,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  221 

This  paper  brings  out  some  very  interesting  facts  regarding  the  factors  which 
govern  the  nature  of  this  particular  line  spectrum. 

Note  on  the  Production  of  Colored  Flames'of  High  G.  A.  Hemsalech 

Luminosity  for  Demonstration  and  Experimental 
Purposes 

Phil.  Mag.,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  243 
By  means  of  small  electric  sprayers,  a  colletor  and  a  burner,  the  author  has 
worked  out  a  novel  scheme  for  observing  the  spectra  of  the  more  volatile  elements. 

The  Proper  Type  of  Absorption  Glass  for  P.  D.  Foote,  F.  L.  Mohler 

an  Optical  Pyrometer  and  CO.  Fairchild 

J.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.,  1917,  p.  545 

Because  of  the  deterioration  of  the  filament  of  the  standard  lamp  in  theHolbom- 
Kurlbaum  form  of  optical  pyrometer,  the  maximum  temperature  at  which  the  instru- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ, 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  213 


ment  may  be  safely  operated  is  about  1400*^  or  1500°C.  In  order  to  measure  higher 
temperatures,  some  mode  of  decreasing  the  light  intensity  entering  the  pyrometer  is 
employed,  usually  an  absorption  glass.  If  the  light  is  not  strictly  monochromatic, 
the  absorption  factor  resulting  from  Wien's  law  would  not  apply,  and  since  the  con- 
dition of  non-monochromatisni  is  the  one  experimentally  obtained,  the  authors  de- 
scribe an  absorption  glass  which  will  obviate  these  difficulties. 

Neutral  Glasses  and  Other  Methods  of  Diminishing  Incident 
Light  in  Illumination  Photometry 

Trans.  III.  Eng.  Soc.,  July,  1917,  p.  190 
A  review  of  photometers  in  general  with  special  emphasis  of  the  inadequacy  of  all 
attempts  to  diminish  the  intensity  of  the  light  from  the  surface  tested.      (The  author 
apparently  is  not  acquainted  with  the  neutral  absorbing  wedges  made  by  the  Research 
Laboratory. ) 

The  Preparation  of  Metallic  Mirrors,  Semi-transparent  O.  Stuhlmann 

and  Transparent  Metallic  Films  and  Prisms  by 
Distillation 

J.  Opt.  Soc.  Amer.,  1917,  p.  78 
The  material  to  be  deposited  is  in  the  form  of  a  fine  wire,  heated  to  incandescence 
by  an  electric  current.  It  is  placed  in  a  vacuum  directly  over  and  moving  across  the 
object  to  be  coated.  The  metallic  vapor  condenses  upon  the  object  in  a  uniform 
layer,  the  thickness  of^  which  can  be  controlled.  The  author  believes  this  method 
superior  to  all  others.    Objections  to  other  methods  are  pointed  out. 

A  Combination  of  Refractor  and  Diflfusing  Globe  W.  Harrison 

for  Street  Lighting 

Trans.  111.  Eng.  Soc.,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  305 
The  author  describes  and  gives  the  distribution   curves  for  this  new   type  of 
diffusing  globe.     The  data  indicate  that  a  higher  total  efficiency  and  better  distribu- 
tion for  street  and  outdoor  work  is  obtained  with  this  than  with  either  an  opal  or 
prismatic  globe. 

Color  Vision 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1917,  p.  40 
A  discussion  of  the  nature  of  white  light  and  of  the  Hering  color  theory. 

A  Standard  Specification  for  Glow-Lamps 

111.  Eng.,  1917,  p.  193 
An  abstract  of  specification  prepar^  by  the  Swiss  T^nion  of  Electricity  Works. 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

The  Manufacture  of  Nitric  Acid  from  Nitre  Cake  J.  Grossmann 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  1035 
On  heating  a  finely  powdered  mixture  of  nitre  cake  with  carbon,  all  the  nitrate 
present  in  the  cake  is  liberated  as  nitrogen  peroxide.  It  is  also  possible  to  dispense 
with  the  carbon,  the  nitric  acid  being  removed  as  snch  from  the  heated,  powdered 
nitre  cake  by  means  of  a  current  of  air.  In  both  processes  the  temperature  is  rela- 
tively low.    Practical  details  of  these  methods  are  discussed.  ^■^^■^^^^Q^  bvGoOQlc 


214  ABSTRACT    BTLLETIN 


The  Deteriorating  Action  of  Salt  and  Brine  H.  J.  M.  Creighton 

on  Reinforced  Concrete 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  U)17,  p.  689 
After  a  recapitulation  of  tlic  literature  of  the  subject  and  a  consideration  of  the 
theory  involved,  the  author  degcnl>e.s  a  series  of  experiments  carried  out  by  him  from 
which  lie  draws  the  following  conclusions:  Concrete  not  waterproofed  is  more  or 
less  porous.  Brine  softens  the  surface  and  penetrates  to  the  reinforcement  material 
which  it  attacks  causing  expansion,  which  results  in  cracking  the  concrete. 

Silver  Ammoniacal  Salts  (J.  Bruni  and  G.  Levi 

Gaz.  Chini.  Ital.,  1917,  p.  259 
The  authors  have  measured  tlie  heats  of  solution  of  silver  nitrate,  silver  nitrite,  and 
silver  perchlorate  in  water,  annnonia  solution,  and  ammonia,  and  from  the  results 
have  deduced  the  ctjmposition  of  the  various  compounds  of  these  silver  salts  x^ith 
ammonia. 

The  Reaction  Between  Silver  and  the  Aqueous  Solution  .  F.  L.  Ilahn 

of  a  Soluble  Sulfide 

J.  Cheni.  Soc,  1917,  (ii)  p.  371 
When  pncautions  are  taken  to  exclude  air,  silver  may  be  boilcnl  for  hours  with 
sodium  sulphide  solution  without  evolution  of  hydrogen,  the  metal  being  unchanged, 
blackening  taking  place  as  soon  as  air  is  admitted.  Hydrogen  sulfide  may  al«)  be 
passed  through  air-free  water  in  which  silver  is  placed  without  any  blackening 
occurring.  (Expt^rience  in*  the  direct  sulfur  toning  of  silver  images  supports  the 
conclusion  that  silver  is  unafiectetl  by  the  solution  of  a  soluble  mono-sulfide,  while 
it  is  readily  attacked  and  sulfidized  by  the  colored  solution  containing  adi-orpoly- 
sultide,  to  which  the  colorless  sulfide  solution  changes  by  aerial  oxidation.) 

A  Comparison  of  the  p]fliciency  M.  V.  Dover  and  J.  W.  Marden 

of  Some  Conmion  Desiccants 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc.  1917,  p.  1G09 
Of  the  substances  tested,  copper  sulfate  was  the  least  efficient,  calcium  oxide  was 
about  as  efficient  as  concentrated  sulfuric  acid,  magnesium  oxide  was  efiective)  but  its 
capacity  for  moisture  was  very  sumll,  and  ijniited  aluminum  oxide  proved  nearly  as 
good  a  drying  agent  as  fused  potassium  hydroxide  an(i  only  slightly  inferior  to  phos- 
phoric anhydride. 

The  Chlorides  and  Chloro  Salts  of  Iridium  M.  Delepine 

Ann.  Chim.,  1917,  p.  277 
A  presiMitation  of  the  results  of  studies  of  the  chloro  salts  of  iridiiun  previously 
published  in  Compt.  Kend.  and  Bull.  Soc.  Cliim.,  rearranged  systematically. 

Properties  of  Barium  Sulphate  Z.  Karaoglanow 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  (ii)  p.  887 

Pure  barium  sulfate  does  not  lose  in  weight  when  heated  over  a  Teclii  burner  in 

either  a  platinum  or  a  porcelain  crucil)le.      When  of  very  fine  grain,  its  solubility  in 

pure  water  may  be  as  high  as  1  part  in  230,000.     Its  solubility  in  various  eleitrolytes 

is  diminished  by  the  presence  of  barium  cations  and  sulfate  anions,  is  unaffected  by 

calcium  cations  and  chloride  anions,  and  is  increased  by  hydrogen,  potassium,  sodium^ 

strontium,  lead,  and  ferric  cations   and  by  nitrate  anions.  r^^^^T^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


ABSTKACT    BTLLKTIN  216 


Solubility  of  Calcium  Sulfite  in  Water  T.  van  der  Linden 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  96 
The  solubility  of  the  salt,  expressed  as  dihydrate,  is  one  part  in  16,000  at  30  C, 
and  diminishes  with  rise  of  temperature  to  1  part  in  90,000  at  100 'C. 

New  Papermaking  Process 

Paper,  Oct.  3,  1917,  p.  76 

A  deecription  of  a  machine  which  moulds  paper  articles,  i.  e.  bottles,  by  vacuum. 
Articles  can  be  made  faster  and  without  wai^te. 

Clay  Retention  J.  D.  Rue  and  C.  W.  Haliahan 

Paper,  Oct.  8,  1917,  p.  58 
Studies  in  the  effect  on  clay  concentration,  alum  concentration  and  of  alum  and  size. 

Chemicals  Used  in  Ore  Flotation  O.  C.  Ralston  and  L.  D.  Yundt 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  1058 
Discussed  the  function  of  chemicals  other  than  oil  in  the  flotation  pnKsess. 


Analytical  Chemistry 


A  New,  Practical  Colorimeter  E.  Moreau 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  (ii)  p.  418 

The  apparatus  consists  of  a  flat-bottomed,  graduated  tube  of  the  same  internal 
diameter  as  the  ordinary  comparison  tubes,  which  has  sealed  in  near  the  lower  end  a 
laterml  tube  connected  by  rubber  tubing  to  a  reservoir,  containing  the  standard  com- 
parison solution.  A  known  volume  e>f  the  solution  under  examination  is  placed 
in  the  comparison  tube  together  with  the  reagent,  and  the  tube  is  plac^  alongside  the 
graduated  tube,  into  which  is  then  allowed  to  flow  the  standard  solution  and  reagent, 
antil  the  depth  of  color  in  the  two  tubes  viewed  vertically  is  identical.  The  amounts 
of  tiie  constituent  to  be  determined  present  in  the  two  tubes  are  inversely  proportional 
to  the  volumes  of  Hquid  used. 

Method  of  Rendering  More  Sensitive  Colorimetric  Analyses  G.  LeRoy 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  (ii)  p.  418 
In  the  colorimetric  analysis  of  water,  for  the  purpose  of  estimating  the  amount 
of  an  unstable  constituent,  such  as  free  chlorine,  present  in  quantity  so  small  as  not 
to  be  detected  by  the  ordinary  methods,  a  known,  sufficient  amount  of  chlorine  is 
added  to  the  water  to  bring  it  within  the  limits  of  detection,  and  then  the  ordinary 
colorimetric  estimation  is  performed. 

The  Determination  of  Silver  in  Organic         H.  J.  Lucas  and  A.  R.  Kemp 
Compounds 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  p.  2074 
The  silver  salt  is  dissolved  in  a  bare  excess  of  a  solution  of  sodium  or  potassium 
cyanide,  and,  after  addition  of  caustic  alkali,  precipitated  by  sodiimi  or  potassium  sul- 
fide ;  the  precipitate  is  weighed  as  silver  sulfide,  after  drying  to  constant  weight  at 
ll(fC.  The  method  is  shown  to  be  a  valuable  one  because  of  its  applicability,  speed 
and  accuracy.  Digitized  by  GoOglc 


2L6 


ABSTRACT     BULLETIN 


Potassium  Hydrogen  Carbonate  as  an  Analytical  G.  Bruhns 

Standard 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  (ii)  p.  419 

The  author  confirms  the  conclusion  pn^vionsly  arrived  at  by  Winkler  and  Incze, 
that  potassium  hydrogen  carbonato  is  a  trustworthy  analytical  standard  for  all  but 
extn^mely  accurate  work.  It  may  be  preparcMl  even  more  simply  than  these  authors 
suggest  by  allowing  the  ordinary  "pure'*  salt  in  fine  powder  to  remain  exposed  for 
several  hours  in  a  dry  room.  Standardized  against  fuseil  sodium  chloride,  a  sample 
prepared  in  this  way  was  found  to  be  correct  to  0.0296.  Solutions  stronger  than  N/IO 
should  not  be  employed,  owing  to  the  tendency  to  evolve  carbon  dioxide  which  is  ex- 
hibited by  concentrated  solution.s. 


A  Convenient  Automatic  Device  for  Rapi<lly  Washing 
Pipettes 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Clieni.,  1917,  p.  104G 


A.  V.  Fuller 


Photochemistry 

The  Temperature  Coefficient  of  Photo-  M.  Padoa  and  C.  Butironi 

chemical  Change   for    Hydrogen-Chlorine 

Mixtures  in  Monochromatic  Light 

Gazz.  Chim.  Ital.,  July,  1917,  p.  6 

The  average  results  obtained  were : 

Wave-length  Velocity-constant 

White     *' 1.29 

Green      *' 650-530  1.60 

Blue        ** 490-470  1.31 

Violet     '* 460-440  1.21 

Ultraviolet 400-360  1.17 


Colloid  Chemistry 


Internal  and  Surface  Structures  in  Jellies.     I.  W.  Moeller 

Chem.  Abst.,  1917,  p.  2635 
ObetTvations  on  gelatine  jellies  lyefove  and  after  dehydration,  and  on  the  structure 
of  gelatine  subjected  to  the  action  of  water  vapor  or  warm  water,  heated  to  a  tem- 
perature at  which  it  begins  to  decompose,  or  subjected  to  the  action  of  superheated 
steam  and  drawn  out  into  threads,  affords  evidence  in  support  of  the  view  that  gela- 
tine consists  of  an  irregular  conglomerate  of  fibrils  forming  a  network  of  alpha  gela- 
tine with  lx4a  gelatine  in  the  intei-vening  spaces.  The  structure  becomes  Aisfble 
when  the  gelatine  is  subjected  to  any  action  which  removes  the  beta  gelatine.  In 
these  circumstances  the  fibril  miits  of  alpha  gelatine  undergo  orientation  to  a  greater 
or  leas  extent,  forming  fibril  groups  which  are  visible  in  the  ultramicroscope. 

A  Suggested  Form  of  Viscosi meter  W.  C.  Cope 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  1046 
A  highly  ingenious  arrangement  for  accentuating  the  many  errors  of  the  sliort 

tube  type  of  viscosimeter  by  making  it  one  arm  of  a  centrifuge.       C^  r\r\r^]f> 

Digifized  by  V^jUvJV  IV^ 


ABSTRACT    Bl'LLETIN  217 


Organic  Chemistry 


Some  New  Paper-making  Materials  1411 

J.  Soc.  Cheni.  Ind,  1917,  p.  1004 

An  account  of  time  matt^rials,  one  obtained  from  Auftralia  and  two  from  Africa, 
from  which  paper?  of  good  quality  have  hen  prepare<l. 

Fibers  from  Various  Sources  1411 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  1CX)8 

A  report  from  the  laboratory  of  the  Imperial  Institute.  London,  upon  ten  samples 
of  different  cellulosic  materials. 

Report  of  Committee  on  Sulfate  Pulp  on  the  O.  Kress         141 1 

Suitability  of  Various  American  Woods 
for  the  Manufacture  of  Kraft  Pulp 

Paper,  Oct.  3,  1917,  p.  2B 

A  discussion  of  the  various  woods  available  togethe*-  with  tables  giving  average 
physical  characteristics  of  various  American  woods,  and  average  strength  tests  on 
Kraft  papers  made  from  these. 

The  Chemistry  of  Cellulose  and  Its  Important  H.  S.  Mork         1411 

Industrial  Applications  ^ 

i^aper,  Sept.  26,  1917,  p.  14 
A  general  resum^  of  well-known  facts  •• 

Determining  the  Strength  of  Pulps  R.  S.  Hatch         1411 

Paper;  Oct.  3,  1917,  p.  40 

Report  of  committee  on  standard  methods  of  tef?ting  materials  used  in  the  manu- 
facture of  paper.  Notes  on  the  ball  mill  method  of  testing  sulfite  pulps  for  strength. 
Methods  adopted  and  results  are  given. 

Factors  in  the  Quality  of  Ground  wood  G.  C.  McNaughton         1411 

Paper,  Oct.  3,  1917,  p.  86 

Notes  on  Control  of  the  Groundwood  Process.  The  following  factors  are  dis- 
cussed: 1.  Power  available  on  any  grinder  unit.  2.  Surface  of  pulp  stone.  3. 
Pressure  of  grinding.  4.  Speed  of  pulp  stone.  5.  Kind  and  condition  of  wood. 
6.  Human  element.  (The  factor  of  temperature,  which  is  of  great  importance,  has 
been  omitted). 

Nitrocellulose  from  Wood  1411-1512 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9304 

In  a  process  pattmted  by  Budde  and  the  Hendon  Paper  Works  Company,  pulp 
from  wood,  alfalfa,  straw  or  impure  cotton  can  be  made  to  yield  nitrocellulose  after 
a  preliminary  treatment  with  chlorine  or  bromine  and  subseciuent  washing,  pressing 
md  drying.  Digitized  by  GoOglc 


218  abhtrAct    BTLLKTIX 


Nitrocellulose  from  Fibers  of  Mai-  A.  C.  Vournasos         1411-1512 

vaceae  Other  than  Cotton 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9304 

Nitrocellulose  suitable  for  the  manufacture  of  explosives  or  celluloid  has  been  ob- 
tained by  nitrating  the  fibers  of  the  hibiscus  cannabinus  and  other  ^species. 

Cellulose  from  Sawdust  1411-1515 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9304 
Wood  cellulose  can  be  partially  converted  into  a  viscose,  which  after  the  addition 
of  water,  is  transformed  into  gelatinous  cellulose. 

Paper  Testing  F.  C.  Clark,  C.  W.  Richer  and  J.  E.  Hafele         1412 

Paper,  Oct.  17,  1917,  p.  11 
Report  of  Committee  on  Paper  Testing  of  Technical  Association.      The  testing  is 
divided  into  three  parts,  microscopical,  physical  and  chemical.    Methods  adopted  are 
given. 

Retention  of  Fillers  by  Paper  O.  Kress  and  G.C.  McNaughton       1412 

Pulp.    Some  Observations  on  the  Retention  of  China  Clay  by  Paper  Pulp 

Paper,  Oct.  3,  1917,  p.  50 
Retention  of  China  Clay  by  paper  pulp  under  varying  conditions,  together  with 
the  ofiect  of  the  clay  on  the  strength,  color  and  ink  resistance  of  the  paper.    Methods- 
and  results  are  given. 

Penetration  of  Paper  by  Inks  -    -  1412 

Paper,  Oct.  3,  1917,  p.  12 
Various  kinds  of  paper  are  printed  with  an  ink  made  by  grinding  lampblack  with 
''medium"  varnish  colored  intensely  scarlet  with  naphthylamine  bordeaux.      The 
penetration  is  determined  by  microscopical  examination  of  thin  sections. 

Concentration  of  Acetic  Acid  1511 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9305 
The  process  of  the  Akt.  Ges.  f.  Anilin-Fabrikation  consists  in  treating  dilute  solu- 
tions of  acetic   acid   with   the   anhydrous  sulfates  of  sodium,  aluminum,    magne- 
sium, or  zinc  in  presence  of  a  suitable  solvent  such  as  chloroform,  trichloroethane  or 
benzene,  and  distilling. 

A  Product  of  Deflagration  of  Nitrocellulose  E.  Trapani         1512 

(laz.  Chim.  Ital.,  1917,  p.  250 
On  gently  heating  nitrocellulose  in  a  tube,'as  in  the  fume  test,  the  vapors  pro- 
duced by  the  decomposition  contain  appreciable  quantities  of  formaldehyde.    A  deli- 
cate test  for  this  substance  is  described. 

Acetylation  and  Acetolysis  J.  Boeseken^  J.  C.  v.  d.  Berg         1513 

of  Cellulose  and  Starch  and  A.  H.  Kerstjens 

by  Acetic  Anhydride 

Caoutchouc,  1917.  p.  9302 
It  has  been  shown  that  for  the  acetylation  of  alcohols  a  suitable  catalyst  must 
be  able  to  form  loose  compounds  with  substances  containing  the  hydroxy!  group ;  thus 


ABSTRACT    BTLLETIN  219 


sulpliuric  acid  ip  the  most  active  catalyst,  while  hydrio<lic  acid  acts  more  vigorously 
than  hydrobromic  acid,  which  in  turn  is  more  active  than  hydr<)chloric  acid.  In  ad- 
dition, the  cataljst  in  the  case  of  alcohols  which  are  insoluble  in  acetic  anhydride  must 
tend  to  promote  mutual  soUihility  of  the  rt»aorinp  substances.  It  is  ccmsidered  im- 
probable that  mono-  and  diaoetyl  derivative^^  of  cellulose  are  formed  as  intenncdiate 
stages,  Bfj  none  can  be  isolated.  A  method  is  indicatetl  for  estimating  the  degree*  of 
acetolysis  (breakdown)  in  cellulose  acetates,  and  various  analytical  methodn  are  discussed 
for  the  determination  of  the  percentage  of  acetyl  in  a  sample.  Experiments  on  ace- 
tylation  indicate  that  the  reaction  is  of  the  first  order,  and  the  increased  acetolytic 
etTect  of  increased  proportions  of  sulfuric  acid  as  a  catalyst  is  clearly  demonstrated.  The 
aceylation  of  starch  it*  shown  to  take  place  more  slowly  than  the  acetylation  of  cellulose. 

Decolorising-Carbon 

J.  Soc.  Chom.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  1041 

Report  by  the  conmiittee  of  the  lloyal  Society  on  the  pnwluction  of  decolorising- 
carbK>n.  Wood  when  carbonized  alone  gave  a  useless  product,  but  if  first  impregnated 
"w-ith  milk  of  lime  or  calcium  acetate  and  heated  to  white  heat  under  a  layer  of  lime, 
the  resulting  charcoal  is  highly  active. 

Methylation  by  Means  of  Formaldehyde  E.  A.  Werner 

Trans.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  p.  844 

The  mechanism  of  the  reaction  betwKm  animonium  chloride  and  aqueous  form- 
aldehyde is  elucidated,  an<l  it  is  shown  how  good  yields  of  either  methylamine, 
dimethylamine,  or  trimethylamine  hydrochloride  can  l>e  obtained.  Incidentally  it  is 
stated  that  commercial  "formalin"  contains  only  between  33  and  37%  of  fonnaldehyde. 

The  Constitution  of  Carbamide  E.  A.  Werner 

Trans.  Chem.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  863 

By  the  study  of  the  action  of  nitrous  acid  upon  urea,  it  is  shown  that  the  carb- 
amide fommlation  is  inaccurate,  and  a  more  suitable  formula  is  projmsed. 

Bakelite  and  Its  Applications  H.  I^bach 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9300 

First  part  of  a  series  ^f  articles  on  the  chemistry  of  the  interaction  of  formalde- 
hyde and  phenols.  The  series  originally  appeared  in  the  English  language,  but  the 
place  of  publication  is  not  quoted. 

Biological  Efticienpy  of  Potato  M.  S.  Rose  and  I..  F.  Cooper 

Nitrogen 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abst.,  1917,  (i)  p.  524 

Nitrogenous  equilibrium  can  be  maintained  on  a  diet  in  which  potato  constitutes 
practically  the  sole  source  of  protein. 

The  deatli  is  annoimced  of  Clayton  Beadle,  collaborator  with  Cross  and  Be  van 
in  investigations  upon  cellulose,  especially  iii  connection  with  viscose.  He  was  also 
a  recognized  authority  upon  the  technique  of  pajx^r  making. 


J.  Soc.  (^hem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  994 

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220  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

From  Eastman  Kodak  Research  Laboratory 

A  Simplified  Method  of  Writing  Developing  Formulae  -C.E.K.  Mees 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  535     * 
Communication  No.  52 

The  usual  nitHhods  of  writing  developing  formulae  make  it  difficult  to  compare 
different  formula',  so  that  it  is  not  unusual  to  find  several  formulae  which  are 
apparently  quite  different,  but  which,  if  written  in  the  same  form,  prove  to  be  iden- 
tical in  composition. 

In  order  to  facilitate  the  comparison  of  formula;  it  is  convenient  to  be  able  to 
write  a  formula  in  one  line,  thus  enabling  a  number  of  formulae  to  be  written  under 
one  another  and  compared  at  a  glance;  the  following  notation  enables  this  to  be  done. 

The  formuhe  are  expressed  in  grams  per  litre,  the  water  being  omitted,  then  if  & 
stand  for  the  reducing  agent,  A  the  alkali,  S  the  sulphite  and  B  the  bromide,  the 
formula  is  always  written  in  the  order  R  A  S  B,  which  is  used  as  a  mnemonic.  Thus, 
5-60-50-1  means  5  grams  of  reducing  agent,  50  of  alkali,  50  of  sulphite  and  1  of  bro- 
mide per  litre. 

In  order  to  indicate  the  particular  substances  used  the  reducing  agents  are  repre- 
sented by  initial  letters,  P  for  pyro,  H  for  hydrochinon,  etc.,  while  if  no  other  speci- 
fication is  given  A  represents  sodium  carbonate  (dry),  S  sodium  sulphite  (dry)  and 
B  potassium  bromide;  thus  P  5-15-10-0  represents  the  following  developer: 

Pyro  5  gms. 

Sodium  carbonate  (anhydrous)        » 15  gms. 

Sodium  sulphite  ** 10  gms. 

Water  to 1000  cc. 

Other  chemicals  are  represented  by  their  formulae  or  by  any  other  convenient 
abbreviation,  so  that  the  well-known  hydrochinon -caustic  potash  formula  used  for 
Process  plates  may  be  written  H12.5-K()H25-Meta25-l2-5,    this  corresponding  to: 
A  B 

PoSum'metabi"  ''"  ^'-  Caustic  potash         -        25     gms. 

"^'Sr'.'''''^  25     gn.s.  Water      -        -        -    5500     cc. 

Potassium  bromide  12.5  gms. 

Water  -        -  500     cc. 

Use  equal  parts  A  and  B. 

A  convenient  means  of  classifying  developers  containing  a  mixture  of  metol  and 
hydrochinon  as  the  reducing  agent  has  been  in  use  for  some  time  in  our  Research 
Laboratory. 

As  a  result  of  a  series  of  measurements  it  was  found  that  the  formula  6-26-75-1.6 
was  most  convenient  and  suitable  for  these  developers,  and  this  "was  entitled  MQx, 
the  suffix  X  representing  the  percentage  of  the  reducing  agent  which  is  metol,  thus 
MQ,o  corresponds  to  20;^   metol,  80%  hydrochinon,  or  a  developer  of  the  formula: 

Metol        -----^.---1     gm. 

Hydrochinon  4     gms. 

Sodium  carbonate 25     gms. 

Sodium  sulphite 75     gms. 

Potassium  bromide 1.5  gms. 

Water  to 1000     cc. 

MQo  represents  the  the  same  fonimla  without  metol  and  with  5  grams  of  hydro- 
chinon, MQso  corresponds  to  2>^  grams  metol  and  2%  grams  hydrochinon,  MQ|o« 
to  5  grams  metol  without  hydrochinon. 

The  most  useful  members  of  this  series  have  proved  to  be  MQo,  MQs,  MQ.j,  MQ^  ^ 
andMQ.o-  ^  . 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


The  Physical  Characteristics  of  the  Elementary  Millard  B.  Hodgson 

Grains  of  the  Photographic  Plate 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  582 
J.  Frank.  Inst.,  1917,  p.  705 

Communication  No.  56 

The  elementary  grains  of  a  photographic  plate  are  deHiieii  as  thos  •  indivitliial 
pilver  deposits  which  are  conditioned  in  position  and  size  by  tlie  p  "siiion  and  »he  of 
the  original  silver  halide  grains.  "Grain"  in  tlms  distingui.sind  from  "graininens", 
by  wliicli  is  meant  the  agglomeration  of  thoso  olenientary  particles  either  real  or 
apparent. 

Silver  bromide  is  a  crystal  of  the  isometric  system,  occurrimr,  in  tht»  average 
plate  in  a  nnmlx^r  of,  forms,  some  fragmentary  and  othi^rs  more  or  le-is  jK'rfeet.  In 
pize  the*e  grains  range  from  0.2'»  (the  approxinmte  limit  of  ivsohition)  to  6.0''  in 
>rreatest  dimension. 

In  the  normal  development  of  lht»sp  elementary  particles,  the  Mniiiction  of  silver 
begins  usually  at  several  points  and  continues  nu»re  or  le'^s  ri'gularly  until  the  entire 
grain  is  developed.  The  develoj>ed  grain  isdistorttnl,  however,  from  the  le^ular  sha[)e 
of  the  parent  crystal.  The  phencmienon  ol)R»rved  by  Schetfer — namely,  the  shooting 
out  of  '^feelers"  by  the  grain  during  development — was  not  obsTved.  This  eff'e<  t  is 
attributed  by  the  present  autlinr  to  abnormal  conditions. 

The  deposition  of  silver  deposit  in  the  lilih  is  shown  under  various  conditions  of 
exposure  and  development,  by  photomicrographs.  The  major  portion  of  the  paiKT 
is  also  illustrated  by  photomicrographs. 


Patent  Abstracts 
U.  S.  Patents 

1244107  W.  G.  Lindsay,  Ar.  to  The  (\;lluloid  Co.         ]U'12 

A  process  for  making  a  filter  base  substame  by  ndxing  acetone  soluble  acetyl 
cellulose  with  an  aryl  snlfonanude,  a  small  i)ortion  <^f  methyl  or  ethyl  alcohol,  and  a 
diluent  such  as  chloroform.  Additional  us**  of  triphenylphosplmtt'  and  allied  sub- 
stance is  included. 

1244108  W.  G.  Lindsay,  Ar.  to  The  Celluh.id  (  o.  BV22 

Same  as  Patent  No.  1244107,  alkyl  aryl  acetanddes  being  use<l  in  place  of  aryl 
sulfonamides. 

1244347  W.  G.  Lindsay,  Ar.  to  The  (Vlluloid  (\).  H122 

A  process  of  making  a  plastic  mass  using  100  parts  acetyl  cellulose,  *Jo  tooO  parts 
ethyl-paratoluol  sulfonamide,  and  40  to  100  parts  of  ethyl  or  methyl  alcohol. 


1244348  \V.  G.  Lindsay         H122 

1  acetami<lc  is  used    ir 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Same  as  Patent   No.   1244347,  except  that  an  aryl  alkyl  acetami<lc  is  used    in 
place  of  the  aryl  sulfonamide. 


222  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1244339  W.  G.  Lindsay,  Ar.  to  The  Celluloid  Co.         B122 

A  solvent  for  acetyl  cellulose  composed  of  40  to  100  parts  ethyl  or  methyl  alcohol, 
20  to  50  parts  of  an  aryl  sulfonamide,  and  10  to  40%  of  a  diluent  such  as  chloroform. 

1242674  M.  Fleischer        062 

A  Method  of  Producing  Motion  Picture  Cartoons.  The  cartoons  are  worked  up 
from  projected  images  taken  from  ordinary  motion  picture  films. 

1240774         C.  F.  Pidgin,  Assigned  6/10  to  H.  A.  Johnston        0649-062 

A  Method  of  Producing  Titles  on  Motion  Pictures.  The  actors  are  provided  with 
balloons  of  the  kind  which  are  normally  coiled  up  but  when  inflated  unroll  into  a 
straight  form  and  bear  an  appropriate  inscription.  The  actors  blow  the  balloons  to  a 
position  where  they  show  appropriate  inscriptions  at  the  proper  time.  The  images? 
of  the  balloons  are  eliminated  in  the  final  pictures. 

1243507        •  L.  Germain        067 

A  Method  and  Apparatus  for  Projecting  Titles  to  Motion  Pictures.  A  strip  bear- 
ing suitable  titles  is  moved  transversely  of  the  path  of  mox'ement  of  the  motion  picture 
film  and  in  suitably  timed  relation  so  that  it  will  be  simultaneously  projected  with  the 
pictures. 

1244362  A.  G.  Ogden        07005 

A  Printing  Devdce  for  Photo-mechanical  Work  whereby  a  number  of  prints  from 
one  negative  may  be  had  on  a  large  piece  of  metal,  each  print  being  correctly 
positioned. 

1243630  V.  C.  Ronning        07006 

An  Etching  Device,  consisting  of  the  usual  trough  or  tray  in  the  bottom  of 
which  a  rake  or  comb  is  made  to  reciprocate  and  so  agitate  the  mordant  coming  into 
contact  with  the  plate,  which  is  supported  face  downwards. 

1242523  G.  R.  Cornwall        0722 

Device  for  use  in  Making  Printing  Plates  by  Photolithographic  (Vandyke)  Pro- 
cess. Consists  in  making  corrections  by  means  of  a  strip  of  printed  matter  which  is 
coated  with  translucent  adhesive  material  such  as  beeswax  in  benzol. 

1243264  G.  R.  Cornwall         0722 

Device  for  Making  Printing  Plates  by  Photolithographic  (Vandyke)  Process. 
Consists  of  rotatable  vacuum  printing  frame  and  its  accessories. 

1238904  W.  F.  Folnier,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.        083 

An  Aerial  Carrier  for  Photgraphic  Film.  It  is  a  parachute  mechanism  for  con- 
veying roll  films  exposed  in  Aeroplane  Cameras  from  the  Aeroplane  to  the  ground. 

1241650       A.J.Mottlau,  Assigned  to G.E.M.  Engineering  Co.        088-219 

An  Aeroplane  Camero  in  which  the  picture  areas  of  a  roll  film  are  successively 
exposed  automatically,  the  film  winding  and  .shutter  devices  being  being  alternately 
actuated  by  a  spring  motor.  A  focal  plane  shutter  is  employed,  the  slit  of  which 
passes  transversely  of  the  path  of  movement  of  the  film.  r^  ] 

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ABSTRACT    BILLETIN  223 


1240344  F.  E.  Ive8        1321 

A  Photographic  Film,  such  as  sensitized  "carbon  paper*',  covered  by  a 
temporary  waterproof  layer  of  surgeon's  i)laster,  which  may  be  removed  prior  to  the 
exposure  of  the  film  and  without  injury  to  the  latter.  The  protective  action  of  the 
plaster  permits  the  film  to  remain  in  a  sensitized  condition  for  an  indefinitely  long  period. 

12442o4  F.  M.  Steadman         2102 

An  Automatic  Focusing  Device  for  Cameras.  A  tape  measure  mounted  on  the 
bed  of  the  camera  is  so  connected  'with  the  focusing  mechanism  that  when  the 
end  of  the  tape  measure  is  drawn  out  to  the  objwt,  the  camera  will  be  automatically 
focused  correctly  upon  that  subject. 

1243270  P.  Dietz,  assigned  to  Defiance  Mfg.  Co.         2105 

A  Winding  Device  for  Roll  Film  Cameras.  It  relates  particularly  to  the  connec- 
tions between  the  outer  winding  key  and  the  inner  key  or  gripper  plate  which 
engages  in  the  slot  of  the  winding  spool.  The  inner  key  is  n»moved  from  the  spool 
in  the  usual  way  by  puUing  on  the  outer  key,  but  is  carried  by  a  separate  sliding  rod 
which  may  be  locked  in  its  inn'er  or  outer  position  by  the  teetli  carried  on  the  outer 
key. 

1244978  H.  W.  Hales         2105 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  the  back  of  which  consists  of  a  single  piece  of  reinforced 
flexible  leather,  one  end  of  which  is  attached  to  one  end  of  the  camera  casing  and  the 
other  end  of  which  is  detachably  locked  at  the  other  end. 

1240398  K.  W.  Wood        2106 

A  Method  of  Making  Light  Diffusing  .Scre<^ns  which  are  alleged  to  be  superior  to 
ordinary  ground  glass  as  regards  brilliancy  of  image.  By  a  blast  of  abrasive,  ^mall 
spaced  irregular  pits  are  formed  in  the  surface  of  the  glass  and  thes<»  art^  etched  t^ 
larger  size  by  hydrofluoric  acid. 

1244851  F.  Heath         215 

A  Pocket  Camera  designed  to  fold  into  a  small  space,  being  of  the  type  in  which 
the  lens  front  folds  outside  of  and  on  top  of  the  bfjdy  of  the  camera.  There  is  pro- 
vided a  cutter  for  notching  the  film  to  indicate  successive  exposed  portions  thereof. 

1243934  K.  F.  Harper        2151 

A  Back  for  Roll  Film  Cameras  provided  with  a  special  focusing  device  including 
a  ground  glass  frame  and  a  collapsible  hood.  When  the  hood  is  opened  outwardly, 
the  ground  glass  frame  is  automatically  shifted  inwardly  to  register  properly  in  the 
focal  plane. 

1242157  A.  Droste        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  visible  signal  to  minimize  the  danger  of 
double  exposure.  Actuation  of  the  shutter  pneumatically  operates  the  signal  in  one 
direction,  while  winding  of  the  film  actuates  it  in  a  reverse  (^rection.  (^qqqIc 


224  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1241773  M.  L.  Severy,  Assigned  to  Severy  Mfg.  Co.         2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  connection  between  the  film  winding 
mechanism  and  the  setting  lever  of  the  shutter,  whereby  the  setting  lever  is  locked 
after  an  actuation  of  the  shutter  until  a  fresh  section  of  film  is  wound  into  place. 
The  mechanism  relates  particularly  to  instantaneous  exposures. 


1242745  E.  W.  Tucker        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  mec*hanism  intended  to  prevent  double  ex- 
posure. The  shutter  is  locked  after  each  actuation  until  the  lock  thereof  is  released 
by  the  winding  of  a  fresh  section  of  film  into  place. 

1241848  G.  A.  Goodson        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  of  the  box  type  having  connections  between  the  winding 
shaft  and  the  shutter  lever,  with  the  object  of  preventing  double  exposure.  The 
shatter  lever  is  locked  after  each  actuation  until  the  winding  of  a  fresh  section  of  film 
releases  tlie  lock. 

1240910  R.  Wilmot        2163 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  of  the  type  having  an  opening  in  the  back  through  which 
inscriptions  may  be  written  upon  suitable  film.  Inside  of  the  camera  opposite  the 
opening  there  is  a  film-sap[>ort.  Surrounding  the  rim  of  the  opening  is  a  clamping 
member  moved  downwardly  by  a  thumbpiece  to  clamp  the  film  onto  the  support. 
Movement  of  the  thumbpiece  releases  a  pivoted  door  over  the  opening  in  the  camera 
back  and  a  spring  forces  said  door  to  its  open  position. 

1243156  N.  E.  Goldfadden        231 

A  Pocket  Flash  Light  Apparatus  in  which  the  powder  is  ignited  by  an  electrically 
heated  fuse,  the  dry  battery  for  heating  the  fuse  l>eing  carried  in  the  handle  of  the 
device. 

1243685  F.  W.  Barkley,  Assigned  to  American  Drafting        247 

Furniture  Co. 

A  Phot()grai)hic  Printing  Machine  particularly  adapted  to  blue  print  making. 
The  sensitized  sheet  is  fed  forward  beneath  the  lamp  and  over  a  supporting  drum 
l)etween  an  endles^s  apron  and  a  set  of  spaced  cords  running  longitudinally  thereof. 
The  cords  are  oscillated  to  prevent  them  from  casting  a  sustained  shadow  upon  any 
portion  of  the  sluHJt. 

1213403  G.  Hanlon         2541 

A  Developing  and  Fixing  Tank  for  Roll  Film.  The  film  is  drawn  off"  the  supply 
8j><)ol  over  guide  rollers  so  as  to  form  a  series  of  loops  by  pulling  on  two  cords  con- 
nei'ted  to  the  end  of  the  film  and  by  pulling  the  black  paper  through  a  slot  in  the 
side  of  the  apparatua  The  tank  is  contained  in  a  light  tight  bag,  which  enables  the 
film  supporting  membt^rs  to  be  removed  from  the  tank  casing  without  exposure  to 
light  and  so  as  to  |>ennit  washing  tlu'  same. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  226 

1240426  E.  Crusey        257 

A  Photographic  Print  Waeliing  Machine  pn>videil  with  a  removable  wire  basket 
for  easy  manipulation  of  the  prints. 

1240468  .M.  B-.  Martin         258 

A  Print  Drying  Apparatus  of  the  type  in  which  a  belt  carries  the  prints  over  the 
surface  of  a  heated  rotary  drum.  The  hot  gases  formed  in  the  interior  of  the  drum 
are  drawp  outward  and  tlie  heat  therein  utilized  for  drying  the  })elt. 

1243086  P.  J.  Marks,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2623 

A  Between-the-Lens  Shutter  of  the  setting  type  but  having  some  of  the  conveniences 
of  the  automatic  variety.  The  motor  spring,  when  wound,  possesses  sufficient  energy 
for  twelve  successive  exposures,  which  can  be  made  by  merely  repeatedly  releasing 
the  shutter  without  bothering  with  intennediate  setting  operations.  The  speeds  are 
varied  by  an  adjustable  gear  retarding  mechanism.     • 

1240651  J.  Becker,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2646 

A  Focusing  Camera  in  which  a  range  finder  of  the  aligned-image  type  is  co- 
ordinated with  the  focusing  mechanism  of  the  camera  so  that  the  two  will  sight  and 
focus  on  any  desired  object  simultaneously.  The  range  finder  is  of  the  pivoted  mirror 
variety,  the  lower  mirror  being  turne<l  by  an  arm  Ix^aring  a  non-radial  cam. 

1240788  J.  Becker,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2646 

A  Co-ordinated  Focusing  Camera  and  Range  Finder,  the  latter  being  of  the 
pivoted  mirror  type  and  one  of  the  mirrors  being  a  total  reflection  prism  having  a 
part  of  its  hypotenuse  face  rendered  transparent  by  a  sniall  prism. 

1240335  '  H.  Gindele         2653 

A  Photographic  Roll  Film  Cartridge.  The  film  is  provided  with  slits  or  weakened 
lines  to  permit  the  tearing  out  of  exposed  sections  prior  to  the  use  of  the  rest  of  the 
film.  Special  adhesive  bands  are  stored  along  the  film  to  unite  the  severed  edges  of 
the  remainder  of  the  film  to  the  backing  paper. 

1244159  F.  W.  Adsit         2682 

A  Photometer  particularly  designed  as  a  photographic  actinometer.  A  flat 
selenium  cell  is  placed  in  tlie  focal  plane  so  as  to  occupy  substantially  the  whole 
picture  area.  The  light  which  fonns  the  image  causes  the  resistance  of  the  cell  to 
vary  and  the  variations  are  measured  by  a  VVheatetone  bridge  arrangement,  the  pointer 
of  which  moves  over  a  scale  to  directly  indicate  exposure  times. 

1241133        •  J.T.  MacCurdy         2682 

A  Photographic  Exposure  Meter  of  the  type  in  which  a  wedge  of  graduated 
opacity  is  moved  across  the  observation  openmg  until  details  are  obscured  in  selected 
parts  of  the  subject.  Graded  8<reen8  may  also  be  shifted  acroas  the  observation  open- 
ing to  adapt  the  meter  to  subjects  of  widely  difi'erent  brightng^^|^g^,(^ qqq|^ 


226  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1242605  E.  Schneider        3109 

A  Motion  Picture  Machine  in  which  the  effects  of  static  electricity  are  intended 
to  be  minimized  by  a  circulation  of  air. 

1243262  C.  J.  Coberly        3109 

A  Device  for  neutralizing  electric  discharges  in  motion  picture  apparatus.  It 
includes  a  hollow  insulating  casing  adjacent  the  film,  said  casing  .containing  an  ioniz- 
ing means,  such  as  uranium,  and  being  provided  ^\^th  windows  through  which  the 
neutralizing  ions  pass  to  the  film.  The  ions  of  opposite  sign  pass  to  a  grounded  plate 

1242416  -  G.  Bettini        317 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  using  gla.«w  plates  upon  which  the  pictures  are  ar- 
rangt^d  in  zigzag  series. 

1239119  A.  Mehlfelder         3201 

An  Intermittent  Gk*aring  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  including  a  continuously 
rotated  cam  and  a  shaft  intermittently  driven  therefrom  through  a  set  of  studs. 

1242428  F.  L.  Dyer        3201-322 

A  Motion  Picture  Projecting  Machine  of  the  intermittent  tyi)e,  in  which  the 
periods  of  movement  are  much  longer  than  the  periods  of  rest  and  the  stopping  and 
starting  of  the  film  is  much  more  gradual  than  in  the  ordinary  machines.  A  pair  of 
automatic  mirrors  keep  tlie  image  stationary  on  the  screen,  one  of  them  reflecting  tlie 
light,  while  the  film  is  stationary  and  the  other  being  tilted  by  a  cam  to  hold  the 
image  stationary  while  the  film  is  nuning. 

1242792  A.  F..  Gall  ami  N.  A.  Curtiss,  Assigned  to        3202 

New  Jersey  Patent  Co. 

A  Film  Guide  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors  wliich  is  moved  to  either  open  or 
closed  position  and  locked  in  such  position  by  a  single  toggle  mechanism.  An  adjust- 
ment provides  for  accurate  regulation  of  the  pressure  on  the  edges  of  the  film  adjacent 
the  guide. 

1241828  T.  Davis        3203 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  in  which  the  shutter  is  replaced  by  an  auxiliary  lens, 
which  is  oscillated  back  and  forth  in  and  out  of  the  main  lens-barrel.  When  in  the 
main  lens-barrel,  the  picture  on  the  screen  is  transformed  to  a  blur  of  light  and  the 
movement  of  the  film,  to  change  from  one  picture  to  the  next,  takes  place  during 
such  blurring,  whereby  the  screen  is  always  illuminated  and  flicker  is  sought  to  be 
avoided. 

1241869  R.  W.  Martin        3203 

A  Motion  Picture  Machine  in  which  a  sluitttT  having  one  opaque  sector  is  driven 
three  complete  revolutions  while  the  film  is  fetl  thniugh  one  cycle,  the  object  being 

increastKl  illumination.  {^^  r^r^r^]r> 

Digitized  by  VjOOV?  IC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  -  227 


1244728  F.  C.  Hamilton,  Assigned  to  Eureka  Projector        3203 

Device  Co.,  Inc. 

A  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  in  which  the  8ect<^)rs  are  balanced  by 
weights  carried  on  a  circular  rim,  the  weights  also  servinj?  to  [)roperly  space  the 
sectors. 

1242894  C.  E.  Akeley,  Assigned  to  Akeley  Camera,  Inc.         3204 

A  Filni  Box  for  Motion  Picture  Cameras  of  the  tyi>e  in  which  two  sections  are 
telescoped,  so  as  to  rotate  one  upon  the  other  to  open  and  close  film  slots  therein. 
The  camera  casing  contains  a  catch  which  automatically  engages  one  of  the  sections  to 
hold  it  stationary  while  the  other  is  being  tumtxi  by  automatically  engaged  mechanism. 

1240882  H.  E.  Roys,  Assigned  to  Cameoscope  Corporation         3206 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  in  which  the  lamphouse  is  carried  by  a  pivoted  panel, 
so  that  when  the  panel  is  turned  to  permit  of  access  to  the  film,  the  lamphouse  will 
be  swung  and  the  stream  of  light  directed  away  from  the  film.  The  switch  which 
stops  and  starts  the  motor  also  throws  the  light  on  and  off. 

1242006  E.  A.  Longenecker         3208 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  having  means  to  avoid  the  necessity  of  rewinding  the 
film  between  successive  displays  thereof.  The  film  is  fed  from  inner  convolutions  of 
the  upper  reel  instead  of  from  the  outer  convolutions,  as  is  mort»  usual. 

1243739  a'  S.  Howell,  Assigned  to  Bell  &  Howell  Co.         3208 

A  Winding  Mechanism  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus.  At  tlie  top  of  the  machine 
there  is  provided  a  rewinding  mechanism  which  is  thrown  into  and  out  of  operation 
by  tightening  or  loosening  a  belt  by  means  of  a  pivoted  arm  carrying  an  idler  pulley. 
The  machine  is  also  pro\ided  with  means  for  instantly  stopping  the  film  feeding 
shuttle  at  a  predetermined  position  while  f  rictionally  stopping  the  main  driving  pulleys. 

1242730  H.  Siegel,  Assigned  i  to  Lewis  Chasnian         3209 

An  Attachment  for  Motjon  Picture  Projectors  for  putting  out  the  light  when  the 
feeding  of  the  film  stops  or  the  latter  becomes  broken.  An  electrical  switch  is  kept 
oi>en  by  a  centrifugally  actuated  weight  driven  from  the  moving  film.  When  the  film 
stops  or  breaks,  the  weight  closes  the  switch  and  the  main  circuit  breaker  is  mag- 
netically throwTi  open. 

1243067  E.  B.  Hulsey  and  J.  A.  D.  llerrington         3209 

A  Stopping  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors.  Whenever  a  break  in  the  film 
occurs  or  whenever  a  marginal  tear  appears  in  the  machine,  an  electric  signal  is 
automatically  actuated  to  warn  the  operator  and  the  fire  door  is  lowered  to  cut  off  the 
light  rays  from  the  gate.     At  the  same  time  the  driving  motor  is  stopped. 

1241200  H.  Csanyi         325-8201 

A  Film  Feeding  Mechanism  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors  particularly  those  kinds 
which  are  for  home  use  and  employ  parts  of  the  ordinary'  roll  film  hand  cameras. 
The  feeding  mechanism  grasps  the  opposite  edges  of  the  film  by  flexing  portions 
thereof. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


228  ^  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1240954  A.  M.  Delmas        368 

A  Drying  Rack  or  Drum  for  Motion  Picture  Film.  The  longitudinal  film  sup- 
ports are  faced  with  hollow  rubber  members  which  yield  as  the  film  shrinks. 

c 

1243272  C.  L.  Duhem         361 

A  Support  for  Motion  Picture  Cameras  which  shifts  the  latter  both  vertically  and 
horizontally  during  the  taking  of  a  picture  with  the  object  of  obtaining  pictures  which 
will  appear  in  relief. 

1244682  C.  E,  Akeley,  Assigned  to  Akeley  Camera,  Inc.         301 

A  Motion  Picture  Tripod,  the  legs  of  which  comprise  telescoping  sections  which 
may  be  rapidly  locked  and  braced  in  adjusted  position  and  have  a  quick-detachable 
connection  with  the  camera  top.  A  toggle  mechanism  performs  the  double  function 
of  locking  the  telescopic  sections  and  bracing  them  to  give  a  truss  effect. 

1239295  M.  E.  Noble         387 

A  Cleaner  for  Motion  Picture  Film  in  which  the  film  is  drawn  zigzag  through  a 
series  of  gauze  covered  rollers. 


British  Patents 

V 

B109054  E.  Cervenka         K/35 

Color  Photography.  Relates  to  screen  processes  for  producing  color  photographs 
on  a  paper  or  other  support.  A  negative  is  first  made  through  a  three-color  screen 
having  a  geometrical  pattern.  From  this,  according  to  one  method,  a  diapositive  is 
then  made,  and  is  used  to  make  a  contact  print  on  a  thin  layer  of  gelatine,  gum,  etc. , 
which  is  sensitized  with  bichromaU%  and  is  carried  by  a  screen  identical  as  regards 
pattern  and  colors  with  that  through  which  the  negative  is  made,  the  screen  itself 
being  carried  by  a  thin  transparent  base.  The  exposed  screen  is  washed  and  im- 
mersed in  a  solution  of  chloride  of  tin  or  other  substance  which  decolors  the  dyes 
beneath  the  unhardened  gelatine  etc. ,  and  is  finally  gummed,  with  the  trahsparent 
base  uppermost,  onto  a  paper  or  other  support.  In  an  alternative  method,  the 
gelatine  or  like  layer  is  omitted  from  the  second  screen,  and  the  screen  is  treated  with 
anethol  or  other  substance  which  facilitates  the  bleaching  action  of  light  upon  the 
dyes.  This  screen  is  exposed  to  light  beneath  the  original  negative  until  the  exposed 
colors  are  quite  bleached,  the  remaining  colors  are  fixed  with  benzol,  and  the  base  is 
gummed  to  the  paper  or  like  support.  The  scn^en  used  in  the  production  of  the  final 
print  may  have  a  base  of  celluloid,  of  a  transparent  cellulose  material  permeable  by 
liquids,  or  of  tracing-paper  ( paper  covered  with  a  layer  of  wheat  starch  and  gum). 
When  a  base  of  tracing-paper  is  employe<l,  the  screen  may  be  printed  with  fatty  inks. 
The  screens  may  be  colored  principally  with  aniline  dyes,  and  the  colors  of  the  screen 
for  the  final  print  may  bt»  deeper  in  tone  than  those  of  the  taking-screen.  The  final 
image  may  be  transferre<i  onto  a  base  of  glass,  porcelain,  etc. 

Bl()8989  J.  W.  Billings        067 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  A  supplementary  film  carrying  descriptive  matter 
adapted  to  be  thrown  onto  the  .*<creen  is  fed  at  irregular  or  arbitrary  j^'^'Mtylp 


ABSTRACT    BILLETIN  229 


B108914  A.  W.  Mathys  (for  P.  Dietz,  U.S.A.)         221 

Optical  Projection  Apparatus.  Apparatus  for  projecting  a  eeries  of  single  pictures 
from  a  roll  of  film  arranged  so  that  the  pictures  can  be  projected  either  vertically  or 
horizontally. 

B108691  S.  Brossi        222-241 

Photographic  Enlarging  and  Printing  Apparatus.  Relates  to  enlarging  apparatus 
adapted  to  produce,  from  cameras  containing  several  negatives,  inchiding  fixed  name- 
and-address  negatives,  a  large  number  of  repeats  upon  sensitive  sheets  of  paper  staked 
in  piles  and  arranged  for  intermittent  feeding.  Below  the  camera  is  a  traveling  box, 
manually  displaceable  in  a  frame  against  the  action  of  a  spring  roller  tending  to  wind 
upon  itself  a  cord  attached  to  the  box.  Witliin  the  box  are  six  piles  of  sensitive 
paper,  in  lengths  extending  from  end  to  end  of  the  box,  and  pressed  upwards,  by 
springs  and  boards,  against  retaining  angle-pieces  so  that  as  the  spring  roller  and 
cord  cooperate  with  a  manually  optratod  pawl  and  rack  to  step  the  box  along  from 
left  to  right,  photographs  may  be  taken  in  each  potsition. 


B 108679  S.  Cocanari         241 

Printing  Apparatus.  Prints  on  paper,  tilnis  or  plates,  ai-e  prinunl,  developt»d  and 
fixed  in  daylight  by  means  of  an  apparatus  comprising  a  printing  b(»x  communicating 
with  a  light-tight  box  in  which  a  frame  constructed  so  as  to  permit  li<juids  to  enter 
it,  but  to  exclude  light,  is  placi^i;  cut  shtn^ts  of  paper  are  arranged  in  the  printing 
box  in  a  pile  with  sensitized  surfaces  upi)ernu)st,  Jhc  frame  being  then  removed  and 
placed  successively  in  the  developing  and  fixii  ^r  bail  is. 


B108931  E.  K.  Fox         241 

Photographic  Printing.  In  a  photnjrraphic  i)rinting  machine  for  producing  a 
series  of  prints  on  a  strip  of  sensitized  material,  the  strip  is  clipj)ed  to  one  end  of  a 
rack-bar  which  may  bt»  intermittently  nioved  forward  by  the  continuous  rotation  of 
8haft.  This  shaft  carries  an  arm  to  which  is  attaclxd  a  pawl  for  engaging  with  the 
rack  teeth,  a  cam  for  depressing  a  pressure  block  which  iires^st^s  the  tilm  etc.,  against 
the  negative,  and  a  cam  which  oi)erates  a  plunger  switch  controlling,  the  lamp;  or, 
alternatively,  a  shade  may  be  adapted  to  cover  the  lamp.  At  the  end  of  the  forward 
movement,  the  pawl  is  automatically  lifted  by  a  pin  im  a  bell-crank  lever,  which  is 
moved  into  the  operative  and  inoperative  positions  resj^^tively  by  pins  projecting 
from  each  end  of  the  rack-bar.  The  gripping-device  comprises  plates  betweim  which 
the  film  may  lye  held  by  means  of  a  spring- pressed  bt»ll-crank  lever.  The  switch  may 
be  held  in  the  closed  position  by  a  hook.  The  negative  is  placed  in  an  aperture  in 
the  top  of  the  light-box,  and  fitting  over  it  is  a  frame  which  carries  a  mask. 


B109103         F.  R.  Boardman,  R.  V.  Boardman  and  F.  Boardnian         241 

Photographic  Printing.  In  a  photograjihic  printing-l>ox,  the  lamps  are  arranged 
behind  downwardly  projecting  baffles  so  that  only  light  diff'used  from  the  sides  and 
bottom  of  the  box  reaches  the  negative.  The  piessuri'  pads  are  pivoted  one  to  the 
other,  atid  the  pad  is  pivoted  in  vertical  slots  so  as  to  allow  of  automatic  adjustment 
when  using  glass  of  different  thicknesses.  ^  t 

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230  ABSTRACT     BULLETIN 

B108458  F.  Treitschke        2626 

Shutter  Releases.  During  focusing,  the  lens  diaphragm  is  kept  fully  open  by  en- 
gaging the  spring-actuated  adjusting-arm  in  a  pawl.  On  pressing  the  exposure  button 
the  pawl  is  allowed  to  release  the  arm  before  the  shutter  and  mirror,  in  the  case  of  a 
reflex  camera,  are  actuated.  The  arm  comes  to  rest  against  a  stop,  the  position  of 
which  determines  the  size  of  the  aperture  during  the  exposure. 

.B108474  Pathe  Frdres        3101 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  The  feed- mechanism  of  a  cinematograph  camera  for 
taking  a  large  number  of  pictures  per  secbnd,  comprises  feed-sprockets  and  a  feeding- 
claw.  The  tilm  is  threaded  so  that  it  is  slock  to  the  extent  of  half  a  picture  space 
bet\is'een  the  sprockets.  The  claw  is  capable  of  oscillating  freely  between  two  stops  on 
the  carriage  on  which  it  is  mounted,  and  the  carriage  is  reciprocated  vertically. 

B108621  A.  S.  Howell        3104 

Cinematograph  Cameras.  A  liiui  magazise  for  a  cinematograph  camera  com- 
prising two  compartments  for  the  reception  of  the  delivery  and  take-up  film  spools, 
and  has  openings  for  the  passage  of  the  film  to  and  from  the  exposure  position  which 
are  automatically  Hirnultaneously  closed  upon  opening  the  camera  door.  The  magazine 
is  provided  with  a  plate  attached  to  the  top  of  the  camera  by  a  set-wrewand  provided 
with  openings  through  which  the  tihn  pa^st^s  to  and  from  the  spools.  Stationary 
projections  covertKl  with  pile  fabric  co-oiH^ratc  with  movable  plates,  also  covered  ^nth 
fabric,  to  close  the  opening  when  the  caiuera  door  is  opened. 

B108448  J.Dunlop        3201 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  Helate.-  to  tlie  provi.sion  in  feeding-mechanisms  of 
means  for  preventing  excessive  niovenient  (»f  the  top  loop  of  a  cinematograph  film  at 
the  point  where  it  enters  tlu*  gaU-,  and  comprises  a  j)res8ure  rolK  r  catried  by  arms 
pivoted  between  lugs  (»n  a  base  and  forcwl  by  a  spring  into  engagement  with  the 
inside  surface  of  the  film  when  the  device  is  seciire<l  to  the  top  of  the  gate. 
* 

BlOSIDl  H.  R.  Evans        3208 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  Means  for  driving  the  take-up  spool  or  for  braking 
the  paying-out  spool  of  a  cinematograph  i>roj(Ctor,  comprishig  a  spool-carrying  mem- 
ber in  variable  frictional  engagement  with  a  positively  driven  or  held  member,  the 
friction  varying  with  the  weight  of  film  on  the  spool  so  as  to  tend  to  equalize  the 
tension  in  the  film. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


January,  1918 


I^^ued  hy  tine  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COMPANY 

Bjochester,  Ncv&^York 


I 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


.    .^ 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  4.  No.  1 


January,  1918 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Photography 


Unit-Photography  F.  M.  Steadman         F5 

Photo  Era,  1917,  p.  276 

Describes  the  use  of  the  writer's  actinometer,  the  Aabameter. 

Making  up  Developers  '  Gl 

B.  J., -1917,  p.  566 

While  solutions  of  pyro  preserved  with  acids  will  not  keep  very  long,  those  pre- 
served with  sulphites  according  to  modem  formula?  have  good  keeping  properties. 
The  best  working  method  for  those  using  developers  in  considerable  quantity  would 
seem  to  be  to  make  up  stock  solution  sufficient  for  a  week's  use.  By  employing  weights 
cut  from  sheet  metal  equivalent  to  a  particular  quantity  the  time  occupied  for  weigh- 
ing out  a  given  formula  can  be  greatly  shortened. 

The  Laws  of  Fixation  A.  W.  Warwick        G6 

Amer.  Phot.,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  685 

By  means  of  a  simple  apparatus,  and  estimating  the  amount  of  silver  fixed  out 
colorimetrically  by  precipitating  with  sodium  sulfide,  the  author  has  confirmed  a 
number  of  facts  already  established  by  Piper  and  others  regarding  the  rate  of  fixing 
of  plates  and  film  with  hypo  solutions  of  diflferent  concentrations. 

Projection  Positives  Obtained  Directly  G8-064 

La  Cine-Fono,  1917,  p.  Ill 

If  only  a  single  motion  picture  positive  is  required  some  method  of  reversing  the 
n^ative  to  a  positive  would  be  of  considerable  value.  A  method  is  described  which 
is  stated  to  have  been  worked  out  in  the  Garau  laboratory  in  Italy.  The  developed 
negative  before  fixation  is  used  to  print  a  positive  on  the  under-lying  emulsion  which 
still  remains  sensitive  and  has  not  been  blackened  during  development.  The  film  is 
supported  on  a  drum  so  that  the  back  is  protected  from  the  hght  and  the  exposure  is 
therefore  made  only  through  the  negative  which  is  first  developed.  The  condition 
for  obtaining  satisfactory  results  is  a  very  thorough  first  development,  which  is  done 
by  means  of  a  hydrochinon  developer,  development  being  slow  and  allowed  to  pro- 
ceed so  that  the  image  penetrates  completely  to  the  back  of  the  film.  After  washing, 
the  drum  is  exposed  to  daylight  for  from  10  to  20  seconds,  the  drum  being  turned  in 
front  of  a  window  during  the  exposure.  Then  the  developed  .silver  is  removed  in  a 
bath  of  bichromate  of  potash  and  nitric  acid  and  the  po.«itive  developed. 

Reducing  Bromide  Prints  Drj',  without  Abrasion         T.H.  Greenall       HI 
Phot.  Focus,  Nov.  14,  1917,  p.  327 

The  reducing  bath  \b:  (A)  Iodine,  12  grains ;  Potassium  Iodide,  6  grains ;  Rectified 
Spirit  1  fl.  ounce.  (B)  Saturated  solution  of  Potassium  Cyanide  in  pure  rectified 
spirit  containing  2d%  of  added  water.  (C)  .880  Ammonia.  The  working  solution  is 
prepared  as  follows :  One  drachm  of  A  is  taken  and  B  is  added  until  the  iodine  is 
decolorized  and  then  about  as  much  more  additional  B  in  excess.  Half  a  drachm  of 
C  is  added  to  prevent  blue  staining  of  the  print.  The  dry  bromide  print,  black  and 
white  or  sepia,  can  be  locally  reduced  by  applying  the  above  solution  with  a  brusli, 
the  strength  of  the  solution  being  reduced  by  the  addition  of  alcohol  when  treating 
light  tones.    Action  is  stopped  by  applying  spirit  by  means  of  a  tuft  of  cotton.     IC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Combination  Pictures  H.  Hyatt        J5 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  569 

This  describes  and  illustrates  a  simple  m^hod  of  combining  a  figure  in  one 
photograph  with  that  from  another. 

Sepia-toned  Bromides:  The  Use  of  Barium  Sulfide  D.  Ireland      J84 

AbePs,  1917,  p.  540 

The  writer  recommends  barium  sulfide  in  place  of  the  sodium  or  potassium 
because  of  the  absence  of  odor  and  because  it  does  not  soften  the  gelatine. 

An  Outline  of  the  Cinekrome  Color  Process  A.  S.  Cory        K/23 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  4060 

A  description  of  the  two-color  additive  Cinekrome  process  of  the  Kunz,  Wheeler 
Mofiat  Company,  Boston.  Tlie  red  and  green  separation  negatives  are  obtained  by 
means  of  a  single  lens  and  a  semi-transparent  mirror.  The  black  and  white  positive 
is  then  projected  through  a  system  of  two  lenses,  the  images  being  superimposed  on 
the  screen  by  a  suitable  registering  device.  The  Cinekrome  projector  is  of  the  Duplex 
type,  one  side  being  used  for  black  and  white  work  and  the  other  for  color  projection. 
By  moving  the  arc  lamp  from  side  to  side,  a  change  may  be  instantly  made  from 
black  and  white  to  color.  The  projection  filters  employed  are  pink  and  green,  so 
that  while  flesh  tints  are  well  rendered,  blue  objects  appear  green,  and  red  objects 
appear  pink. 

A  New  X-Ray  Film  X12 

J.  Roentgen  Society,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  109 

Messrs.  Austin  Edwards,  Ltd.,  Warwick,  England,  have  placed  upon  the  maiket 
a  film  coated  on  both  sides  with  sensitive  emulsion  for  X-ray  use.  The  advantage 
lies  in  the  fact  that  increased  absorption  of  X-rays  is  obtained  with  no  increase  in 
development  difficulty.  The  films  above  mentioned  are  packed  separately  in  black 
envelopes. 

Colored  Images  Produced  by  Persulphate  Reducers  017- J83 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  554 

It  is  suggested  that  the  colored  image  often  obtained  with  the  persulphate  reducer 
is  due  to  the  bigger  grains  in  the  image  being  attacked  without  the  smaller  grains 
being  afiected,  the  resulting  image  being  produced  by  closely  massed  minute  grains 
of  silver,  which  gives  a  warm  tone  similar  to  that  obtained  on  lantern  slides  developed 
with  a  restrained  developer. 

Color  Sensitometry  A.  S.'Cory        018 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Nov.,  1917,  pp.  3503,  3689 

Focusing  Images  in  Mirrors  023 

Kodakery,  Dec,  1917,  p.  25 

An  article  drawing  attention  to  the  fact  that  when  photographing  an  image  re- 
flected in  a  mirror,  the  scale  should  be  set  for  a  distance  equal  to  that  of  the  camera 
from  the  reflector,  plus  the  distance  from  the  mirror  to  the  objec|^  by  GoOqIc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Telephotography  R.  Namias        052 

n  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  249 

Continaation  of  this  series  of  articles,  this  article  containing  a  discussion  of  the 
use  of  spectacle  lenses  for  telephotography. 

Non-Swelling  Developers,  Fixing-Hardening  Baths,  and  065-G5    ^ 

While- You- Wait  Portraiture  • 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  567 

An  article  discussing  J.  I.  Crabtree's  paper  on  high  temperature  development  in 
connection  with  formulae  for  developers  and  fixing  baths  as  applied  to  rapid 
photography. 

The  Theory  and  Practice  of  Orthochromatism  R.  Namias        0561  \l 

II  Progresso  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  254 

Continuation  of  this  series  of  articles. 

The  Measurement  of  Absorption  Spectra  A.  S.  Cory        095 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec,  1917,  p.  3883 

The  Use  of  Photography  in  Astronomy  C.  E.  K.  Mees        096 

Kodakery,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  18 

Tanks  for  the  Photography  of  Objects  in  Fluids  098 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  579 

An  explanation  of  the  best  method  of  making  a  glass  stided  tank  through  which 
photographs  can  be  taken. 

An  Enlarging  Etisel  and  a  Novel  Method  of  G.  C.  Weston         2237 

Attaching  Paper 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  580 

In  the  apparatus  described  the  enlarging  easel  is  combined  with  a  focusing  move- 
ment so  that  fine  focusing  can  be  accomplished  while  a  worker  is  close  to  the  easel. 
The  easel  board  is  made  so  as  to  form  a  shallow  tray  which  is  filled  with  a  hectograph 
jelly.  On  placing  the  bromide  paper  against  this  it  becomes  attached  and  is  held 
without  any  pins  or  fastening  device. 


Light  Projection  with  Mazda  C  Lamps  3207 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec,  1917,  p.  3878 

An  article  prepared  by  the  Engineering  department  of  the  National  I^mp  Works 
of  the  General  Electric  Company.  Digitized  by  GoOglc 


6  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

The  Porter  Continuous  Projector  322 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  4056 
A  description  of  a  motion  picture  projector  in  which  the  film  is  passed  continu- 
ously through  the  gate  without  the  usual  intermittent  motion,  thus  eliminating  to  a 
large  extent  the  wear  and  tear  on  the  film.  The  rear  lens  of  the  objective  is  split  in 
two  parts,  and  mounted  on  two  shafts  which  connect  with  the  shaft  that  carries  the 
sprocket  on  which  the  film  runs  direct  from  the  upper  magazine,  past  the  aperture 
plate,  and  into  the  lower  magazine.  This  divided  lens  is  made  to  revolve  at  the  same 
speed  as  the  sprocket,  and  as  the  pictures  move  up  sixteen  per  second  on  the  screen, 
the  revolution  of  the  rear  objective  deflects  the  light  downward  at  the  same  speed  that 
the  images  move  upward,  thereby  neutralizing  their  movement  and  holding  the  picture 
steady  on  the  screen. 

A  Photographic  Research  Laboratory  C.  E.  K.  Mees 

Scientific  Monthly,  Dec,  1917,  p.  481 
A  description  of  the  work  and  organization  of  the  Research  Laboratory. 

Photographic  and  Cinematograph  Trade  in  British  Malaya 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  559 
The  total  imports  into  Malaya  in  1916  amounted  to  $230,000,  representing  an 
increase  of  $70,000  over  1916.  The  exports,  amounting  to  $105,000,  probably  represent 
an  exportation  of  cine  films.  It  is  stated  that  almost  all  th§  towns  in  Malaya  have 
one  or  more  picture  houses.  The  chief  sources  of  the  imports  are  Great  Britain  and 
United  States. 


Photo-Engraving 


'  *  Century  ' '  Etching  Machine  ,  M07006 

Phot.  Engr.  Bull.,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  34 
A  new  etching  machine,  in  which  the  plate  placed  face  down  is  driven  in  and  out 
of  the  etching  solution.     The  usual  exaggerated  olaims  are  made  for  it. 

Damage  to  Originals  07 

Amer.  Printer,  Nov.  20,  1917,  p.  46 
A  leading  article  pointing  out  that  engravers  are  apt  to  spoil  valuable  originals 
through  want  of  care.      This  article  was  followed  by  two  letters  mentioning  the  diffi- 
culty from  the  engravers'  standpoint.     (Amer.  Printer,  Dec.  5,  1917,  p.  60). 

Printer's  View  of  Photo-Engraver's  Sins  J.  W.  Pell        07 

Process  Engrav. ,  Oct.,  1917,  pp.  145,  147 

Two  articles  pleading  for  the  use  of  point  measure  instead  of  inches  in  making 
engravings,  metal  mounts,  and  greater  accuracy  generally. 

''Dry  Effect"  on  Wet  Collodion  Negatives  J.  A.  Kohler        07004 

Phot.  Engr.  Bull.,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  33 

This  troublesome  defect,  due  to  overintensification,  can  be  remedied  by  coating 

a  glass  with  collodion  and  restripping  negative  on  to  it  before  the  collodion  has  had 

time  to  set.  C^  r\r\n]^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


New  Engraving  Process  07006 

Amer.  Printer,  Nov.  5,  1917,  p.  72 

A  new  device  known  as  the  electrical  procees  is  announced  by  the  Weeks'  En- 
graving Ompany  of  Philadelphia.  Plates  are  stated  to  possess  many  advantages 
over  chemically  etched  plates,  but  no  details  are  given. 

Half-Tone  Depths  N.  S.  Amstutz        07006 

Phot.  Engr.  Bull.,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  7 

An  article  and  several  tables  showing  depths  of  etching  of  different  tones  with 
various  screens.  These  depths  vary  from  5.6  thousands  of  an  inch  in  the  shadows  in 
the  finest  screen  (200  lines)  to  13  in  the  coarsest  (65  lines)  and  from  14  to  30  re- 
spectively in  the  highest  lights. 

Half-Tone  Printing  on  Bond  Paper  E.  St.  John        070(?9 

Inland  Printer,  Dec,  1917,  p.  362 

Recommends  110  to  133  line  screen,  good  stiff  ink,  excessive  stjueeze,  and  gives 
hints  regarding  kind  of  overlay  required. 

When  Process  Inks  Crystallize  07009 

Amer.  Pjrinter,  Nov.  20,  1917,  p.  44 

Recommended  to  add  one  or  two  ounces  of  castor  oil  to  every  three  pounds  of  the 
red  ink  to  prevent  yellow  and  red  drying  completely,  or  to  use  one  ounce  per  pound 
of  ink  of  mixture  of  equal  parts  of  paraffin  wax,  beeswax  and  gloss  drying  varnish, 
heated  and  mixed  in  the  ink  hot.  Or  to  print  ihe  blue  first  and  follow  with  trans- 
parent red  and  yellow  inks. 

t 
Method  of  Preparing  Printing  Surface  with         W.T.  Wilkinson         07244 
Mercurous  Salts 

Process  Engrav.,  Oct.,  1917,  p.  155 

A  method  of  making  collotype  plates  said  to  be  more  sensitive  and  to  yield  more 
prints  than  the  ordinary  method. 


Physics 

Criteria  for  Gray  Radiation  P.  D.  Foote 

J.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  573 

Further  data  with  regard  to  the  intersection  of  the  log  isochromatics  for  the  radia- 
tion from  a  non-black  body  compared  spectrophotometrically  with  that  from  a  black 
body,  as  a  criterion  for  grayness  of  the  non- black  body. 

Anode  Resistance  Films  J.  T.  Tate  and  P.  D.  Foote 

J.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.,  Dec,  1917,  p.  593 

A  report  of  further  experimental  work  which  has  confirmed  the  existence  of  an 
anode  polarization  film.  Results  as  to  the  magnitude  of  the  resistance  and  its  varia' 
tion  with  area  are  given.  ,  Digitized  by  GoOglc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


The  Automobile  Headlighting  Problem  Again  E.  J.  Edwards 

Gen.  Elec.  Rev.,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  881 

The  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  various  systems  are  diflcnased.  The  aathor 
recommends  the  controllable  system  capable  of  either  downward  light  only,  or  both 
upward  and  downward  light. 

Notes  on  a  High-Temperature  J.  L.  Haughton  and  D.  Hanson 

Thermostat 

Electrician,  Oct.  19,  1917,  p.  89 

A  Technical  Specification  for  Metal  Filament  Glow  Lamps 
Electrician,  Oct.  26,  1917,  p.  115 

A  summary  of  the  technical  conditions  proposed  by  the  Swiss  Union  of  Electricity 
Works,  referring  to  the  sale  of  electric  glow  lamps. 

7       The  Physical  Basis  of  Color-Technology  M.  Luckiesh 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  631 

An  important  contribution  to  thedyestuff  industry  and  all  industries  using  colors. 
This  article  is  a  r^um^  of  a  series  of  investigations  carried  out  at  the  Nela  Heseareh 
Laboratory. 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

How  Do  the  Warring  Nations  Obtain  their  Nitrogen  S.  Nauchkoff 

Supply  ? 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  Nov.  1,  1917,  p.  525 

A  description  of  the  Chilean  nitrate  fields  and  their  output,  of  the  output  of 
ammonium  sulfate  from  coke  ovens  and  of  the  processes  whereby  nitrogen  is  obtained 
from  the  air. 


Colloid  Chemistry 

The  Stability  of  Emulsions  in  the  Constricted  Tube  I.  C.  Hall 

and  Marble  Device  for  Anaerobiosis 

J.  Phys.  Chem.,  1917,  p.  609 

A  Flexible,  Plastic  and  Elastic  Material  to  Replace  Rubber  A.  D. 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9314 

A  product  obtained   by  action   of  sulphur  chloride   upon   a  mixture  of  oils 
and  residuary  resins  of  caoutchouc  and  gutta-percha.  p.  .  .^   , ,    GqOqIc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Organic  CSiemistry 


Details  of  the  Sulfite  Process.  C.  C.  Heritage        1411 

Paper,  Oct.  31,  1917,  p.  15,  and  Nov.  7,  p.  13 
Discasses  woods  snitable  for  palping,  object  of  the  process,  solvents  of  lignin» 
factors  in  the  choice  of  palp  wood,  acid  making  systems,  storage  of  wood,  operation 
of  wood  room,  manufactare  of  sulfite  acid  and  cooking. 

The  Action  of  Bleaching  Agents  on  Fibers  J.  M.  Matthews        1411 

Paper,  Nov.  28,  1917,  p.  13 
Gives  the  principles  of  bleaching. 

Volume  of  Water  Used  in  Papermaking  1411 

Paper,  Dec.  5,  1917,  p.  23 

Tables  giving  water  content  at  various  steps  from  heatec  to  end  of  dryer  for  news 
at  600  ft.  p.  m.,  book  at  300  ft.  p.  m.  and  all  sulfite  at  400  ft.  p.  m.  At  the  beater 
pulp  contains  approximately  96%  water,  and  leaves  dryers  with  approximately 
7-10%  water. 

Activities  of  the  Government  in  Behalf  of  Better        W.  Fawcett         1411 
Paper  Supply 

Inland  Printer,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  371 

Describes  the  work  of  the  Federal  Trade  Commission,  the  Bureau  of  Standards, 
and  the  Department  of  Agriculture  in  this  connection,  with  illustrations  of  the 
Government's  experimental  paper  mill  and  digester  for  testing  new  substances  for 
paper  making. 

Paper  Testing— Report  of  Committee   .  F.  C.  Clark,  C.  W.  Rieser        1412 
on  Paper  Testing  of  the  Techni-  and  J.  E.  Hafele 

cal' Association 

Paper,  Oct.  24,  1917,  p.  11 

Continuation  (This  Bulletin,  1917,  p.  218). 

Laboratory  Methods  for  Benzol- Recovery  Plant  F.  W.  Sperr,  Jr. 

Operation  Parts  I,  II  and  III 
Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  Nov.,  1917,  pp.  548,  686,  and  Dec.  p.  642 

A  most  timely  article  describing  a  systeifl  (Koppers)  for  the  recovery  of  benzol 
and  methods  for  control. 

A  Permanent  American  Dyestuff  Industry  H.  G.  McKerrow 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  Nov.  16,  1917,  p.  694 

A  paper  read  before  the  National  Association  of  Cotton  Manufacturers  giving 
some  interesting  facts  on  the  development  of  our  dyestuff  industry  and  making  a 
plea  for  support  from  the  Grovemment  and  from  consumers  of  dyestuffs. 

Bakelite  and  Its  Aj>plication  H.  Lebach 

Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9339 
Continuation  (This  Bulletin,  1917,  p.  219).  Digitized  by  GoOglc 


10  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

From  Eastman  Kodak  Research  Laboratory 

sj       High  Temperature  Development  of  Roll  Film,       J.  I.  Crabtree      053-G5 
Film  Packs,  Plates  and  Paper 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  555 

Communication  No.  62 

Roll  film,  film  packs  and  plates  whether  new  or  date  expired  may  be  successfully 
developed  under  tropical  conditions  (up  to  95°  F. )  by  means  of  most  developers,  with 
the  addition  of  10?^  sodium  sulfate  and  some  potassium  bromide  in  order  to  prevent 
fog,  but  much  better  with  a  special  developer  C9mpounded  with  paraminophenol 
hydrochloride.  Although  it  has  been  recommended  to  develop  film  in  the  tropics  by 
hardening  the  same  either  before  or  after  development  by  the  addition  of  a  hardener 
such  as  formalin,  it  is  only  possible  to  secure  the  best  results  by  using  a  developer 
free  from  such  addition  agents.     The  formula  for  the  developer  is  as  follows : 

Avoirdupois*  Metric 

Paraminophenol  Hydrochloride 60  grains  7  grams 

Sodium  Sulfite  (E.  K.  Co.) 440  grains  50  grams 

Sodium  Carbonate  (E.  K.  Co.) 440  grains  50  grams 

AVater  to 20  ounces         1  liter 

Rinse  for  only  one  or  two  seconds  before  placing  in  the  fixing  bath,  otherwise 
the  film  is  apt  to  soften  in  the  rinse  water. 

The  time  of  development  with  Eastman  N.  C.  film  at  95°  F.  for  normal  contrast 
is  one  and  a  half  minutes  though  the  time  of  development  may  be  doubled  by  the 
addition  of  100  grams  of  sodium  sulfate  (crystal)  per  liter  of  developer. 

At  temperatures  up  to  75°  F.  the  regular  acid  fixing  bath  should  be  used,  but  at 
temperatures  up  to  85°  F.  the  following  chrome  alum  bath  is  necessary. 

Avoirdupois  Metric 

Hypo 7  0Z8.  200  grams 

Somum  Sulfite,  (E.  K.  Co. ).-.:..  1  oz.    175  grains  40  grams 

Potassium  CJhrome  Ahun 2  ozs.  350  grains  80  grams 

Acetic  Acid  ^glacial) 40  minums  2.5  cc 

Water  to .'. 32  ozs.  J  liter 

Dissolve  the  sulfite  and  chrome  alum  together  and  add  to  the  Hypo  solution 
finally  adding  acetic  acid. 

At  temperatures  up  to  95°  F.  the  followmg  formalin  bath  should  be  employed  : 

Avoiniupois  Metric  . 

Hypo 9  ozs.  250  grams 

Sodium  Sulfite  (E.  K.  Co. ) 1  oz.    350  grains  50  grams 

Formalin  ( formaldehyde  40% )  4^  ozs.  125  cc. 

Water  to , 32  ozs.  1  liter 

First  dissolve  the  hypo,  then  the  sulfite,  and  finally  add  the  formalin. 

In  order  to  eliminate  the  odor  of  the  formalin,  the  bath  should  be  enclosed  in  a 
covered  tank  if  possible.  The  above  baths  keep  well  at  the  temperatures  stated,  so 
that  for  the  professional  and  amateur  finishing  trade  the  special  chrome  alum  bath 
is  very  suitable,  while  in  special  cases  such  as  expeditionary  work,  when  very  high 
temperatures  may  prevail,  the  formalin  bath  will  give  perfect  results. 

Film  pack  may  be  successfully  treated  in  a  tray  in  the  same  way  as  N.  C.  film, 
though  so  far  it  has  not  Ijeen  possible  to  devise  a  method  for  using  the  Kodak  film 
or  film  pack  tanks  at  the  temperatures  named. 

Although  no  diflSculty  is  to  be  expected  when  developing  gaslight  and  bromide 
papers  at  high  temperatures,  the  use  of  a  stop  bath  of  S%  acetic  acid,  and  twice  the 
usual  amount  of  liquid  hardener  in  tlie  fixing  bath  is  recommendecl/^p.^QTp 

igi  ize      y  g 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  11 


The  Development  of  Cirkut  Film  J.  I.  Crabtree        G5 

Report  No.  441 

Girkut  film  may  be  succeesfully  developed  at  normal  and  at  high  temperatures 
by  the  tray  or  tank  method,  and  likewise  on  an  apron  at  normal  temperatures. 

For  tray  development,  a  long  flat  wooden  tray  covered  with  rubber  cloth  is 
especially  recommended.  For  purposes  of  traveling  it  is  a  simple  matter  to  construct 
a  collapsible  tray  with  a  removable  lining  of  rubber  cloth  which  may  be  rolled  up 
into  a  small  space. 

For  deep  tank  development  a  wooden  tank  lined  with  cloth  is  recommended,  and 
such  a  tank  is  especially  suitable  for  development  at  high  temperatures  when  using 
formalin. 

It  is  possible  to  develop,  fix  and  wash  Cirkut  film  on  an  apron  at  temperatures 
op  to  75'  F. ,  but  for  this  purpose  a  specially  thick  apron  is  required  which  must  be 
perforated  and  covered  with  a  suitable  fabric  to  permit  of  the  access  of  the  various 
solutions  to  the  back  of  the  film.  When  developing  on  an  apron,  it  is  necessary  that 
the  paper  leader  should  adhere  to  the  film  through  the  various  operations,  and  in 
order  to  ensure  this,  it  is  necessary  to  use  a  waterproof  sticker  of  cotton  fabric. 

For  rapid  workj  Cirkut  film  may  be  successfully  dried  by  means  of  a  saturated 
solution  of  potassium  carbonate,  and  it  is  considered  that  this  8uggi\«!tion  will  be  of 
value  to  men  working  at  conventions  and  the  like. 

The  instructions  previously  issued  for  the  tropical  development  of  N.  C.  ftlni 
apply  to  the  development  of  Cirkut  film  also. 

The  Use  of  Aluminum  Sulfate  for  Hardening  J.  I.  Crabtree         1542 

Paper  and  Film 

Report  No.  443 

Equivalent  amounts  of  potash  alum  and  aluminum  sulfate  exert  the  same  hard- 
ening action  on  gelatine,  two  parts  by  weight  of  aluminum  sulfate  being  equivalent 
to  3  parts  by  weight  of  potash  alum.  Commercially  pure  aluminum  sulfate  is  satis- 
factory if  this  does  not  contain  too  much  iron,  though  if  the  sample  is  at  all  acid 
the  solution  should  be  neutralized  by  adding  ammonia  until  a  faint  permanent  pre- 
cipitate is  obtained.  When  mixing  the  usual  liquid  hardener  formula  with  com- 
mercial aluminum  sulfate,  a  slight  milky  suHpension  is  formed,  but  this  is  harmless 
and  settles  out  on  standing. 

The  Relative  Hardening  Action  of  Potash  and  J.  I.  Crabtree         154S 

Ammonium  Alum. 

Report  No.  4U 

The  hardening  action  of  potash  and  ammonium  alum  on  gelatine  has  been 
measured  by  comparing  the  degree  of  swelling  and  the  change  in  melting  point  of 
gelatine  films  treated  with  solutions  of  the  two  salts.  No  difi*erence  was  observed 
between  ammonium  alum  and  potash  alum  in  their  hardening  action  when  substituted 
weight  for  weight  in  the  usual  hardening  formula.  In  practice,  if  any  diflerence  in 
hardening  action  occurs,  this  is  due  to  the  use  of  an  impure  ammonium  alum,  in 
which  case,  providing  the  impurities  are  harmless,  an  increased  amount  of  ammonium 
alum  should  be  used  to  such  an  extent  that  its  content  of  aluminum  sulfate  is  the 
same  as  that  in  the  potash  alum  called  for  by  the  particular  formula.  When  using 
ammonium  alum,  if  the  fixing  bath  becomes  alkaline  by  virtue  of  a  neutralization  of 
the  acid  by  the  developer  carried  over,  ammonia  will  be  liberated  resulting  in  the 
production  of  dichroic  fog  and  stain.  No  trouble  will  be  experienced  however,  if 
care  be  taken  to  keep  the  bath  acid.  .  ^  j 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


12  ^  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Patent  Abstracts 
U.  S.  Patents 

1245976  S.  Saton         B12 

Celluloid-like  Substance  and  Process  of  making  the  same  by  treating  vegetable 
proteids  with  organic  or  inorganic  acid  or  phenols  and  hardening  the  resulting 
product  with  formaldehyde  or  its  devivatives. 

1245983  S.  Saton        B12 

Process  for  Making  Celluloid-like  Substances  by  treating  vegetable  proteids  with 
hydroxymethane-sulphonic  acid. 

1245476  W.  G.  Lindsay        B122 

Non-inflammable  Cellulose  Comi>ound  and  Process  of  Making  the  Same.  The 
patentee  claims  priority  in  the  addition  of  triphenyl-phosphate  to  cellulose  acetate. 

1245152  A.  Boularan  dit  Deval        H2 

A  Process  for  Improving  Weak  Negatives.  A  positive  is  first  made  from  the 
imperfect  negative  and  then  is  intensified  by  a  mercuric  chloride-ammonia  process. 
It  is  then  coated  with  a  bichromated  gelatin  pigmented  with  China  ink.  This  is 
exposed  and  developed  as  in  the  carbon  process.  Finally  the  silver-mercury  image 
is  removed  in  Farmer's  reducer. 

1245822  J.  E.  Thornton,  Assigned  to        K/43 

J.  Owden  O'Brien 

A  Method  of  Making  Motion  Picture  Color  Films.  Alternate  color  selection 
negatives  are  made  upon  a  single  width  of  normal  negative  film.  These  negatives 
are  printed  upon  a  positive  film  coated  upon  both  sides,  so  that  the  pictures  cor- 
responding to  one  color  sensation  are  all  grouped  upon  one  side  of  the  positive  film 
and  all  pictures  corresponding  with  the  other  color  sensation  are  grouped  upon  the 
opposite  side.  During  printing,  the  negative  film  is  advanced  two  steps  for  each 
single  advance  of  the  positive  film.  The  positive  pictures  are  finally  appropriately 
colored. 

1245606  J.  T.  MacCurdy  and  H.  N.  Russell         016 

Apparatus  for  Producing  Photometric  Wedges.  In  order  to  expose  a  photo- 
graphic plate  so  that  when  developed  its  light  transmitting  power  may  vary  according 
to  a  logarithmic  law,  the  plate  is  placed  in  a  revolvable  plate  carrier  and  is  subjected 
to  the  influence  of  rays  of  light  from  a  constant  source  of  illumination  while  the  plate 
is  revolved  past  the  rays  at  a  rate  determined  by  the  shape  of  a  predetermined  curve. 
The  movement  is  secured  through  a  pulley  in  connection  with  a  cable  being  subjected 
to  a  constant  pull  by  means  of  a  weight  which  moves  with  definite  velocity  times  and 
not  according  to  the  law  of  gravitation.  The  plates  so  exposed  are  used  as  photo- 
metric wedges  for  the  measurement  of  densities. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  13 

1246420  J.  Altschuler  and  D.  Isnow        0649 

A  Film  Cutting  Indicator.  By  meanfi  of  this  device  the  inspector  or  film  director 
may  indicate  on  a  card  the  respective  catting  and  joining  operations,  so  that  ordinary 
workmen  may  later  carry  out  the  changes.  The  film  is  run  through  a  projector 
driven  in  synchronism  with  the  present  device.  In  the  latter,  cards  bearing  serial 
numbers  are  moved,  one  number  for  each  foot  of  film.  At  the  desired  time  the 
inspector  prints  a  symbol  adjacent  the  number  indicating  the  changes  in  the  fibn  at 
the  point  corresponding  to  such  number. 

1245424  G.  W.  Beadle        1212 

A  Motion  Picture  Positive  Film  in  which  the  edges  and  perforations  are  rein- 
forced by  metallic  stripe. 

1244525  Tsuneya  Marusawa        1411 

Ammonium  Bisulfite  Cooking  Process.  The  object  of  the  invention  is  to  shorten 
the  time  of  cooking,  to  obtain  good  quality  with  high  yield  and  to  lengthen  the  life 
of  the  digester.     (See  article  in  Paper  Nov.  14,  1917,  p.  18). 

1236662  K.  Birkeland         1511 

Concentration  of  Nitric  Acid.  From  the  dilute  acid  (SO^fc)  a  nitrate  of  a  metal 
is  made  and  subsequently  decomposed  by  superheated  steam,  condensing  and  further 
Creating  the  vapors  so  obtained. 

1241995       E.  Knoevenagel,  Assigned  to  Knoll  and  Co.,  Germany      1513 

Modifying  Acetyl  Celluloses.  A  rearrangement  caused  by  heating  in  a  dissolved, 
or  at  least  strongly  swelled  state,  acetyl  celluloses  which  are  insoluble  in  acetone,  with 
catalysts  possessing  a  weak  hydrolyzing  action,  such  as  sulfites,  bisulfites,  chlorides 
or  nitrates,  or  (in  the  absence  of  acid  anhydrides)  without  the  presence  of  water  or 
even  by  water  alone  without  a  catalyst. 

1245760       .  H.  P.  Moxon         214 

A  Film  System  for  inexpensive  cameras.  The  cut  film  sections  are  arranged 
upon  a  long  paper  backing,  the  whole  film  strip  being  arranged  in  a  coil  in  one 
corner  of  the  camera.  The  operator,  by  pulling  out  through  a  slot  in  the  camera  and 
tearing  off  successive  sections  of  the  backing  paper,  automatically  draws  the  successive 
pieces  of  film  into  the  exposure  position  and  then  into  a  storage  chamber.  The 
camera  is  sold  all  loaded  with  the  film,  so  that  the  latter  cannot  be  removed  without 
partially  destroying  the  camera. 

1246263  H.  Hafner        215 

A  Camera  in  which,  after  the  front  bed  drops,  the  lens  carriage  is  released  and  is 
moved  out  automatically  by  a  spring  motor.  When  the  carriage  releases  a  focusing 
stop,  the  shutter  is  automatically  tripped. 

1246531  W.  D.  Blair  and  W.  J.  Wright         2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  in  which  the  winding  mechanism  is  driven  by  a  spring 
motor  and  contipUed  by  a  stop,  which  successively  engages  detents  located  in  a  spiral 
groove.  The  film  winding  mechanism  is  connected  with  the  shutter  in  order  to  be 
automatically  released  after  each  exposure,  so  that  double  exposure  is  prevented. 


14  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1246328  A.  C.  Rutzen        219 

A  Camera  mounted  upon  a  dummy  gun  support.  The  connection  between  the 
trigger  and  the  camera  shutter  includes  a  rotary  shaft  located  in  the  imitation  gun 
barrel. 

1246680  W.  H.  Fribley        241 

A  Timing  Device  for  use  in  the  machine  described  in  patent  No.  1,246,579. 

1246579  W.  H.  Fribley        241 

An  Automatic  Photo  Printing  Machine  in  which  a  large  number  of  positives  are 
printed  successively  upon  a  web  of  developing-out  paper.  It  jcomprises  a  printing 
box  carrying  the  negative  and  printing  lamps  and  a  paper  carrier  movable  toward, 
from,  across  the  printing  box.  The  device  is  motor  driven,  so  as  to  intermittently 
feed  the  proper  amount  of  paper,  press  it  against  the  negative,  turn  on  the  printing 
lamps  and  terminate  the  exposure  at  a  predetermined  time.  The  device  may  be  set 
to  make  an  unlimited  number  of  prints  or  to  automatically  stop  after  a  predetermined 
number  have  been  formed. 

1246620  L.  F.  I^vy         242 

A  Pneumatic  Printing  Frame  which  is  so  constructed  that  it  becomes  self-locking 
with  the  reduction  of  pressure.  The  method  is  to  provide  at  the  edge  of  the  rubber 
mat  a  separate  specially  fonned  channel  which  is  exhausted,  and  tliis  prevents  air 
leaking  in  and  destroying  the  vacuum. 

1246848  D.  R.  Winslow        2541 

A  Roll  Film  Developing  Tank  in  which  the  film  is  drawn  from  the  spool  longi- 
tudinally of  the  tank  and  over  a  roller  to  form  a  double  loop,  the  traction  means  in- 
cluding a  cord  passing  over  a  winding  drum. 

1245330  C.  H.  Gilbert,  Assigned  i  to  J.  A.  Bechter        275 

An  Electro  Magnetically  Vibrated  Retouching  Pencil. 

1246198  W.  Wenderhold,  Assigned  to  Polychromatic         3101 

Film  Corporation 

An  intermittent  Feeding  Device  for  use  in  Motion  Picture  Apparatus.  It  comprises 
a  pair  of  claws  moved  through  a  definite  cycle  by  means  of  a  cam  arrangement. 

1244918  W.  M.  Thomas,  Assigned  to  Thomas-         310 

Oberkirch  Co.  Ltd. 

Reeling  Apparatus  for  Motion  Picture  Cameras.  The  supply  and  winding  reels 
are  carried  upon  a  special  frame  which  is  pivot  mounted,  so  that  as  the  film  passes 
from  one  reel  to  the  other  the  frame  automatically  shifts  to  economize  space  in  the 
camera. 

1245856  F.  H.  Avers         317 

A  Motion  Kcture  Camera  in  which  the  pictures  are  taken  in  inclined  trans- 
verse rows  on  a  plate,  there  being  employed  a  shutter  with  a  soriej'  of  spirally  arranged 

openings  passing  over  a  battery  of  lenses  arranged  in  lino.      pj  ,  j^  .  u  GoOqIc 

igi  ize      y  g 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  16 


1244919  W.M.  Thomas,  Assigned  to  Thomas-Oberkirch  Co.  Ltd.       8201 

An  Intennittent  Feeding  Mechanism  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors.  A  continu- 
ouflly  moving  feeding  reel  cooperates  with  an  electro  magnetic  film  clamp  which  is 
intermittenteiy  actuated.  A  loop  in  the  film  is  thus  alternately  formed  and  released 
between  the  reel  and  the  clamp,  the  resilencv  of  the  film  serving  to  elipiinate  the  loop 
and  feed  the  film  when  the  clamp  is  released. 

1 244920  W.M.  Thomas,  Assigned  to  Thomas-Oberkirch  Co .  Ltd .       3201 

•  A  Method  of  Intermittently  Feeding  Motion  Picture  Fihn,  consisting  in  clamping 
the  film  at  a  given  point  to  prevent  movement,  forming  a  loop  behind  the  clamped 
pK)rtion  and  then  unclamping  the  film  to  allow  the  resilient  loop  to  straighten  and 
thus  advance  the  film  a  unit  distance.    See  No.  1244919. 

1245497  N.  T.  Nilsson        3201 

.  A  Combined  Shutter  and  Film  Feed  for  Motion  Picture  Machines.  It  comprises 
a  shutter  carried  on  one  sliaft  and  a  film  beater  carried  upon  an  intergeared  shaft  at 
right  angles,  to  the  first.    The  film  beater  is  angularly  adjusted  on  its  shaft. 

1245970  R.  H.  Richardson        3208 

A  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors  provided  with  two  sectors,  one  of  which 
is  deep  gray,  while  the  other  is  lighter  gray  and  covered  with  a  fabric.  The  object  is 
to  eliminate  flicker. 

1245755  A.  Mehlfelder,  Assigned  to  J.  F.  Gilmore        3208 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  in  which  one  film  is  automatically  rewound,  while  the 
other  is  being  exhibited.  There  are  two  sets  of  reels  in  the  upper  and  lower  maga- 
zines and  at  the  end  of  each  cycle  of  operations  the  positions  of  the  magazines  are  re- 
versed, the  lower  magazine  being  moved  to  the  upper  position  and  the  upper  maga- 
zine being  moved  downward,  the  two  magazines  being  carried  on  a  pivotea  support. 
This  brings  the  rewound  film  to  exhibiting  position  and  the  exhibited  film  to  re- 
winding position. 

1245192  J.  Chesler,  Assigned  to  New  Jersey  Patent  Co.         3209 

A  Control  for  Motion  Picture  Machines  comprising  an  electro  magnetic  system 
which  stops  the  motor  when  the  film  breaks  or  runs  out.  A  roller  carried  by  a  pivoted 
lever  normally  presses  against  it  and  is  supported  by  the  film.  When  the  support  or 
the  film  is  Withdrawn,  the  lever  tilts,  closmg  an  electric  circuit  which  operates  the 
motor  control. 

1245844  W.  B.  Westcott,  Assigned  to  Technicolor  Motion         322 

Picture  Corporation 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  in  which  the  film  moves  continuously  while  the  picture 

is  held  stationary  on  the  screen  through  the  agency  of  a  compensating  device,  which 

includes  a  rotary  drum  carrying  a  series  of  ninety  degree  prisms.     The  chief  object  is 

to  speBd  up  the  machine  to  forty  or  fifty  exposures  a  second,  so  that  it  is  particularly 

*  adapted  for  three-color  projection. 

1246217  C.  Anderson        322 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  in  which  the  film  moves  uniformly  and  the  pictures 
are  held  stationary  on  the  screen  by  means  of  a  compensating  device,  which  includes 
an  oscillating  mirror  located  between  the  elements  of  the  projection  lens  and  actuated 
from  a  peripheral  cam.  Several  adjustments  are  provided  to  allow  for  changes  injthe 
positions  of  the  parts.  Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


16  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1245834  C.  H.  Verity        323 

A  System  for  Synchronizing  Motion  Picture  Projectors  and  Phonographs.  Mov- 
ing with  the  phonographs  are  tapes  bearine  a  series  of  numbers  and  the  operator  con- 
trols the  speed  of  the  phonograph  so  that  the  numbers  on  these  tapes  correspond  with 
similar  number  on  the  motion  picture  film. 

1245498  N.  T.  Nilsson        325 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  arranged  in  a  cabinet  for  home  use.  The  feeding 
mechanism  is  compactly  arranged. 


British  Patents 

109532  H.  A.  Millar        049 

Transparent  Pictures.  A  transparent  picture  is  placed  between  two  thinly 
silvered  mirrors.  Either  side  of  the  device  presents  the  appearance  of  an  ordinary 
mirror,  but  by  transmitted  light  the  picture  becomes  visible.  The  mirrors  may  be 
secured  by  an  adhesive  or  be  enclosed  in  a  frame.  The  apparatus  may  be  used  for 
advertising  purposes. 

109947  W.  W.  Colledge        2153 

Photographic  Cameras.  A  camera  is  provided  with  a  transverse  opening  for  the 
insertion  of  a  title  or  other  identification  strip  upon  which  the  title,  etc. ,  is  written 
80  that,  during  the  ordinary  exposure,  the  title,  etc. ,  is  photographed  upon  the  edge 
of  the  negative. 

109751       /  G.  Landis        219 

Small-arms  Combined  witli  Otlier  Articles.  Consists  in  adjustably  mounting  a 
Camera  upon  the  barrel  of  a  gun,  the  shutter  being  operated  from  the  trigger  by  a 
wire  or  bulb. 

109482  H.  G.  Ogden        241 

Photographic  Printing  Apparatus.  In  a  contact  printing  apparatus  of  the  tjrpe 
in  which  the  sensitized  surface  is  moved  relatively  to  the  negative  between  successii^ 
printing  so  as  to  obtain  a  number  of  similar  prints  on  the  surface,  the  sensitized 
surface  is  carried  by  a  frame  which  may  be  raised  about  hinges  and  also  perpendic- 
ularly to  the  negative,  and  means  are  provided  for  quickly  and  accurately  shifting 
the  sensitized  surface  to  the  various  printing  positions. 

109336  J.  E.  Bryant        2541 

Trays,  Dishes,  and  Containers  for  Roll-Films.  Relates  to  developing-tanks  of 
the  kind  comprising  a  tank  body  of  flattened  oval  section,  a  spool  or  roll  chamber  at 
its  upper  end,  a  cover  for  the  chamber,  a  spring  gripping-member  for  the  spool,  and 
means  for  projecting  the  film  into  the  tank.  The  tank  having  mounted  on  it  a 
swinging  spring  member  for  gripping  the  film-roll,  the  member  normally  lying  wi^in 
the  film-roll  receptacle,  provided  with  a  hinged  cover  having  an  outer  flat  wall 
overlapping  the  flat  wall  of  the  receptacle,  the  other  wall  of  which  is  curved. 

109860        Soc.  Anon,  des  Celluloses  Planchon,  and  V.  Planchon         2653 

Roll  Spools.  In  a  photographic  roll-film  spool  having  a  sensitive  film  and.  an 
opaque  paper  backing,  an  additional  transparent  film  is  applied  to  the  baclc  of 
the  opaque  paper  over  its  w^hole  length  to  protect  the  sensitive  emulsion  from  contact 
with  the  paper  backing.    The  additional  film  may  be  composed  of  collodion. 

109879  R.  Wardley        8202 

Cine  Apparatus.  A  shutter  for  a  cinematograph  projector  comprises  two 
apertured  disks  secured  at  a  distance  apart  on  a  common  shaft  with  the  apertures  of 
the  disks  in  register.  The  shutter  is  placed  with  one  disk  in  front  of  the  lens  and 
one  behind  it  so  that  the  light  beam  is  completely  cut  ofl*  by  rotating  it  through  half 
the  angle  necessary  with  a  shutter  comprising  one  such  disk  only. 


Monthly    - 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


February,  1918 


Issued  hy  tine  Research  Laboratory 

EAST2V1AN  KODAK  COMPANY 

Rjochester.  Nc-wYork 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BT'LLETIX  17 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 

Vol.  4.  No.  2 


February,   1918 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


hjjj\^ 


f 


Digitized  by 


Google 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  10 


Photography 


The  Laws  of  Fixation  G6 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  617 
Editorial  comment  on  the  paper  by  A.  W.  Warwick  in  American  Photography. 

The  slow  fixing  of  very  strong  hypo  solutions  is  ascribed  to  their  failure  to 
penetrate  into  the  film ;  strong  hypo  extracts  water  from  a  gelatine  film  so  that  very 
little  solution  can  be  absorbed  by  it.  The  most  rapid  fixing  is  obtained  with  40% 
solution. 

The  Reduction  of  Intensified  Images  HI 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  SI6 

Various  methods  are  suggested  for  the  reduction  of  negatives  w^hich  have  been 
over-intensified,  the  procedure  depending  upon  the  intensification  method. 

Royal  Photographic  Society  HI     H2 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  631 

At  the  Royal  Photographic  Society  Mr.  C.  H.  Botliamley  delivered  the  20th 
Traill-Taylor  lecture,  which  was  devoted  to  a  dipcussion  of  the  persulphate  reducer, 
the  chromium  intensifier,  and  of  certain  variations  in  uranium  toning.  He  found  the 
chief  cause  of  irregularity  in  the  persulphate  reducer  to  be  the  presence  of  salt  or 
other  chlorides.  He  recommended  the  use  of  a  dilute  solution  of  hydrochloric  acid 
in  making  up  the  chromium  intensifier  and  described  a  three  stage  process  of  uranium 
intensification  and  toning,  the  negative  or  print  being  first  bleached  with  a  solution 
which  converts  the  image  into  silver  chloride,  this  latter  being  converted  into  silver 
ferrocyanide  and  this  into  the  uranium  image. 

Printing  on  Old  Bromide  Paper  M.  Mayer        J2 

II  Corriere  Fotografico,  p.  3156 

The  utilization  of  old  and  deteriorated  bromide  paper  is  discussed.  It  is  suggested 
that  a  hydrochinon  developer  shoud  be  used,  restrained  with  bromide,  or  that  in 
extreme  caaes  a  very  small  quantity  of  potassium  cyanide  should  be  added  to  the 
developer,  the  amount  suggested  being  two  or  three  drops  of  a  10%  solution  of 
cyanide  with  five  or  six  drops  of  a  10%  solution  of  bromide  per  100  cc.  of  developer, 
an  extreme  amount  of  cyanide  being  represented  by  nine  or  ten  drops. 

Toning  Prints  with  Barium  Sulphide  J84     1563 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  633 
Messrs.  Rajar  Ltd.  recommend  the  use  of  barium  sulphide  in  the  place  of  sodimn 
sulphide.    They  find  it  to  keep  better,  not  to  soften  the  gelatine,  and  not  to  have  so 
unpleasant  an  odor.    The  solution  can  be  used  more  than  once. 

Prizma's  Latest  Color  Pictures  A.  S,  Cory        K/24 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  310 
The  camera  exposures  are  made  successively  through  alternating  red-orange  and 
blue-g:reen  filters  at  the  rate  of  thirty- two  pictures  per  second,  as  in  the  Kinemacolor 
system.  A  black  and  white  positive  is  then  made  on  ordinary  positive  stock  and 
each  red  sensation  image  dyed  red,  and  each  green  image  dyed  green.  In  this  way 
each  image  is  provided  with  its  own  projection  filter  of  proper  hue,  so  that  by  pro- 


20  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

jecting  in  an  ordinary  projection  machine  at  the  rate  of  thirty-two  or  more  pictures 
per  second,  the  Kinemacolor  effect  is  produced.  The  projection  filters  are  somewhat 
bluer  than  the  ideal  scheme  for  two-color  additive  production,  so  that  greens  cannot 
be  depicted,  while  the  absence  of  sufiicient  green  also  prevents  the-  formation  of 
yellow.  The  red  filter  is  strictly  complementary  to  the  bluish  blue-green  filter,  so 
that  pure  whites  are  obtained.  Although  the  combination  of  colors  chosen  has  its* 
limitations  as  regards  the  production  of  certain  hues,  the  author  is  of  the  opinion 
that  the  filters  chosen  are  on  the  whole  more  suitable  than  filters  more  nearly  theo- 
retically correct. 

Decennia  Practica  K/33 

,   B.  J.  Col.  Supp.,  1917,  p.  46 
The  Autochrome  Process:     E^osure,  Development,  etc.  » 

Fading  of  Autochromes  '  K/33 

Inland  Printer,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  494 
Exposure  of  Autochromes  to  powerful  flame  arcs  when  reproducing  them,  will 
cause  fading. 

New  Methods  of  Producing  Tricolor  Prints        W.  T.  Wilkinson         K/42 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  229 
The  author  prefers  three  different  plates  for  the  three  filters,  using  an  ordinary 
plate,  a  green  sensitive  plate  and  a  panchromatic  plate.  For  printing,  he  prepane 
carbon  tit^sue  pigmented  with  manganese  dioxide,  which  after  development  can  be 
removed  by  sulphurous  acid,  but  for  the  yellow  print  he  pigments  with  lamp  black, 
obtaining  a  light  gray  tissue,  which  gives  good  gradations  when  dyed  yellow.  In 
addition  to  the  superposition  of  the  dyed  prints  he  obtains  satisfactory  n suits  by 
transferring  the  yellow  print  to  paper  and  then  transferring  the  pmk  and  blue  dyes 
to  this  by  imbibition. 

Trimming  the  Print  C.  H.  Trayvor         N 

Kodakery,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  20 
An  article  which  demonstrates  by  illustrations  the  advantages  of  trimming  dowTi 
prints.     The  amount  of  necassary  trimming  may  be  reduced  by  remembering  this 
w^hen  making  the  exposure. 

The  Distribution  of  Light  Intensity  in  A.  S.  Cory        019 

Photographic  Images 
Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec,  1917,  pp.  4240,4417,4607  and  Jan.,  1918,  p.  147 

Optic  Projection  as  a  Problem  in  Illumination  J.  A.  Orange        019 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Jan.,  1918,  pp.  142,  306 
A  treatment  of  the  subject  of  projector  optics  from  the  ** surface  source"  stand- 
point, instead  of  from  the  conventional  **  point  source"  method  of  treatment. 

Reception-Room  Specimens  H.  E.  Corke        0312 

B'.  J.,  1917,  p.  594 
Mr.  Corke  discusses  albums  for  keeping  specimens  in  the  reception  room  and 
describes  his  own  method,  which  is  to  make  up  specimen  booklets  of  every  different 
style  of  portraits  made  at  the  studio,  one  booklet  for  each  style,  and  each  booklet 
containing  a  represenUtive  collection  of  work  in  each  style.  ^  t 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  21 

The  Photographer  and  His  Customer  0312 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  606 
Comments  by  Mr.  F.  M.  Satcliffe,  qaoted  from  the  *' Yorkshire  Post,''  on  the 
article  on  letter  writing  published  in  the  ''Professional  Photographer"  recently. 

Specialized  Commercial  Methods  032 

Photo  Miniature,  Oct.,  1917 
Giving  vahiaUe  information  about  the  methods,  formulas  and  systems  in  use  in 
commercial  studios  where  photographic  work  is  done  on  a  large  scale. 

Technical  Photography  and  its  Use  in  Industrial  J.  H.  Grafif        032 

and  Commercial  Organizations 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  Nov.,  1917,  p.  1052 
An  article  illustrating  how  photography  can  be  used  technically  for  better 
efficiency  and  to  good  advantage  in  science,  engineering,  industry  and  commerce. 
The  author  considers  that  no  concern  is  so  small  that  it  can  afford  to  get  along  with- 
out photography  in  one  form  or  another.  The  functions  of  a  photographic  depart- 
ment may  be  as  follows:  1.  To  make  copies  of  drawings,  books,  etc.  2.  To  prepare 
records  of  construction  and  experimental  apparatus.  3.  To  compile  correct  data  for 
court  and  accident  cases.  4.  To  prepare  advertising  illustrations.  5.  To  make  color 
photographs  for  litho  cuts,  etc. 

Bloom  on  Negatives,  Transparencies  and  Prints  041     G6 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  691 
The  whitish  deposit  which  sometimes  occurs  on  old  negatives,  etc. ,  appears  to  be 
due  to  silver  salts  left  in  the  film  after  fixing.  Attention  is  called  to  the  fact  that  a 
fixing  bath  as  generally  used  contains  a  considerable  amount  of  silver  and  will  there- 
fore not  entirely  remove  the  silver  salts  from  the  material.  A  complete  preventative 
of  bloom  appears  to  be  varnishing. 

Stains  on  Negatives  and  Prints  041 

Studio  Light,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  12 
An  article  prepared  by  the  Research  Laboratory. 

Standards  Adopted  by  the  Society  of  Motion  Picture  Engineers  06 

Mov.  Pict.  News,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  143 
A  review  of  a  booklet  published  under  the  above  title  by  the  Society  of  Motion 
Picture  Engineers. 

Formulae  for  Making  Motion  Pictures  to  Scale  0631 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Dec,  1917,  p.  1634 
Directions  for  calculating  in  advance  the  scale  of  magnification  of  pictures  on  the 
screen,  so  that  a  camera-man  may  predetermine  the  size  of  the  projected  image  before 
the  object  is  photographed. 

A  Pyro  Developer  for  Titles  0643-163 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  82 
A  formula,  identical  in  composition  with  the  Process  Pyro  formula  for  the  de- 
velopment of  Eastman  Process  film,  is  suggested  for  developing  positive  motion  picture 
film  for  tiUes.  ^.^ ,.^^^  ^^  GoOglc 


22  ABSTRACT     BULLETIN 


Typography  of  the  Movies  E.  G.  Gress        0649 

Amer.  Printer,  Dec.  5,  1917,  p.  25 
A  description  of  present  methods  of  production  of  titles,  with  suggestions  for 
improvement. 

Light  Intensities  for  Motion  Picture  Projection       J.T.  Caldwell    067-324 
Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  4412 
A  paper  read  at  the  New  York  meeting  of  the  Society  of  Motion  Picture  En- 
gineers, discussing  the  relative  values  of  matte  and  metallic  surface  screens,  and  the 
question  of  the  most  suitable  light  intensity  on  the  screen  under  different  conditions. 

*'  Rexo  ''  Motion  Picture  Film  1212 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Jan.',  1918,  p.  149 
Motion  picture  positive  and  neprative  film  is  now  being  manufactured  under  the 
trade  name  of  **Rexo"  by  Burke  and  James,  Inc.,  of  Chicago. 

Film  Shortage  Imminent  1212 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  238 
An  abstract  of  a  circular  letter  issued  by  the  company  to  film  producer?,  urging 
them,  in  view  of  the  shortage  of  raw  materials,  to  return  all  surplus  film  and  worn 
out  prints,  as  it  is  considered  that  it  will  be  possible  to  make  this  scrap  available  for 
new  film  base. 

Serteka  1532 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  620 
This  is  a  preparation  made  by  Mr.  G.  AV.  Becretan  as  a  preservative  for  Amidol. 
It  is  stated  by  the  editor  of  the  British  Journal  to  be  quite  effective  and  to  reduce 
the  inj^tability  of  the  Amidol  developer,  making  it  as  convenient  as  MQ. 

Acetic  Acid  and  Spirit  Substitute  in  Wet  W.  J.  Smith         163/63 

Plate  Developer 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  610 
Process  Engrav.,  Nov.  and  Dec,  1917,  p.  172 
Water  20  oz.,  gelatine  1  oz.,  dis.solve  and  add  while  stirring  sulphuric  acid  2  oz. 
To  make  developer  take  above  solution  4  oz.,  ferrous  sulphate  3  oz.,  water  60  oz. 

A  New  Kodak  Enlarging  Outfit  222 

Kodak  Trade  Cir.,  Dec,  1917,  p. -8. 
An  enlarging  outfit  for  the  amateur,  of  the  condenserh  ss  type,  utilizing  a  60  watt 
Mazda  lamp  fitted  with  a  paraboloid  reflector.    The  outlit,  which  includes  an  enlarg- 
ing ea.sel,  is  adapted  for  negatives  4x6  inches  or  smaller,  and  retails  for  $12. 

A  Combined  Dark-Room  Lamp  and  Negative  Comparator       I.H.  255 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  607 
A  dark  room  lamp  for  the  printing  room  is  fitte<l  with  specimen  negatives  with 
which  the  negative  to  be  printed  can  be  compared  so  as  to  determine  the  exposure  time. 

The  Kodapod  2614 

Kodak  Trade  Cir..  Dec,  1917,  p.  4 
A  pocket  support  for  the  kodak  which  may  be  attached  to  an  object  such  as  a 
tree  by  means  of  a  spring-ae.ting  jaw. 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  23 

The  Kodak  Self-Timer  2626 

Kodak  Trade  Cir.,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  2 
A  pneumatic  shatter  release  which  can  he  fitted  to  the  end  of  the  cable  release 
and  thus  enable  the  eitposure  to  be  made  at  any  fixed  interval,  up  to  3  mins.,  after 
setting  the  shatter.     In  this  way  it  is  possible  to  take  one's  own  photograph,  either 
individually  or  when  in  a  group. 

A  Cine  Camera  of  Eight  Hundred  Feet  Capacity  312 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  4611 
A  description  of  a  Bell  and  Howell  camera  fitted  with  800  ft.  magazines,  the 
B.  (&*L.  diaphragm,  and  the  Goerz  vignetting  outfit,  which  is  fitted  to  a  projecting 
arm  attached  to  the  tripod  head.     By  means  of  a  sliding  eccentric  attachment, 
''spotting  in ''  may  be  done  from  the  side  as  well  as  in  the  center  of  the  picture. 

The  Sheck  Adapter  3207 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  1500 
A  description  of  an  adapter  for  fitting  a  Mazda  lamp  to  a  motion  picture  projector. 

Mazda  C  Lamps  for  Motion      R.P.  Burrows  and  J.T.  Caldwell    3207-067 
Picture  Projection 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  4326 
An  article  from  the  Engineering  department  of  the  National  Lamp  Works  of  the 
General  Electric  Company. 

Suggestions  for  the  Operation  of  Mazda  C  L.C.  Porter        3207-067 

Motion  Picture  Lamps 
/  Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  4603 

The  Victor  Animatograph  Projector  326 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  1633 

A  projector  suitable  for  use  in  churches,  schools,  etc.,  unique  feature  being  its 
**  flexible'*  focus.  For  motion  picture  projection,  the  condenser  is  close  to  the  film, 
but  for  stereopticon  work  the  lamp-house  is  made  to  move  backward  several  inches 
and  the  condenser  used  for  motion  picture  projection  is  automatically  lined  with  and 
locked  to  a  frame  carrying  a  second  condenser,  which  remains  fixed  behind  the  slide 
carrier.  The  combination  thus  formed  is  correct  for  the  projection  of  standard 
stereopticon  slides. 

The  Duplex  Polishing  Machine  387 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Dec,  1917,  p.  4418 

A  description  of  a  machine  made  by  the  Duplex  Machine  Company,  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y. ,  for  polishing  newly  made  positives,  and  for  cleaning  old  or  used  prints  or 
negatives. 

Dr.  Mario  Mayer  of  the  staff"  of  II  Corriere  Fotografico  died  on  Oct.  26  as  a  result  of 
an  accident  while  working  on  poison  gas  in  his  chemical  laboratory.  He  was 
only  29  years  old  but  had  already  made  a  considerable  mark  for  himself  in  the 
photographic  world.  ^-^  t 

II  Corriere  Fotografico,  1917,  p.  31©il5itized  by  LjOOglC 


24  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Photo-Engraving 


Reproductions  from  Photographs  that  will  Not  Shrink  07001 

Inland  Printer,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  494 

Suggests  paper  be  fixed  to  grained  zinc  with  fish  glae  and  sensitized  with  ferro- 
prussiate  solution,  afterwards  making  blue  prints;  paint  over<the  part  required  to  be 
reproduced  with  India  ink ;  the  rest  of  the  print  will  not  photograph. 

Etching  Steel  07006 

Inland  Printer,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  494 

Suggests  that  steel  be  coated  with  electro  deposit  of  copper,  also  the  following 
mordant:  Mercury  bichloride  loz.,  Alum  1  oz.  dissolved  by  heat  in  16  oz.  of  water, 
then  add  %  oz.  alcohol.     (Ordinary  perchloride  of  iron  etches  steel  satisfactorily). 

Rotary  Photogravure  Process  F.  Nossel        0713 

Inland  Printer,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  473 
A  brief  general  description  of  the  process.        * 

Training  Disabled  Soldiers  for  Process  Engraving 

Process  Engrav.,  Nov.  and  Dec.,  1917,  p.  168 

Engraving  has  been  suggested  for  crippled  soldiers  in  England  and  a  scheme  has 
been  worked  out.  The  engravers  think  they  could  absorb  a  number  equal  to  about 
10%  to  15%*  of  those  at  present  employed. 


Physics 

The  Fourth  Colorless  Sensation  in  the  Three-Sensation     W.  de  W.  Abney 
Spectrum  Curves  when  Measured  on  the  Center  of  the  Retina 
Proc.  Roy.  Soc,  Nov.  5,  1917,  p.  1 

The  author  measures  roughly  the  spectral  visibility  of  radiation  for  a  range  of 
from  very  low  to  high  intensities.  Owing  to  the  fourth  colorless  sensation,  radiation 
can  be  seen,  but  no  color  distinguished,  by  the  fovea  at  low  intensities,  and  by  outer 
portions  of  the  retina  at  higher  intensities. 

A  Method  of  Monocular  Stereoscopy  J.*B.  Tauleigne  and  G.  Maze 

Particularly  Applicable  to  Radiography 

Compt.  Rend.,  Sept.  17,  1917,  p.  395 

The  source  of  x-rays  is  \ibrated  slowly  back  and  forth,  and  the  image  on  the 
screen  viewed  with  one  eye. 

Two  Cases  of  Congenital  Night-Blindness  W.  de  W.  Abney 

Proc.  Roy.  Soc,  Dec.  1,  1917,  p.  59 

These  cases  lacked  the  fourth  colorless  sensation ;  as  intensity  was  lowered,  sensi- 
bility to  light  and  color  was  lost  simultaneously.  Their  spectral  visibility  of  radiation 
at  ordinary  intensities  was  the  same  as  the  normal  eye.  ^.  -^^^^^  ^  GoOqIc 


,       ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  ,  25 

A  Differential  Spectro-Photometer  G.  A.  Shook 

Astrophys.  J.,  Dec.,  1917,  p.  305 

A  double  sHt  type  of  infltrument.  Movement  of  a  graduated  head  opens  one  slit 
and  closes  the  ofher,  by  which  means  the  relative  amount  of  light  entering  the  spec- 
troscope from  the  two  fields  is  governed.  The  instrument  can  ho  used  as  a  spectro- 
colorimeter,  a  pyrometer,  or  for  determination  of  reflection  coefiicients. 

Pyrometers  and  Pyrometry 

Electrician,  Nov.  16,  23  and  30,  1917,  pp.  226,  262,  301 

A  series  of  papers  on  the  productioi^  control  and  measurement  of  high 
temperatures. 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

The  Nebraska  Potash  Industry  -  E.  E.  Thum 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  Dec.  15,  1917,  p.  692 

A  description  of  the  methods  used  in  recovering  potash  from  the  potash  bearing 
lakes  in  Nebraska.     Analyses  of  the  water  are  given. 

Review  of  Gold  and  Silver  Metallurgy 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  Jan.  1,  1918,  p.  2 
^larket  changes  and  recent  processes  are  reviewed. 

Bibliography  on  Extraction  of  Potash  from  Complex  Mineral     E.C.  Buck 
Silicates  such  as  Feldspar,  etc. 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  Jan.  1,  1918,  p.  33 

Electro  Plating  Aluminum 

Brass  World,  1917,  p.  384 

The  United  Smelting  &  Aluminum  Company,  Inc.,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  announce 
that  they  have  patented  a  method  for  plating  aluminum.  Full  particulars  may  be 
obtained  from  the  company. 


Analytical  Chemistry 


Study  of  a  Test  for  Tartrates  L.J.  Curtman,  A.  Lewis  and  B.R.  Harris 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  p.  2623 

The  test  depends  upon  the  solubility  of  cupric  hydroxide  in  alkaline  solutions  of 
alkali  tartrates.  The  limitations  and  proper  conditions  for  the  test  have  been  care- 
fully worked  out.  Ammonium  compounds,  arsenite,  borate  and  phosphate  give  the 
test.  The  interfering  agents  are  given.  Under  favorable  conditions  the  te.^t  is  sensi- 
tive to  0.2  rog.  of  tartrate.  C^  r^r>.r^^r> 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ  IC 


26  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

The  Solubility  of  Silica  V.  Lenher  and  H.  B.  Merrill 

J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  p.  2630 

The  relation  of  the  solubility  of  silica  to  the  errors  of  rock  analysis  is  discusBed. 
New  quantitative  data  is  given  which  shows  that  the  solubility  of  gelatinous  silica  ia 
definite  and  is  the  sanie  for  all  gels  independent  of  the  method  of  preparation. 
Solubihty  of  ignited  silica  is  the  same  but  equilibrium  is  not  reached  even  in  several 
weeks. 

The  Detection  of  Sulphur  in  Paper  E.  Sutermeister 

Paper,*  Dec.  12,  1917,  p.  20 

A  method  based  on  the  reduction  of  the  sulphur  compounds  with  zinc  and  acid 
with  formation  of  hydrogen  suiphide.  The  presence  of  .001  mg.  of  sulphur  may  be 
detected. 


Organic  Chemistry 


Phthalic  Acid  Derivatives,  Parts  V-XI        D.S.  Pratt,  with  G.A.  Perkins, 

A.  B.  Coleman  and  A.  F.  Shnpp 
J.  Amer.  Chem.  Soc,  1918,  pp.  198,  214,  219,  236,  245,  249,  254 

A  series  of  papers  dealing  with  the  color  and  constitution  of  various  derivatives 
of  fluorescein,  mainly  halogenated  products.  Owing  to  war  conditions,  the  work  on 
the  absorption  spectra  of  these  compounds,  is  incomplete,  and  has  been  withheld. 

The  Temperature  of  Ignition  of  Gaseous  Mixtures  J.  W.  McDavid 

Trans.  Chem.  Soc,  1917,  p.  1003 

Mixtures  of  gases  contained  in  small  soap-bubbles  were  ignited  by  an  electricaUy 
heated  wire,  the  temperature  of  which  was  accurately  controlled.  The  following  ig- 
nition-temperatures of  air  with  different  gases  were  recorded :  Coal  gas  ( 16%),  878°C. , 
Ethylene  (10%),  1000°;  Hydrogen  (10%),  747°;  Carbon  Monoxide,  931°;  (Gasolene 
(fraction  0-80°),  995°;  Benzene,  1062°;  Ether,  1033°. 

A  Constant  Temperature  and  Humidity  E.P.  Veitch  and  E.  O.  Reed 

Room  for  the  Testing  of  Paper,  Textiles,  Etc. 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1918,  p.  38 

Indicates  the  variation  of  tests  on  paper  with  change  of  temperature  and  humidity 
and  suggests  design  for  testing  laboratory.  Gives  the  conclusions  of  the  Leather  and 
Paper  Laboratory  of  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Chemistry. 

A  Method  for  Determining  the  Absorbency  of  Paper  E.  0.  Reed 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1918,  p.  44 

Criticizes  present  testing  methods  and  suggests  a  standard  procedure  for  which 
several  advantages  are  claimed;  viz.,  that  it  indicates  much  more  definitely  the 
quality  of  a  blotting  paper. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  27 

From  Eastman  Koddk  Research  Laboratory 

Photographic  Resolving  Power  K.  Huse 

J.  Optical  Soc.  Amer.,  July,  1917,  p.  119 

Communication  No.  61  from  the  Research  Laboratory  of  the  E.  K.  Co. 

Photographic  resolving  power  is  defined  in  terms  of  the  distance  by  which  two 
minute  images  lying  adjacent  to  one  another  must  be  separated  in  order  that  when 
photographed  they  may  be  distinguishable  as  separate  images  and  not  merge  into  one 
in  consequence  of  the  grain  structure  of  the  emulsion.  The  object  of  this  investiga- 
tion was  to  determine  the  influence  of  the  specific  factors,  exposure,  development  and 
wave  length  of  light,  on  photographic  resolving  power. 

The  method  employed  consisted  of  photographing  a  fan-shaped  converging  grat- 
ing in  a  reducing  camera,  fitted  with  a  highly  corrected  telescopic  objective.  Tlie 
measurc^ments  of  the  minute  unages  thus  formed  were  made  on  a  micrometer  micro- 
scope. Since  the  spacing  of  the  grating  and  the  scale  of  reduction  are  known,  a 
numerical  expression  for  resolving  power  is  found.  The  sensitive  material  used  was 
Seed  Lantern  plate.  The  errors  involvefi  in  the  method,  due  to  the  use  of  a  lens  and 
the  personal  equation,  are  proved  negligible. 

Resolution  is  shown  to  be  extremely  st^nsitive  to  exposure,  there  being  a  critical 
value  where  best  resolution  is  manifested,  serious  over-  or  under-exposure  being  detri- 
mental; it  was  also  found  that  there  is  an  optimmn  time  of  development.  It  appears 
tliat  an  exposure  such  that  the  densities  lie  on  the  straight  line  portion  of  the  cnarac- 
teristic  plate  curve,  and  a  gamma  of  unity,  yield  highest  resolving  power. 

The  developer  used  greatly  influences  tlie  resolution.  Twenty  developers  were 
investigated.  The  results  obtained  showing  variation  in  resolution  values  varying 
from  47  to  77. 

With  regard  to  tlie  effect  of  the  wave  length  of  the  incident  light,  resolution  is 
best  for  light  of  short  wave  lengths,  the  resolution  decreasing  to  a  minimum  in  tiie 
green  and  incn»a8ing  again  in  the  red,  though  not  to  such  a  high  value  as  with  blue  light. 
In  these  experiments  three  types  of  photographic  emulsions,  ordinary,  orthochromatic 
and  panchromatic  were  used. 

Printing  Papers  for  X-Ray  Negatives  M.  B.  Hodgson  .      XI 3 

Report  No.  448 

The  selection  of  a  suitable  paper  for  printing  of  x-ray  negatives,  as  in  the  case 
of  ordinary  negatives,  depends  on  the  quality  of  the  particular  negative.  In  the  case 
of  negatives  made  by  x-rays,  however,  the  average  quality  is  perhaps  more  nearly 
uniform  than  in  the  case  of  white  light  photography.  The  majority  of  x-ray  ne^'a- 
tives  are  contrasty— showing  transparent  areas  and  great  densities;  but  others  are  fiat 
owing  to  under-exposure. 

Consequently,  two  classes  of  paper  may  be  recommended  for  use.  Either  a  long 
scaled  "soft''  paper  such  as  Iris  Artura  or  a  contrasty  one  in  extreme  cases— Contrast 
Veiox.  For  a  medium  class,  Azo  K  is  useful  as  having  a  fair  degree  of  contrast  but 
with  rather  good  scale.  The  following  grades  of  paper  are  tlien^fore  recommended  for 
printing  x-ray  negatives: 

1.  Artura  Iris,  grade  B,  for  very  contrasty  negatives. 

2.  Azo  K,  for  medium  contrasty  negatives. 

3.  Contrast  Velox  for  flat,  under-exposed  negatives. 
Development  should  be  carried  out  as  recommended  for  the  individual  paper. 

Spots  on  Film  Caused  by  Aluminum  Dust  J.  I.  Crabtree        041 

Report  No.  455 

Dark  spots  on  a  sample  of  motion  picture  film  submitted  showed  a  central  dark 
nucleus  surrounded  by  a  white  incrustation  (visible  on  the  surface  bv  reflected  light) 
which  in  turn  was  surrounded  by  a  ring  of  fog,  with  or  without  a  tail.  In  some  ca.^es 

the  taiil  w^as  very  pronounced  and  was  of  the  order  of  a  )^  inch  ^^^1^ (^A>M^^ 

igi  ize      y  ^ 


28  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

behavior  of  the  incrustation  towards  acids  thtf  presence  of  aluminum  was  suspected; 
and  it  was  found  possible  to  duplicate  the  spots  oy  allowing  freshly  scraped  aluminum 
filings  to  fall  onto  a  piece  of  moistened  film ;  after  allowing  this  to  stand  for  A  short 
time  the  film  was  developed,  fixed,  washed  and  dried  in  the  regular  way.  It  seemed 
most  probable  that  the  dust  panicles  had  access  to  the  film  in  uie  camera,  and  on  ex- 
amining a  number  of  motion  picture  cameras,  particles  of  aluminum  dust  were  found 
inside  them..  The  importance  of  keeping  the  camera  free  from  such  dust  is  therefore 
apparent. 

Tinting  Lantern  Slides  and  Motion  Picture  J.I.  Crabtree        0645 

Film  by  Means  of  Colloidal  Inorganic  Salts 

Report  No.  266 

Certain  inorganic  compounds  such  as  the  ferrocyanides  of  iron  and  uranium,  lead 
sulfide,  etc.,  when  precipitated  in  gelatine  in  the  col loidal  condition  are  highly  colored 
and  transparent,  and  advantage  can  be  taken  of  this  fact  for  the  tinting  of  lantern 
slides  and  motion  picture  film.  For  a  blue  tint,  the  fihn  is  first  immersed  in  a  1% 
solution  of  potassium  ferricyanide  and  finally  washed.  The  depth  of  tint  obtained 
varies  with  the  concentration  of  the  ferric  alum,  the  time  of  immersion,  the  time  of 
rinsing,  and  the  temperature  of  the  solutions,  but  is  practically  independent  of  the 
concentration  of  the  ferricyanide.  Uranium  ferrocyanide  (oranj;e)  and  lead  sulfide 
(brown)  tints  may  be  obtained  in  a  similar  manner.  By  precipitating  a  mixture  of 
iron  and  uranium  ferrocyanides  in  suitable  proportion,  tints  intermediate  between 
blue  and  dark  orange  may  be  ob^tained.  Any  tint  may  be  duplicated  within  narrow 
limits,  while  the  wearing  qualities  of  the  film  are  not  afiectea  by  the  process.  The 
tints  are  stable  to  light,  though  the  iron  and  uranium  ferrocyanides  are  soluble  in 
alkali. 

Test  of  Diffusing  Glass  L.  A.  Jones 

Report  No.  436 

A  plate  of  re-enforced  ribbed  glass  such  as  is  used  in  factory  windows  to  prevent 
glare  was  submitted  to  ascertain  which  position  of  the  glass  gave  the  best  dinbsion. 
Measurements  were  taken  with  the  glass  in  four  positions,  viz : 

1.  The  ribs  horizontal  with  the  smooth  side  nearest  the  light. 

2.  The  ribs  horizontal  with  the  rib  side  nearest  the  light. 
4.  The  ribs  vertical  with  the  smooth  side  nearest  the  light. 
4.  The  ribs  vertical  with  the  rib  side  nearest  the  light. 

It  was  found  that  much  the  best  position  was  No.  3. 


Patent  Abstracts 

U.  S^  Patents 

1247273  F.  W.  Hochstetter,  Assigned  to  H.  P.  Patents        K32 

and  Process  Co.,  Inc. 

A  Shutter  and  Color  Screen  Dence  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus.  It  comprises 
an  endless  linked  belt,  the  links  of  which  removably  carry  color  screens. 

1248587  H.  Workman        K/23 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  which  may  be  adapted  for  standard  film  or  for  color 
work  in  which  tlie  color  records  are  placed  one  above  the  other,  on  single  width  film 
or  placed  side  by  side  on  extra  width  film.  A  plurality  of  gates  and  special  sprockets 
are  proWded. 

1248139  A.  R.  Lawshe        K/42 

A  Method  of  Producing  Color  Photography.  From  the  color  selection  negatives 
a  red  positive  is  prepared  and  a  blue  pigment  positive,  the  blue  positive  being  dyed 
in  a  yellow  dye,  said  dye  being  finally  decolorized  in  the  parts  of  the  image  corre- 
sponding to  blue  in  the  object  photographed.  ^-^  '  j 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  29 

1248864  F.  E.  Ives        K/43 

A  Method  of  Producing  Color  Photographs  or  Films,  There  are  first  prepared 
red  and  green  selection  negatives,  which  are  reversed  with  respect  to  each  other. 
From  these  monochrome  positives  in  complementary  colors  are  prepared  on  film  and 
cemented  together  face  to  face  in  register.  If  desired,  one  of  the  film  bases  may  be 
dissolved  off. 

1247116  F.  E.  Ives        K/45 

A  Proce^  of  Color  Photography  particularly  adapted  for  the  reproduction  of 
Lumi^re  autochromes.  Two  species  are  given.  In  the  first  the  autochrome  is  merely 
develoj>ed,  but  not  reversed,  so  as  to  give  a  color  negative  and  from  this,  three-color 
selection  positives  are  prepared  and  superposed.  The  yellow  and  magenta  elements 
are  formed  by  the  colloid  rt^lief  process,  while  the  blue-green  element  is  formed  on  a 
red  sensitive  silver  bromide  paper,  which  is  subsequently  toned  by  a  ferric  process.  In 
the  second  species,  a  complete  autochrome  positive  is  successively  printed  upon  color 
sensitive  silver  bromide  films,  using  different  colored  lights,  and  the  images  treated 
with  bichromate  to  selectively  harden  the  gelatine.  The  silver  is  dissolved  and  the 
gelatine  selectivelir  dyed  in  a  well-known  way,  the  three  resulting  monochrome  images 
being  superposed  in  register. 

1250099  D.  A.  Davis        12-243 

A  Film  to  which  masks  are  attached  in  manufacture,  thereby  avoiding  the 
necessity  of  an  additional  mask  when  printing  later. 

1249172  0.  L.  MuUendore  and  0.  H.  Stevenson        2105 

An  attachment  foa*  Camera  Backs  adapted  to  receive  plate  holders  of  smaller  size 
than  the  ones  normally  used  in  the  camera.  It  is  designed  to  replace  nested  kits  and 
comprises  a  three-sided  open-ended  frame  fitting  within  the  camera  back  and  pro- 
vided with  guides  into  which  the  plate  holders  slide. 

1248607  B.  A.  Brigden  and  G.  C.  Kchres        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  spring  motor  mechanism  for  automatically 
winding  up  the  film  after  each  actuation  of  the  shutter,  thereby  avoiding  double  ex- 
posure and  spe'eding  up  the  operation  of  the  camera.  The  arrangement  is  such  that 
the  £lm  is  under  spring  tension  both  when  it  is  moving  and  when  it  is  stopped, 
thereby  tending  to  keep  it  flat. 

1249612  H.  J.  Gaisman,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2153 

A  Camera  adapted  for  the  light  printing  of  suitable  inscriptions  upon  the  plate  or 
film  contained  therein.  A  transTucid  strip  is  so  arranged  that  it  may  be  written  upon 
outside  of  the  camera  and  then  swung  into  the  camera  in  front  of  the  plate  or  film,  so 
that  when  the  latter  is  expose  d  the  inscription  will  be  properly  printed.  Special  light 
traps  prevent  the  fogging  of  the  sensitive  surface  during  the  movement  of  the  in- 
scnption-bearing  member  from  the  outside  to  the  inside  of  the  camera. 

1249291  E.  N.  Millan        2172 

A  Commercial  Copying  Camera  of  the  type  using  a  web  of  sensitive  paper.  The 
latter,  after  exposure,  is  moved  downward  into  a  developing  tank.  After  develop- 
ment, the  developing  tank  and  an  attached  fixing  tank  are  moved  horizontally  rela- 
tive to  the  paper  until  the  developed  sheet  of  paper  slides  into  the  fixing  bath,  where 
it  is  automatically  submerged  by  special  rods. 

1247402  R.  S.  Hopkins        222 

A  Support  for  Enlarging  Cameras  consisting  of  pivoted  arms  which  give  a  parallel 
motion  to  the  camera,  the  axis  of  which  is  arranged  vertically  with  the  easel  placed 
horizontally  beneath  it.  A  rack  and  pinion  and  a  cam  co-operate  with  one  of  the 
pivoted  arms  of  the  support,  so  as  to  keep  the  camera  always  in  focus  regardless 
of  tlie  scale  of  magnification.  Also  a  spring  counterbalances  the  weight-of  the  camera 
and  a  special  coolmg  means  is  provided  in  the  light  chamberBigitj^ed  by  VjOOQ 


30  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1247565  F.  W.  Norton        241 

A  Motor  Driven  Photographic  Printing  Machine  in  which  a  cam  arrangement 
periodically  actuates  the  presser  hack  and  a  commutator  turns  the  light  on  and  off. 

1249699  *  J.G.Warren        241 

A  Photographic  Printing  Tahle  which  may  be  used  either  in  daylight  or  electric 
light.  The  electric  lights  are  carried  by  a  detachable  panel  upon  the  insertion  of 
which  proper  electrical  connections  are  automatically  made. 

1247051  C.  W.  Wilson        243 

A  Mask  for  Making  Photographic  Prints.  It  forms  a  plurality  of  borders  which 
jenable  the  finisher,  by  trimming,  to  obtain  different  effects  and  cater  to  the  tastes  of 
different  customers.  The  light  resisting  portion  of  the  mask  is  pro\ided  with  con- 
centric sets  of  transparent  border  markings  and  with  transparent  guide- producing 
marks  at  the  corners  beyond  the  border  markings.  The  guide  markings  facilitate 
trimming  with  ordinary  shears. 

1248695  O.  M.  Morris        243 

An  Adjustable  Printing  Mask  comprising  a  right  angled  member,  the  arms  of 
which  carry  scales  and  stops.  The  other  two  sides,  completing  the  rectangle,  are  ad- 
justable along  the  arms  of  th^  right  angled  member,  the  scales  and  stops  facilitating 
the  adjustment  to  different  sized  rectangles.  The  inner  edges  of  the  mask  are  pro- 
vided with  visually  transparent  material,  which  is  opaque  to  the  actinic  rays. 

1246974  J.  L.  Marquis        247 

A  Blue  Print  Machine  in  which  the  customary  curved  glass  printing  element  is 
replaced  by  a  semi-cylindrical  curved  contact  member  composed  of  fine  wires  inclined 
to  the  direction  of  movement  of  the  material  through  the  machine.  It  is  alleged  to  be 
more  transparent  than  glass,  less  breakable  under  heat  and  less  liable  to  allow 
slippage,  caused  by  electrification  of  the  ordinary  glass. 

1247902  K.  W.  Thalhammer        2626 

An  Electromagnetic  Shutter  Controlling  Device  which  enables  the  shatter  to  be 
operated  from  a  distance  so  that  the  operator  may  include  himself  in  the  picture,  or 
may  take  pictures  of  wild  animals.  A  modification  for  motion  picture  cameras  is 
displayed. 

1249351  J.  H.  Dolby        2626 

An  Automatic  Camera  Shutter  adapted  to  be  attached  to  the  end  of  the  ordinary 
lens  barrel.  It  operates  after  a  definite  time  interval  to  enable  the  crimerist  to  include 
himself  in  the  picture.  A  quantity  of  sand  slowly  passing  through  a  small  aperture, 
on  the  hour-glass  principle,  gradually  shifts  the  center  of  gravity  until  a  weight 
causes  the  shutter  to  operate. 

1249602  L.  De  Florez        2653 

A  Roll  Film  designed  to  prevent  overlapping  of  exposed  areas,  due  to  over- 
winding. The  convolutions  of  the  paper  backing,  which  is  wider  than  the  film^  are 
stuck  together  at  intervals,  the  adhesive  being  just  sufficient  to  offer  an  appreciable 
resiitence  to  the  operator  when  winding  the  film,  thereby  indicating  that  the  proper 
amount  of  winding  had  been  accomplished. 

1247786  T.  H.  Blair        3201 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  in  which  loops  are  maintained  at  each  side  of  the 
intermittently  rotated  feeding  sprocket,  so  that  the  effect  of  the  starting  and  stopping 
of  the  film  will  not  be  transmitted  beyond  the  loops.  The  film  is  drawn  from  the 
supply  reel  and  fed  to  the  windup  reel  by  continuously  moving  sprockets.      OqIc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIX  31 


1247260  D.  B.  and  N.  Goldberg        3204 

A  Film  Reel  in  which  the  tongue,  under  which  the  inner  end  of  the  film  is  at- 
tached, is  arranged  below  the  surface  of  the  hub  to  avoid  injury  to  the  film,  it  being 
accessible  for  manipulation  through  the  hollow  hub  of  the  reel. 

1248456  P.  L.  Clark        3205 

An  Illumination  System  for  Projecting  Apparatus.  It  comprises  a  small  light 
source  and  a  set  of  juxtaposed  sectors  of  a  concentrating  mirror  located  behind  the 
source  and  producing  at  the  plane  of  the  picture  an  area  of  maximum  illumination 
corresponding  approxunately  in  shape  to  that  of  the  picture. 

1247646  R.  M.  Craig        321 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  Designed  to  Avoid  Flicker.  The  film  contains  two 
series  of  pictures,  the  projector  being  so  arranged  that  while  one  picture  of  one  series 
is  being  shown,  a  corresponding  picture  of  the  other  series  is  being  moved  into  position 
ready  for  projection.     Thus  the  screen  is  always  illuminated. 

1249230  R.  K.  Snow  and  A.  B.  Perdue        325 

A  Home  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  usin^  the  Opaque  or  Reflection  System.  The 
pictures  are  arranged  helically  on  a  rotary  cyhnder  and  are  successively  behind  the  ex- 
posure gate  by  means  of  a  rotary  and  longitudinal  movement  of  the  cylinder.  It  is 
contemplated  that  the  pictures,  ready  for  attachment  to  the  cylinder,  may  be  printed 
in  periodicals  or  sold  as  supplements  for  newspapers. 

1249335  H.  M.  Connor  and  D.  D.  Miles        325 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  designed  to  be  used  both  for  projecting  and  printing 
by  amateurs.  When  used  as  a  projector,  the  film  enters  the  projecting  camera 
through  a  light  trap  slot  in  the  top  and  moves  through  a  light  trap  slot  in  the  bottom, 
being  carried  on  external  reels.  During  printing,  the  negative  film  passes  thnjugh 
these  slots  and  through  the  camera,  while  a  positive  film  passes  from  one  roll  in  the 
camera  through  the  printing  gate  with  the  negative  film  to  a  takeup  roll  within  the 


1249376  J.  F.  Gilmore        388 

A  Rewinder  for  Motion  Picture  Apparatus.  It  comprises  a  pair  of  reels  plactd 
upon  shafts  arranged  at  angles  to  each  other  and  so  driven  that  one  will  rewind  an 
exhibited  film  during  the  exhibition  of  a  second  film. 

1247682  A.  S.  Howell,  Assigned  to  Bell  &  Howell  Co.         34 

A  Diaphragm  for  Motion  Picture  Prih ting  Apparatus.  It  comprises  two  oppositely 
movable  sliding  apertured  plates  which  are  actuated  by  racks  meshing  with  a  common 
pinion,  the  operating  handle  of  which  moves  over  a  scale.  The  amount  of  light  is 
controlled  by  the  extent  to  which  the  apertures  in  the  plate  overlap,  such  apertures 
bdng  rectangular. 


British  Patents 

110595  W.  H.  Doherty        K2116 

Camera  for  Producing  Color  Images  provided  with  reflectors  movable  relatively 
to  the  axis  of  the  lens.  r^r^r^r-^]r> 

Digitized  by  VjOOV?  IC 


32  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

110089  A.  H.-  Walker      '  K2119 

Color  Photography.  Color  separation  is  effected  in  apparatus  for  taking  cine* 
matographic  or  other  color  photographs  by  means  of  transparent  reflectors  having  a 
dichroic  quality;  such  reflectors  may  also  be  employed  in  apparatus  for  projecting 
color  photographs.  The  reflectors  may  be  made  by  applying  coal-tar  dyes  in  alcoholic 
solution  to  one  face  of  a  glass  plate  and  allowing  it  to  dry  slowly.  The  dye  used  may 
beeosine,  fuchsine,  or  sodium  dibromfluoresceinate  mixea  with  eosine.  Alternatively, 
the  reflectors  may  be  formed  by  depositing  a  thin  film  of  pure  gold  on  a  glass  plate 
or  on  one  surface  of  a  compound  prism,  ^parate  color  filters  may  be  used  in  con- 
junction with  the  transparent  reflectors  to  modify  the  color  qualities  of  the  lipfht 
reaching  the  sensitive  surfaces,  or  the  bases  of  the  reflectors  may  be  colored.  The 
reflectors  may  be  used  in  any  known  apparatus  for  color  photography,  etc. 

101972  W.  B.  Westcott        K31 

Color  Cinematography.  The  invention  appears  to  consist  in  the  use  of  a  set  of 
mirrors  for  forming  two  separate  images  with  one  lens.  The  device  of  a  transparent 
grid  or  grating  is  shown.  Reference  is  made  by  Comptroller  of  Patents  to  the  speci- 
fication of  Colin  N.  Bennett,  No.  10639,  1912,  (B.  J.,  May  30,  1913). 

110115  L.  McCormick        067 

Projecting  Cinematograph,  etc.  In  the  projection  of  a  number  of  cinematograph 
or  like  pictures  simultaneously  upon  a  screen,  theeflectof  overlapping  edges  is  avoided 
by  dividing  the  screen  into  sections  by  pictorial  devices,  such  as  trees,  the  center  one 
having  branches.  The  devices  may  be  painted  on,  secured  to,  or  projected  upon  the 
screen,  and  other  parts  of  the  surface  may  be  similarly  treated. 

110292  '  H.  Shorrocks        068 

Method  of  Giving  a  Stereoscopic  Effect  to  Cine  Pictures  by  moving  the  camera 
back  and  forth  sideways  along  curves  having  a  radius  of  the  distance  of  the  camera 
from  the  chief  object  in  the  picture.   (Cp.  B16999-16;  this  Bu/U/tfty  May,  1917,  p.  61. ) 

12759-1915  H.  Branwhite        2162 

A  Self-AVinding  Film  Camera  in  which  the  measuring  de^^ce  coneists  of  a  drum 
geared  to  the  pay-out  spool  which  measures  off  the  length  of  the  exposures  without 
reference  to  the  varying  aiameters  of  either  spool  or  alternately  in  which  the  measuring 
device  consists  of  a  friction  roller  over  which  the  film  passes. 

107890  H.  L.  Ide  and  R.  W.  Ide        2683 

Exposure  Meter  in  Film  Camera.  The  claim  is  for  a  roll  film  camera  having  an 
aperture  in  the  casing  for  access  of  light  to  a  sensitive  meter  paper  disposal  on  the 
end  of  a  film  spool,  or  in  other  ways.  The  outside  of  the  casing  carries  fixed  tints 
for  comparison  with  the  darkening  produced  by  light  on  the  sensitive  paper. 

110327  H.  Pederson         3201 

Step-wise  Feed  Device  for  cine  film  controlled  by  a  spring  band  connected  with 
the  exposure  slide. 

110460  T.  H.  Hodgkins        3203 

Shutter  for  Cine  Projection  consisting  of  a  disk,  one  blade  of  which  has  an  aperture 
cut  in  it  covered  with  wire  gauze,  the  intention  being  to  diminish  flicker. 

110489  F.  C.  Jessett  and  C.  W.  J.  Furmedge        3209 

Vacuum  Chamber  for  Preventing  the  Overheating  of  Cine  Films  During  Pro- 
jection. The  chamber  is  rotated  continuously  about  the  optical  axis,  being  arranged 
between  the  condenser  and  the  source  of  light.  ^  t 

Digitized  by  VjOOQI^ 


Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


March,  1918 


Issued  hy  tne  Rxsearch  Laboratory- 

EASTMAN  KODAK  OCMPANY 

Rochester,  Neve  York 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


:.^.L 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  33 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 

Vol.  4,  No.  3 


March,   1918 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


34  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Addition  to  Numerical  Classification 

035    **Cirkut*'  Photography. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  36 


Photography 


Where  Dry  Plates  C5ome  From  A.  T.  Strong        Bll 

Photo  Era,  1918,  p.  63 
A  popular  article  on  the  manufacture  of  glass, for  dry  plates. 

Science  and  Practice  in  the  Fixing  of  Prints  '  G6 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  14 
Editorial  note  on  the  paper  by  Mr.  Warwick,  jjublished  in  American  Photo- 
graphy. It  is  pointed  out  tha^  Mr.  Warwick's  conditions,  under  which  he  gives  his 
attention  to  the  fixing  of  a  single  sheet  of  paper,  are  far  from  the  practice  of  photo- 
graphers, and  that  the  time  given  by  Mr.  Warwick  for  fixing  must  therefore  not  be 
taken  as  a  basis  in  practical  work. 

Cirkut  Film  Developing  and  Quick  Drying  (3035 

Photographic  Rev.,  Jan.  1918,  No.  1 
An  article  embodying  the  information  contained  in  report  No.   441  from  the 
Research  Laboratory. 

Sulphide  Toning  J84 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  26 
An  editorial  note  points  out  that  it  is  probable  that  sulphide  toned  prints 
made  directly  and  indirectly  will  not  be  of  the  same  tone  unless  the  process  can  be 
carried  to  completion,  since  in  an  indirect  process  the  incompletely  sulphided  image 
consists  of  a  mixture  of  silver  sulphide  and  a  silver  halide  which  is  light  colored,  while 
in  the  direct  process  it  consists  of  a  mixture  of  silver  sulphide  and  black  silver. 

A  Dufay  Screen-Plate  Process  K/32 

B.  J.  Color  Sup.,  1918,  p.  4 
A  quotation  from  La  Nature  of  Nov.  10.  M.  Dufay,  who  is  associated  with 
MM.  Lumi^re,  has  made  a  new  screen  film.  The  method  is  to  pass  a  thin  celluloid 
film  between  two  rollers  with  parallel  grooves  of  square  section  cut  upon  their  surfaces, 
and  thus  the  celluloid  has  similar  grooves  formed  upon  it.  The  film  is  then  coated 
with  a  transparent  fatty  mixture  and  wiped  off  after  the  manner  of  wiping  an  etched 
plate  after  inking  and  before  taking  an  impression  from  it.  The  film  is  next  treaied 
with  an  alcoholic  solution  of  another  color,  and  this  penetrates  the  exposed  surface  of 
the  celluloid.  Thus  there  are  formed  altematine  colored  lines  in  perfect  juxtaposition, 
which  may  be  of  a  fineness  as  great  as  thirty  Tines  to  the  millimeter.  If  the  film  is 
thin  enough  to  permit  it  without  introducing  the  possibility  of  parallax,  the  other 
Bide  of  it  may  be  similarly  treated,  either  simultaneously,  or  afterwards,  so  that  two 
other  colors  may  be  introduced,  or  these  may  be  added  in  the  form  of  any  microscopic 
fieures  that  may  be  preferred.  Three  double  pairs  of  colors  are  given ;  ( 1 )  yellow  and 
blue,  red  and  green;  (2)  yellow  and  red,  blue  and  orange;  (3)  red  and  blue,  yellow 
and  violet. 

Decennia  Practica— Color  Photography  K/33 

B.  J.  Color  Sup.,  1918,  p.  3 
The  Autochrome  Process. — Defects  and  Remedies. 

Condensers  and  Projector  Systems  in  Optical  and  019 

Enlarging  Lanterns 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  639 
A  consideration  of  the  optics  of  the  condenser  from  the  point  of  view  of  light- 

Sathering  power.     The  author  considers  that  the  ordinary  double  plano-convex  con- 
enser  may  be  assumed  to  work  at  an  aperture  of  f/1.5. 

Chapters  on  Photographic  Optics  A.  S.  Cory        019 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Jan.  1918,  pp.  460,  612 

Feb.  1918,pp.752,^^^^^^G00gle 


36  ABSTRACT     BULLETIN 


The  Rf^Kulation  (4  the  liays  in  Cinematographic  019         3205 

Froj<*ction  SvsU'ms 

Mot.  Piet.  News,  Feb.  19:8,  p.  902 

Portraiture  in  a  French  Village  D.  Charles         03 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  641 
Intereftinie  acrrjiini  of  tlie  exijeriences  of  a  photographer  «  rving  in  the  British 
arrny,  who,  l)eing  stationed  in  a  f*niall  place  in  Northern  France,  assisted  a  local  photo- 
grapher in  his  jMirirait  trade. 

Novelty  and  E<onomv  in  Lantern  Slide  Making  E.  S.  Maples        045 

Amat.  Phot.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  38 
The  writer  piv<»p  detaile<l  instruction  for  making  lantern  slides,  tlie  sensitive  ma- 
terial for  which  is  the  Kastman  Transfcrotype  Pa[>er. 

Backed  Transparencies  049-03 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  22 
I^ettcrs   from   corre?5pondent«  descrihing  earlier  experiments  on  backed  Irans- 
parencicH  nimilar  to  Dorctypes. 

The  Doretype— A  DeLuxe  Stvle  of  Portrait  Photograph  049-08 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  4 
Reprint  of  the  article  on  the  subject  issued  by  the  company. 

The  Flashlight  in  Portraiture  0583 

Studio  Light,  Jan.  1918,  p.  8 
An  article  embodying  the  information  contained  in  Communication  No.  63  from 
the  Research  laboratory. 

Submarine  Cinematography  L.  Calisch        063-098 

Bioscope,  Jan.  3,  1918,  p.  18C. 
A  description  of  the  apparatus  employed  by  the  Williamson  Brothers  for  deep  sea 
photograpliy. 

Tinting  and  Toning  of  Eastman  Positive  Motion  Picture  Film  0645 

Mov.  Piet.  World,  Jan.  1918,  pp.  518,  and  Feb.  p.  674 
A  reprint  of  the  booklet  published  by  the  Company  on  the  subject. 

Standards  and  Control  in  Cinematograph  J.  T.  Caldwell        067 

Projection 

B.  J.,  1918,  p  29 
Paper  read  l>efore  the  Society  of  Motion  Picture  Engineers  discussing  the  measure- 
ment of  the  illumination  on  the  screen.    The  etfect  of  the  projection  system  and  tint- 
ing filters  on  the  intensity  in  the  arc  is  also  taken  up. 

Photographing  on  Wood  Blocks  for  Engravers  07315 

Phot.  J.  Amer.,  1918,  p.  96 
Gives  methoil  of  coating  the  surface  of  the  wooii  with  a  light  sensitive  film. 

The  Photographic  Work  of  the  Royal  Naval  Air  J.  H.  Gear        083 

Service 

Phot.  J.,  1917,  p.  248 
In  the  course  of  his  pre,«idential  address  to  the  Photographic  Society,  Mr.  Gear 
.  referred  to  the  work  of  the  Royal  Naval  Air  Service  in  photography.  He  states  that 
the' cameras  used  are  iMsnstructed  alma<*t  entirely  of  metal  and  are  worked  from  in8i<le 
the  fuseh^re.  The  eqttivalent  focal  length  of  the  lenses  varies  from  10"  to  40"  and  the 
plates  from  4"  x  5"  to  (>Si"x  S\'\  khom  v^q  doren  plates  are  used  generally  on  a 
reconnaissance  and  one  hundnxi  contact  prints  are  made  and  delivered  to  headquarters 
in  less  than  three  hours  from  the  n?ceipt  of  the  exposed  plate«.  ^  t 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  37 


Aerial  Photo  Surveying  084 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  657 
The  Geographical  Review  for  Nov.  1917  gives  an  account  of  the  types  of  map  in 
use  for  aeronautical  work  and  recommends  photography  as  a  method  of  mapping  a 
country.     . 

Photographic  Surveying  in  Canada  M.  P.  Bridgland        084 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  5 
Discussion  of  the  method  of  photographic  surveying  develope<i  by  Dr.  Deville  for 
the  Canadian  8ur\'ey.  The  apparatus  consists  of  a  simple  4^i"  x  6j^"  camera 
fitted  with  cross  levels,  and  a  light  transit  instrument.  The  plates  used  are  Cramer 
Isfxrhromatic,  Seed  L  Ortho,  and  Wratten  panchromatic,  the  latter  plates  being  used 
chiefly  with  G  filters. 

A  Cheap  Substitute  for  Safelights  and  Some  E.  A.  Salt        2555 

Notes  on  Darkroom  Lamps 

B.  J.,  1917,  p.  652 
Suggests  the  use  of  safelights  made  from  dyed  gelatine  sheets  such  as  those  made 
for  theater  work.  The  gelatme  sheets  are  bound  loosely  l)etween  cover  glasses,  the 
buckling  being  provided  for  by  allowing  half  an  inch  for  binding  at  the  edge.  For 
examining  negatives  the  author  prefers  a  small  lamp,  so  that  the  negative  will  cover 
the  lamp  and  a  large  margin  of  unscreened  safelight  is  not  visible  around  the  negative. 

'*The  Motion  Picture  Plus'^  31-067 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Jan.  1918,  p.  89 
By  pacing  the  film  horizontally  through  the  camera  and  projector,  and  utilizing 
two  standard  "frames'*,  a  picture  is  obtained  whose  width  is  equal  to  twice  the  height 
and  whose  height  is  equal  to  the  breadth  of  the  normal  motion  picture  imit.  In  order 
to  take  advantage  of  the  wider  film,  a  speeial  sized  screen  is  employed.  Although 
twice  the  usual  length  of  film  is  required,  it  is  claimed  that  the  extra  expense  involved 
is  more  than  oflset  by  the  fact  that  more  actors  and  larger  figures  are  ixrniissible 
especially  in  the  larger  spectacular  productions.  (It  is  obvious  that  the  only  advan- 
tage of  the  system  will  lie  in  the  lower  magnification  used,  with  a  corresponding  re- 
duction of  graininess,  an  advantage  which  certainly  will  not  compensate  for  the  in- 
crease in  cost. ) 

The  Duplex  Printer  341 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Feb.  1918,  p.  1050 
A  description  of  a  fihn  printer  manufactured  by  the  Duplex  Machine  Co.,  New 
York  City. 

The  Royal  Photographic  Society 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  15 
Editorial  comment  on  the  President's  address. 

CJo-operative  Plate  Making 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  23 
Among  the  advertisements  in  the  B.  J. ,  the  New  Era  Ltd.  oflfers  its  shares  to  the 
professidh,  this  being  a  co-operative  plate  works,   intended  to  make  plates  for  its 
shareholders. 

Mr.  F.  A.  Bridge,  well-known  in  photographic  circles  as  the  general  secretary  of 
the  British  Photographic  Convention,  died  on  December  29th,  1917. 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  8 

Mr.  G.  C.  Whitfield,  who  established  the  Paget  Prize  Plate  Company  in  1881, 
died  on  December  31st,  1917. 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  21 

Mr.  C.  H.  Hewitt,  the  well-known  instructor  in  photography  at  the  Regent  Street 
Polytechnic,  author  of  many  articles  on  photography,  ditS  on  Decemheo;  15th,  li)17. 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  31  Digitized  by  Google 


38  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Photo-Engraving 

Explosives  Law  07 

Inland  Printer,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  629 
Federal  Law  H.  R.  3932  makes  it  obligatory  on  all  vendors,  purchasers  and  users 
of  Ck)tton  f(»r  making  Collodion,  Silver  Nitrate,  Lead  Nitrate,  Nitric  Acid,  Potassium 
Bichromate,  and  Potassium  Permanganate,  to  have  a  Federal  Explosives  License.  It 
is  suggested  that  the  word  *  ^pyroxylin"  should  always  be  used  instead  of  *  *gun  cotton^ ' ; 
also  that  this  ordinance  may  bring  about  new  practices  in  photo-engraving,  e.  g. ,  the 
more  extended  use  of  gelatine  dry  plates  or  even  the  re- introduction  of  collodion  dry 
plates. 


Physics 

Tests  of  Small  Telescopes  E.  Deville 

Dept.  of  the  Interior,  Canada,  Topographical  Surveys  Branch, 

Bulletin  41 
The  resolving  power  of  small  telescopes  is  dealt  with  both  theoretically  and  ex- 
perimentally. The  resolving  power  of  the  eye  was  found  to  be  1/2470.  The  resolving 
power  of  a  telescope  is  limited  both  by  the  resolving  power  of  the  objective  and  by  the 
resolution  of  the  eye  for  a  pupil  aperture  equal  to  tlie  aperture  of  tlie  exit  pupil  of  the 
telescope,  it  being  the  lower  of  these  two  factors.  It  cannot  be  greater  than  the  product 
of  the  magnification  into  the  resolution  of  the  eye,  corresponding  to  the  size  of  the  exit 
pupil.  With  high  magnilications  the  resolution  is  always  less  than  the  magnification. 
A  telescope  of  low  magnilication,  therefore,  does  not  require  a  good  objective;  pro- 
vided the  resolution  of  the  objective  iaa  Hitle  greater  than  the  magnification  factor,  ob- 
jects should  be  seen  as  well  as  if  the  objective  were  of  better  quality ;  but  conversely  high 
magnification  does  not  improve  the  resolution  when  the  objective  is  poor.  The  photo- 
graphic resolving  power  of  a  t*^lc8cope  will  be  higher  than  the  visual  owing  to  the 
shorter  wave  length  of  the  light  used.  Experiments  suggested  tliat  the  protographic 
resolving  power  was  about  6%  more  than  the  visual.  The  paper  is  of  considerable 
value. 

Mazda  Lamps  for  ^Motion  Picture  Projectors  L.  C.  Porter 

Gen.  Elect.  Rev.,  1917,  p.  979 
A  description  of  the  construction  and  application  of  incandescent  bulbs  to  pro- 
jection machine  work.     Comparative  cost  data  is  given  of  Mazda  vs.  Arc  lamp  for 
motion  picture  work. 

Interferometers  for  the  Experimental  Study  F.  Twyman 

of  Optical  Svstems  from  the  Point  of  View  of  the  Wave  Theory 

Phil.  Mag.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  49 
The  author  describes  and  shows  the  various  use  of  two  interoferometer  arrange- 
ments which  are  referretl  to  as  the  prism  interferometer  and  lens  interferometer.  The 
application  of  the  testing  of  the  lens  systems  is  particularly  interesting. 

Light  Distribution  Around  the  Focus  of  a  Lens  L.  Silberstein 

at  Various  Apertures 

Phil.  Mag.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  30 
A  very  interesting  and  valuable  paper  giving  a  fully  worked  out  example  showing 
the  phase  retardation  of  all  the  elements  of  an  originally  plane  wave  produced  by  the 
passage  through  a  given  lens. 

Presidential  Address  to  the  Illuminating  Engineering  A.  P.  Trotter 

Society 

Electrician,^Dec.  28,  1917,  p.  502 
Especially  interesting  as  showing  the  variety  of  applications  of  light  with  which 
scientists  have  to  deal  to-day.      Mention  is  made  of  special  war  work  on  star  shells, 
flares,  parachute  lights,  lummous  paints,  and  street  darkening.  (^OOqIp 

igi  ize      y  g 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  S» 

Cyclic  Candle  Power  Change  with  Alternating  Current  D.  L.  Markle 

Electrician,  Dec.  21,  1917,  p.  466 
A  review  of  an  article  in  the  ** Electrical  World*'  describing  the  measurement  of 
the  candle  power  of  a  filament  at  different  times  during  a  cycle  of  alternating  current. 
Method  used  was  -an  adaptation  of  the  step-by-step  method  of  tracing  A.  C.  wave 
forms.     Little  special  apparatus  is  needed. 

1917  Report  of  the  Committee  on  Nomenclature  and  Standards 
of  the  nimninating  Engineering  Society 

Trans.  111.  Eng.  Soc.,  1917,  p.  438. 
A  great  many  new  units  are  defined  and  old  ones  revised. 

The  Planck  Radiation  Law  F.  R.  v.  Bichowsky 

Phys.  Rev.,  1918,  p.  58 
The  author  contends  that  quanta  are  not  necessary  for  the  proof  of  Planck's 
radiation  law.    It  is  only  necessary  to  assume  a  threshold  value. 

The  Ratio  of  the  Intensities  of  the  D  Lines  of  Sodium  V.  Voss 

Phys.  Rev.,  1918,  p.  21 
It  is  proved  by  three  independent  methods  that  the  maximum  ratio  of  brightness 
of  the  two  sodium  lines  is  2,  contrary  to  some  other  authorities.     For  weak  sources 
the  ratio  is  less. 

The  Geometry  of  Image  Formation  in  X-Ray  Analysis  H.  S.  Uhler 

Phys.  Rev.,  1918,  p.  1 
Greneral  theory  for  the  short  wave  length  of  x-rays  similar  to  the  ordinary  theory 
for  light  waves. 

The  Size  and  Shape  of  the  Electron  A.  H.  Compton 

J.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.,  Jan.  1918,  p.  1 
The  electron  is  not  a  point  charge  according  to  this  writer,  but  consists  of  a  ring 
of  electricity  subject  to  rotation  about  any  axis  and  of  radius  about  2.3  x  10  '  lo  cm. 

Ionization  by  X-Rays  in  a  Magnetic  Field  A.  Righi 

Ann.  de  Phys.,  Sept.-Oct.,  1917,  p.  159 
The  author  presents  new  data  on  this  subject  and  also  gives  results  for  various 
values  of  the  magnetic  field. 

On  a  New  Secondary  Radiation  of  Positive  Rays  M.  Wolfke 

Phil.  Mag.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  59 
The  author  is  apparently  the  first  to  observe  the  excitation  of  a  penetrating  radia- 
tion by  positive  rays.     He  also  brings  out  some  other  interesting  results. 

On  the  Nodal-Slide  Method  of  Focometry  J.  A.  Torakins 

Phil.  Mag.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  21    \ 
An  interesting  article  taken  up  with  a  discussion  and  investigation  of  the  general 
method  described  by  Prof.  Anderson  in  which  he  points  out  that  there  is  an  mfinite 
or  doubly  infinite  number  of  possible  axes  of  rotation  of  the  lens  system. 

On  the  Asymmetry  of  the  Illumination-Curves  in  Oblique  S.K.  Mitra 

Diffraction  Phil.  Mag.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  112 

The  author  observed  and  photographed  the  unsymmetrical  intereference  fringes 
of  the  light  diffracted  by  two  parallel  reflecting  surfaces  in  the  same  plane.  He  found 
that  the  illumination  curve  in  the  diffraction  pattern  due  to  an  obliquely  held  reflect- 
ing surface  is  markedly  symmetrical. 

On  the  Diffraction  of  Light  by  Cylinders  of  Large  Radius  N.  Basu 

Phil.  Mag.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  79 
The  object  of  these  investigations  was  to  find  the  true  explanation  of  the  diffrac- 
tion of  light  bjr  cylindrical  edges  and  to  develop  a  mathematical  theory  which  would 
8tand  a  quantitative  test,  in  experiment.  ^.^.^.^^^  ^^  GoOglc  " 


40  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Colloid  Chemistry 


Mechanism  of  the  PnKjipitation  H.  R.  Kruyt  and  J.  van  der  Spek 

Process 

Chem.  Weekblad,  1917,  14.  p.  95 
Theoretical. 

The  Fallacy  of  Determining  H.  W.  Thomas  and  I.  D.  Garard 

Electrical  Charge  of  Colloids  by  Capillarity 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc,  1918,  p.  101 

The  Precipitation  of  Colloidal  Gold  E.  B.  Spear  and  K.  D.  Kahn 

and  Platinum  on  Metallic  Surfaces 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.,  1918,  p.  181 

The  Molecular  Mechanism  of  R.  C.  Tolman  and  A.  E.  Heam 

Colloidal  Behavior 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc,  1918,  p.  264 
A  study  of  the  ewollinp  of  fibrin  in  acids,  in  relation  to  the  adsorption  of  the 
acidrt.  In  the  exi>erinK'ntal  matter,  the  work  follows  lines  already  laid  down  by 
Procter  working;  with  gelatine  and  hides.  The  interpretation  involves  the  idea  of  pores 
in  the  colloid  and  formation  of  electrostatic  douMe  layers  on  these.  It  lacks  both  the 
penerality  and  the  quantitative  verification  afforded  by  I*rocter*8  application  of  the 
Donnan  nieinbrane  potential. 

On  the  Swelling  of  Gelatine  in  M.  D.  Fischer  and  M.  O.  Hooker 

Poly  basic  Acids  and  Their  Salts 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc.,  1918,  p.  272 
Irrespective  of  the  manner  in  which  mixtures  of  the  polybasic  acid  and  salts  are 
prepared,  the  curve  of  amount  of  water  absorbed  plotted  against  composition  gives  a 
U  or  V  sliainKl  curxe;  from  a  mininumi  point  thi  re  is  a  progressive  increase  to  right 
or  left  as  either  acid  or  alkali  is  increased.  (The  behavior  is  similar  to  that  found  for 
wheat  gluten  by  Hardy  and  Wood. ) 

On  the  Swelling  of  Fibrin  in  Polyhasic       M.  H.  Fischer  and  H.  Benginger 
Acids  and  Their  Salts 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc,  1918,  p.  292 
Of.  preceding  Abstract. 

On  the  Liquefaction  or  "Solution*'        M.  H.  Fischer  and  W.  D.  Coffman 
of  Gelatin  in  Polybasic  Acids  and  Their  Salts 

J.  Am.  Chem.  Soc,  1918,  p.  303 
It  is  maintained  that  hydration  (and  swelling)  of  gelatin  differs  fundamentally 
from  * 'solution",  which  is  to  be  regarded  simply  as  an  mcrease  of  dispersity. 

Vapor  Pressure  Isotherms  of  Substances  with  W.  Bachmann 

Gel  Structure 

J.  Chem.  Soc.  Abs.,  1917,  ii,  p.  562 
Experiments  with  hardened  gelatine  gels,  working  from  the  Zsigmondy  calcula- 
tion of  the  dimensions  of  capillary  struciurt^  in  relation  to  v.  p.  isotherms,  show  the 
canals  are  from  thirty  to  a  hundred  times  smaller  than  supposed  by  Butachli's  honey 
comb  theory.  Hysteresis  diagrams  similar  to  those  obtained  by  Van  Bcmmelen  for  col- 
loitl  hydroxides  were  obtained. 

The  Absorption  of  Light  by  Molecular  and  Colloidal  N.  Pihlblad 

Solutions  of  Sulfur 

J.  Chem.  Soc  Abs.,  1917,  ii,  p.  557 
The  absorption  of  a  molecular  solution  of  sulfur  in  ethyl  alcohol  corresponds  to 
that  of  a  Hunting  colloidal  solution.      Absorption  of  the  colloidal  solution  is  said  to 
obey  Beer's  law.  i 

Digitized  by  ^ 


/Google 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  41 


Organic  Chemistry 

Action  of  Heat  on  Celluloid  and  Analo-  H.N.  Stokes  and  H.C.P.  Weber 

gous  Materials    -      Caoutchouc,  1917,  p.  9388 

Celluloid  loses  weight  rapidly  at  100°  C,  and  in  some  teste  deflagrates  or  explodes 
after  less  than  two  hours  at  135°  C  It  requires  more  rareful  handling  than  safety 
matches  or  black  powder. 

Air  Plane  Dopes  G.  J.  Ea<eleu         1513 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1918,  p.  135 
Nitrate  dupes  are  discussed,  but  ruled  out  on  account  of  the  inflanimabilityof  the 
varnished  textile.  Fabrics  coaled  with  acetate  d<)[x^  will  not  take  tire  when  ga>olixie 
is  burnt  upon  their  surface.  Stret*  is  teid  ujKm  the  adhesive  proiK^riies  of  the  varnish, 
but  it  is  pointini  out  that  adljesion  is  greatly  influenced  by  tlie  sizing  of  the  cloth; 
unless  the  size  is  soluble  in  the  doj)e  solvents  there  will  Ix*  litile  penetration  and  the 
varnish  will  not  adhere.  It  is  thus  preferable  not  to  size  the  fabric  Ix'fore  vaminhing. 
Furthermore,  the  more  colloidal  the  nature  of  the  dope  solution,  the  Uss  will  be  the 
I)enetration.  Fabrics  varnished  with  acetate  dopes  deteriorate  much  less  rapidly  when 
exposiHi  to  the  weather  than  when  nitrate  varnishc»s  are  employed;  thus  with  a 
varnished  cotton  fabric  three  wtvks'  exposure  reduced  the  tensile  strength  by  ftl.6 
I>er  cent  in  the  case  of  nitrate  dope  and  by  only  12. Ji  {>er  cent  in  the  ca^e  of  acetate 
dope.  With  n.^gard  to  solvents  for  cellulos<?  acetate,  undoubtetlly  the  Ix  st  is  titra- 
chloroethane;  on  account  of  its  poisonous  nature  great  care  must  be  taken  to  i>rovide 
good  ventilation  in  the  varnishing  room.  It  is  reported  that  its  use  has  IxKm  i)ro- 
hibited  in  England,  although  many  experts  elaim  that  it  is  an  essential  constituent  of 
varnishes  for  scout  machines.  An  account  is  given  of  a  machine  ^^ith  wings  of  trans- 
parent acetate  skin  one  hundredth  of  an  inch  in  thickness;  this  was  said  to  hi^  almost 
invisible  at  a  few  thousand  feet.  While  this  skin  is  strong  enough,  a  tear  once  started 
spreads  rapidly;  it  is  suggested  to  incorporate  in  it  a  loosely  woven  fabric  of  silk. 
Such  a  wing  should  have  almost  ideal  proi)erties. 

Factors  Causing  Variations  in  the  Yield  of  Camphor        S.C.  Hood     1517 
Caoutchouc,  1918,  p.  9395 
First  installment  of  a  series  of  articles  based  up(»n  observations  on  cami)hor  trees 
grown  in  Flr.rida  from   1907  to  1912.     Methods  of  sampling  and  analysis  are  here 
discussed. 

Intensive  Toluol  Production  1.  F.  E.  Lichrenthaoler 

Proposed  Improvements  in  the  Absorbing  and  Stripping  Process 
Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  1918,  p.  144 
A  description  of  the  Lummers  system  with  an  introductory  part  on  war  retjtiire- 
ments  and  development  of  resources. 

Effect  of  Hard  Water  on  Tannin  E.  Schell 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1917,  p.  1243 
When  a  water  containing  40  mg.  of  calcium  carbonate  per  liter  is  employed  to 
extract  tannin,  a  yield  2  to  2.6%  lower  is  obtaine<.i  than  when  distilled  water  is  used. 

British  Dyes  Limited  J.  Fah^oner 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1918,  p.  145 
Chairman's  address  to  a  general  meeting  of  shareholders,  outlining  the  achieve- 
ments and  aims  of  the  corporation,  the  attitude  towards  research  work,  and  the  difli- 
culties  experienced  in  obtaining  cooperation  with  the  governnient  and  Arms  engaged 
in  parallel  enterprises. 

General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Some  General  Aspects  and  Evaporation  and  Drying  H.  K.   Moore 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.  1918,  p.  128 
The  subject  is  classified  under  six  headings:     1.  Direct  evaporation  or  sinsrle 
effect.     2.  Multiple  effect  evapyoration.     3.  Air  or  gas  drying.     4.  Radiant  heat  dry- 
ing.   5.  Chemical  drying.    G.  Mechanical  drying.    The  various  method^  are  discussed 
and  charts  given.  Digitized  by  CjOOglC 


42  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

From  Eastman  Kodak  Research  Laboratory 

The  Sensitometry  of  Roentgenographic  Materials         M.B.  Hodgson    X015 
.     B.  J.,  1917,  p.  654 
Amer.  J.  Roent.,  1917,  p.  610 
^  Communication  No.  63 

An  adaptation  of  the  H.  &  D.  method  to  the  testing  of  x-ray  materials.  The  ex- 
posure is  made  accurate  by  the  means  of  a  mechanically  controlled  moving  plate 
sensitometer,  the  x-ray  source  being  a  Coolidge  tube  operated  by  a  transformer  ma- 
chine. Typical  curves,  representing  the  effects  of  development,  exposure  and  tube 
conditions  are  given.  The  method  is  suggested  as  being  convenient  for  the  testing  of 
intensifying  screen  efficiency. 

The  Relative  Merits  of  Seed  23,  Seed  27  and  Seed  F.  E.  Ross        096 

30  for  Astronomical  Purposes 

Report  No.  460 

The  tests  cover  speed,  size  of  grain,  and  resolving  power.  The  relative  speeds 
were  determined  by  the  amount  of  exposure  necessary  to  render  artificial  spectrana 
lines  to  threshold  density.  Speeds  determined  in  this  way  were  found  to  agree  very 
well  with  the  H.  and  D.  8i)eed  nurnbers.  The  average  maxunum  diameter  of  grain  was 
determined  by  measuring  the  largest  grain  visible  in  the  tield  of  the  microscope, 
repeating  for  ten  different  fields,  and  taking  the  means.  The  results  were  as  follows : 
Average  maximum  diameter  of  developed  grain,  Seed  23,  2.0p,  Seed  27,  2.8p,  Seed 
30,  4.0|i.  Relative  resolving  power  was  judged  by  two  tests  (a)  ability  to  resolve cloee 
parallel  lines,  (b)  the  ordinary  fan  test.  These  tests  were  made  only  on  the  Seed  27 
and  Seed  30  emulsions.  Results  from  (a)  and  (b)  were  not  in  agreement.  The  fan 
test  showed  practically  equal  resolving  power  for  Sei'd  27  and  30,  whereas  the  parallel 
line  tej^t  showed  decidedly  better  resolution  for  Seed  30  emulsion. 

Note— Since  this  report  was  made  the  Seed  27  plate  has  been  taken  off  the  market.  Its  place  beins 
taken  by  the  Seed  '26X  plate. 


Patent  Abstracts 
U,  S.  Patents 

1250713    J.E.  Thornton,  Assigned  to  J.  Owden  O^Brien         K1212     K/44 

A  Film  for  Two-Color  Motion  Picture  Work.  It  comprises  a  transparent  base 
and  a  layer  of  exposed  emulsion  on  each  side  thereof,  the  pictures  corresponding  to 
one  color  sensation  being  located  on  one  side  and  the  pictures  corresponding  to  the 
other  or  complementary  sensation  being  located  in  registry  on  the  opposite  side. 

1253136  P.  D.  Brewster        K31     K/43 

A  Process  of  Color  Photography  in  which  two  superposed  sensitive  films  are 
supported  in  the  same  film  gate,  where  one  of  them  receives  an  image  corresponding 
to  one  color  sensation  and  the  other  receives  an  image  correspondmg  to  the  com- 
plementary color  sensation.  The  apparatus  which  forms  the  images  reflects  the  light 
an  odd  number  of  times  to  one  of  the  films  and  an  even  number  of  times  to  the  other. 
The  films  are  colored  after  printing  in  the  regular  way. 

1250186  H.  W.  Joy        K32    K/24 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  adapted  to  feed  ordinary  film  at  the  standard  speed 
and  to  display  color  film  at  a  higher  velocity.     This  is  effected  by  interchanging  the 

E roper  shutters,  threading  the  film  over  the  cover  feeding  sprocket  instead  of  over  the 
lack  and  white  feeding  sprocket  and  shifting  the  gearing  connecting  the  sprockets 

with  the  source  of  power.  C^ r>^r^ri]r> 

^  Digitized  by  V^OOQ  Lc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  43 

1253137  P.  D.  Brewster        K/43 

A  Procesa  of  Color  Photography  using  film  coated  on  opposite  sides.  From  a 
colored  negative,  images  of  substantially  complementary  color  sensation  are  printed 
in  registry  on  the  sensitive  layers  of  the  positive  film,  whereupon  they  are  colored  in 
the  r^ular  way. 

1250412  .  L.  M.  Anderson        0631 

A  Method  of  Producing  Motion  Pictures  of  the  sketch  or  cartoon  type.  A  screen 
comprising  glass  coated  with  a  mixture  of  flour  and  water  is  interposed  between  tlu^ 
artist  and  the  motion  picture  camera.  When  the  artist  draws  on  this  screen  with  oil 
or  wat*r  colors,  the  drawings  become  visible  as  dark  hues  on  a  white  background. 

1250582  H.  Hartman,  Assigned  to  Submarine        0631     31 

Exploration  Co.,  Inc. 

An  Apparatus  for  Taking  Submarine  Motion  Pictures.  It  includes  a  light  pro- 
jecting apparatus  and  a  motion  picture  camera,  the  axis  of  which  is  inclined  to  the 
direction  of  the  beam  of  light  from  the  projector.  The  camera  is  driven  by  an  electric 
motor  controlled  through  a  cable.  A  gyroscoj>e  stabilizer  is  located  beneath  the  light 
projector  and  the  latter  is  angularly  adjustable  with  n^sfn^t  to  the  gyroscope. 

1252800  A.  J.  Hain        07004 

A  process  for  producing  half-tone  printing  plates  without  use  of  a  sen  en  by  coal- 
ing metal  first  with  acid  resbt  and  then  \iith  sensitive  emulsion  applied  in  dots  for 
example  through  a  stencil.  It  is  suggested  that  the  varying  size  of  dots  required  to 
give  true  reproduction  may  be  obtained  by  intensification.  (The  process  would 
apparently  be  inferior  from  theoretical  considerations  and  impracticable  from  point 
of  view  of  manufacturer. ) 

1250421  C.  Blecher        0713 

In  photogravure  printing  in  which  illustrations  and  text  are  etched  together,  the 
whil(*  ground  of  the  text  is  apt  to  be  dirty.  In  order  to  keep  it  <^uite  cUum,  the 
patentee  sugg(  sts  the  dyeing  of  the  illustrations  portion  of  the  positive  so  that  the 
carbon  negative  relief  will  not  be  so  high  as  in  the  white  parts  not  dyed,  i.  e.  as  the 
ground  of  text,  and  therefore  will  not  etch  and  conseijuently  print  clean. 

1251237  N.  E.  Katz        1515 

Process  of  Making  Viscose.  Together  with  the  carbon  bisulfide  is  added  a 
plasticizing  ingre<lient  such  as  a  fat,  wax,  gum,  oil  or  carbohydrate. 

1251690  M.  E.  Peteraon         2106 

A  Folding  Hood  adapted  to  fit  over  the  groun<l  gla^^^s  of  a  Plate  Camera  in  lieu 
of  a  focusing  cloth. 

1250792  R.  S.  Burdette        215     2653 

Attachuients  for  Roll  Film  Cameras  which  enable  the  latter  to  be  used  with  smaller 
film  than  they  were  designed  to  take.  The  smaller  sized  spools  are  received  in  holders 
which  fit  in  the  regular  film  chambers,  while  a  suitable  small  sized  mask  guides  the 
film  in  the  focal  plane. 


1249941  M.  Feild        2152 

-A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  spring  motor  for  winding  up  the  successive 
film  sections.  The  motor  is  so  connected  with  the  shutter  release  that  a  fresh  section 
of  film  is  wound  into  place  immediately  before  the  shutter  is  relea^^d.  C^QQQJp 


44  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1251654  F.  Greene        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  connc  ction  bet;\'een  the  shutter  and  winding 
mechanism  which  is  designed  to  prevent  double  expo.^ure.  A  stctor  carrieii  by  the 
folding  bed  of  the  camera  normally  meshes  with  a  pinion  on  tl)e  film  winding 
mechanism,  fo  that  the  closing  of  the  caniera  will  wind  a  fresh  section  of  film  into 
position.  The  sector  is  shiftable  on  the  camera  bed  and  will  only  mesh  with  the 
pinion  of  the  film  winding  mechanism  after  the  shutter  has  been  actuated. 

1250973  W.  L.  Cook        2152 

A  Device  to  minimize  double  exposure  in  roll  film  cameras.  When  the  shutter 
is  operated,  a  slide  is  moved  to  obscure  the  window  on  the  camera  back  through  which 
the  numbers  on  the  film  are  observed.  The  operator  cannot  properly  wind  up  the 
film  until  the  slide  is  snapped  back  and  consequently  the  arxangement  serves  as  a 
reminder  to  indicate  whether  a  fresh  section  of  film  is  in  place  or  not. 

1253075  H.*G.  Mordaunt,  Assigned  i  to  Little        2152 

Giant  Mfg.  &  Sales  Co. 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  modified  to  prevent  double  exposure.  When  the  shutter  is 
actuaU^d,  a  signal  is  automatically  set  to  indicate  that  fact.  When  a  fresh  section  of 
film  is  wound  up,  a  thickeneil  place  on  the  film  engages  a  lever  which  changes  the 
signal  to  show  that  the  camera  is  ready  for  exposure. 

1253076  H.  G.  Mordaunt,  Assigned  i  to  Little        2152 

Giant  Mfg.  &  Sales  Co. 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  spring  motor  for  winding  up  the  film  aftor 
each  exposure.  The  push  button  which  releases  the  motor  for  the  winding  operation 
is  automatically  pushed  or  cammed  to  its  initial  position  during  the  winding  movement. 

1253077  H.  G.  Mordaunt        2152 

r 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  spring  motor  for  winding  successive  sections 
of  film  into  exposure  position.  There  is  a  signal  which  automatically  shows  the  word 
**taken'*  after  the  shutter  is  snapped  and  displays  the  word  "ready*'  after  the  sj.ring 
motor  operates  to  wind  a  fresh  section  of  film  into  position. 

1253079  H.  G.  Mordaunt        2152 

A  Roil  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  spTing  motor  for  winding  successive  portions 
of  film  into  exposun*  position.  A  signal  is  automatically  connected  to  the  shutter  and 
to  the  spring  motor  in  such  a  way  that  the  release  of  the  shutter  and  the  winding  of 
the  film  are  indicated  in  proper  sequence.  The  mechanism  also  locks  the  shutter 
after  each  exposure  until  a  fresh  section  of  film  is  wound  into  position. 

1251105  W.  A.  Riddell,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.        2153 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  of  the  type  in  which  the  back  is  provided  with  an  opening 
through  which  inscriptions  may  be  made  upon  a  suitable  film.  The  covering  for  the 
opening  is  located  entirely  inside  the  plane  of  the  outer  surface  of  the  camera  back 
and  carries  a  stylus  in  a  countersunk  pocket. 

1251915  P.  C.  Osteen        2153 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  an  opening  in  the  back  through  which  in- 
scriptions may  be  light  printed  upon  suitable  film.  The  inscription  is  written  upon 
a  strip  of  carbon  paper  on  the  outer  side  of  the  camera  back,  which  strip  is  then 
shoved  underneath  a  door,  which  nonnally  closes  the  opening  in  the  camera  back. 
After  the  inscription-bearing  carbon  paper  is  thus  located,  the  cover  of  the  opening 
is  lifted  up  and  the  inscription  light-printed  on  the  film.  OooctIp 

igi  ize      y  g 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  45 


12o2605  A.  G.  Moss        2153 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  means  for  light-printing  inscriptions  on  the 
film.  A  portion  of  the  film  is  automatically  masked  during  the  ordinary  exposure. 
An  inscription -bearing  plide  is  then  located  m  front  of  the  film  so  as  to  cut  off  light 
from  all  portions  thereof  exwpt  the  an*a  which  was  masked  during  the  first  exposure. 
A  second  operation  of  the  shutter  prints  the  inscription. 

1251494  \V.  F.  Folmer,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2155 

A  Panoramic  Camera  of  the  type  in  which  a  spring  motor  mechanism  winds  the 
film  past  the  exposure  slot  while  the  camera  is  rotated  about  a  vertical  axis.  A 
safety  door  closes  tlie  exposure  slot,  but  is  connected  with  the  motor  release,  so  that 
the  operation  of  starting  the  motor  will  automatically  open  the  slot.  A  ground  glass 
carried  on  a  sliding  frame,  in  which  is  located  the  exposure  slot,  may  be  used  to 
deterrauie  the  limits  of  the  picture.  The  arrangement  is  such  that  the  ground  glass 
must  be  moved  out  of  the  way  and  the  exposure  slot  brought  into  proper  position 
before  the  camera  back  can  be  fastened  onto  the  camera. 

1252829  F.  W.  MueUer        2155 

A  Panoramic  Camera  in  which  the  film  is  arrange<l  in  the  shape  of  a  cone  and  a 
lens  is  mounted  with  its  optical  center  in  the  axis  of  the  cone,  the  lens  rotating  about 
such  axis  and  being  perpendicular  to  the  elements  of  the  cone.  A  spring  motor-driven 
shutter  rotates  together  with  the  lens.  It  is  said  to  be  particularly  adapted  to  take 
tlie  celestial  dome  from  the  earth  or  the  entire  landscape  from  the  air. 

1251076  '  J.  L.  Mauch        2193 

An  Apparatus  for  copying  printed  matter  upon  webs  of  Bromide  paper.  The 
Bromide  paper  is  located  in  contact  with  the  printed  matter  and  between  the  latter 
and  the  light,  the  printing  depending  on  the  ditlerential  absorption  and  reflection  of 
tlie  light  from  the  printed  page.  The  mechanism  is  contained  in  a  small  casing, 
which  is  light  tight  except  tor  a  narrow  slot  where  the  Bromide  paper  is  exposed. 
The  web  of  paper  pasea*?  downwardly  in  the  slot  into  contact  with  the  printed  page 
beneath  a  motor-driven  roller,  so  that  the  apparatus  creeps  along  the  page  and  suc- 
cessive portions  of  the  web  are  brought  into  contact  with  successive  i)ortions  of  the 
page,  the  idea  being  to  provide  a  portable  apparatus  that  can  be  used  in  daylight 
in  any  library.     The  printing  lamps  may  be  driven  from  a  portable  storage  plant. 

1247841         A.W.  Jacobs,  Assigned  to  Star  Headlight  &  Lantern  Co.       221 

A  simple  Projection  Apparatus  for  amateurs.  It  is  stamped  out  of  sheet  metal 
and  comprises  a  detachable  ring  for  holding  the  condensers,  together  with  a  frusto- 
conical  hood  attached  to  the  forward  part  of  the  condenser  ring. 

1247608  G.  B.  Alguire        2235 

A  Projector  for  automatically  displaying  a  series  of  lantern  slides  in  succession. 
The  slides  are  arranged  in  an  inclined  pack  from  which  the  bottom  one  is  fed  forward, 
A  swinging  arm  carries  the  displayed  lantern  slide  back  to  the  top  of  the  pack  and 
brings  the  forwardly  pushed  bottom  slide  into  displaymg  position.  A  shutter  auto- 
matically cuts  off  the  light  during  interchange  of  slides. 

1251222  O.H.  Gruss,  Assigned  to  Multi  Speed  Shutter  Co.         231 

A  Device  for  electrically  igniting  a  flash  light  and  operating  a  camera  shutter 
during  the  flash.    It  is  adapted  to  actuate  releases  of  either  the  cable  or  bulb  type. 

1252075  P.  E.  and  P.  W.  Hamilton        241 

A  Photographic  Printing  Machine,  the  presser  back  of  which  is  provided  with  a 
serial  numbering  stamp  actuated  each  time  that  the  operating  lever  is  depressed. 

1261143  F.  J.  von  Gunten        242 

A  Photogratphic  Printing  Frame  provided  with  a  clock-work  mechanism  which 

moves  a  sliding  shutter  across  the  frame  after  a  predetermined  time  to  stop  the 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


46  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1252513  F.  S.  Tyrrell        242 

A  Photographic  Printing  Frame  provided  vnth  nested  kits  in  which  the  inner  side 
of  a  negative  is  substantially  flush  with  the  inner  sides  of  the  kits  so  as  to  evenly 
support  a  mask. 

1251052  R.  Kroedel,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2541 

A  Roll  Film  Developing  Apparatus  comprising  an  elongated  tank,  in  one  end  of 
which  the  film  strip  is  attached.  The  film  is  then  unrolled  in  the  tank  by  pushing 
the  spool  alon^  it  with  a  suitable  rod,  return  motion  of  the  spool  being  prevented  by 
spring  fingers  m  the  sides  of  the  casing. 

1252883        F.W.  Barnes  and  G.F.  Phillips,  Assigned  to  E.K.  Co.         255 

A  Photographic  Dark  Room  Lamp  having  a  vertical  filter  window,  opposite  to 
which  there  is  a  reflecting  surface  for  throwing  a  large  volume  of  light  into  the  room 
for  general  illumination.  On  the  button  of  the  lamp  and  out  of  line  of  the  rays  from 
the  reflector  there  is  a  small  filter  window  adapted  to  transmit  a  relatively  dim  light 
to  a  developing  bench.  Both  filter  windows  are  removable,  the  smaller  one' by  means 
of  a  modified  bayonet  point. 

1250354  J.  A.  Ricketts        2623 

A  Photographic  Between-the-Lens  Shutter  of  the  set  type.  It  is  provided  with  a 
system  of  rotating  blades  driven  through  pinions  and  a  toothed  ring  from  a  motor 
spring.  The  retarding  mechanism  includes  a  set  of  gears  which  drive  a  metallic  disc 
between  the  poles  of  a  magnet,  which  may  be  either  a  permanent  one  or  an  electro- 
magnet. 

1250628  G.  Y.  Nishiyama        2626 

An  Automatic  Release  for  Camera  Shutters  which  enables  the  operator  to  include 
himself  in  the  picture.  A  signal  bell  is  included  which  warns  the  operator  that  the 
shutter  is  about  to  go  off*. 

1253144  ^  C.  C.  Carpenter        264 

A  Finder  for  Photographic  Cameras.  It  comprises  a  metal  trough  detachably 
supported  longitudinally  on  the  side  of  the  camera  during  transportation,  but  located 
transversely  thereof  when  in  use. 

1251766  H.  Gindele        2653 

A  Method  of  Preparing  Photographiq  Film  Cartridges.  The  method  enables  the 
photographer  to  remove  exposed  sections  of  film  without  impairing  the  unexposed 
portions  of  the  cartridge.  The  film  is  provided  with  cuts  to  permit  the  various  sections 
to  be  readily  torn  out  and  adhesive  strips  are  used  to  attach  to  the  backing  paper  the 
loose  film  ends  made  by  the  removal  of  a  section. 

1249713  J.  Blyth,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         283 

A  Foldable  Mount  for  Photographs  made  from  a  single  sheet  of  material  and 
having  integral  corner  retaining  extensions  located  beneath  the  side  flap  of  the  mounts 
when  the  latter  are  folded. 

1250074  F.  A.  Apfelbaum        283 

A  Lantern  Slide  Mat  in  one  side  of  which,  the  title  of  the  slide  is  stenciled. 

1250820  G,  E.  Dyer  and  S.  R.Lean        3205 

A  Casing  for  the  Condensing  Lenses  of  Motion  Picture  Projectors.  It  includes  a 
lower  semi-cylindrical  support  provided  with  grooves  in  which  the  lenses  rest  loosely, 
so  that  they  can  unrestrictedly  expand  and  contract.  The  upper  part  of  the  casing 
is  rectangular  and  is  out  of  com  act  with  the  lenses. 


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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  47 


1260724  J.  L.  and  I.  J.  Ulraer        3209 

An.Automatic  Fire  Shutter  for  Motion  Picture  Projectors.  When  the  film  breaks 
or  becomes  slack,  a  weighted  door  swings  up  to  cut  off  the  light  and  at  the  same  time 
opens  a  switch  in  the  electric  circuit. 

1251161  A.  Wright        322    067 

A  Motion  Picture  Projection  System  in  which  the  usual  intervals  of  darkness  on 
the  screen  are  avoided  by  projecting  slightly  out-of-focus  pictures  through  an  auxiliary 
projector  during  such  intervals.  The**'  out-of-focus  pictures  are  preferably  the  same 
ones  that  have  just  bten  exhibited  in  the  main  projector.  In  other  words,  motion 
pictures  are  projected  from  a  given  sequence  of  pictures  and  a  picture  with  an  im- 
paired definition  like  one  in  the  st-quence,  but  out  of  its  order,  is  projected  for  a 
smaller  length  of  time  in  the  interval  of- obscuration  between  the  successive  i>ictures 
of  the  sequence. 

1252321  D.  F.  Comstock,  Assigned  to  Technicolor  Motion        322 

Picture  Corporation 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  in  which  the  film  is  moved  continuously  while  the 
picture  is  held  stationary  on  the  screen  by  means  of  a  compt^nsating  optical  system, 
which  includes  a  set  of  right  angle  prisms  carried  on  the  periphery  of  a  rotating  drum. 

1251287     H.W.  Rogers,  Assigned  to  R.&  E.  Singing  Picture  Co.     323     069 

Synchronizing  Mechanism  for  Motion -Picture  and  Sound- Reproducing  Means. 
The  stopping  and  starting  of  the  sound  reproducer  is  controlled  electro-magnetically 
from  the  film  which  carries  metal  contacts  at  intervals  that  close  the  operating  circuits. 

1252304  D.  0.  Royster        323    069 

A  CJombined  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  and  Phonograph.  The  latter  includes  a 
pair  of  record  cylinders  arranged  Pide  by  side  and  a  sound  reproducer  which  shifts 
from  one  cylinder  to  the  next.  A  telephone  transmitter  is  connected  with  the  repro- 
dpcer  and  connects  with  a  telephpne  receiver  located  adjacent  the  motion  picture  screen. 

1251961  F.  Butterworth        324 

A  Screen  for  Motion  Picture  Projection  comprising  a  reflector  of  wood  pulp  and 
granulated  glass  spread  upon  a  fabric  backing. 

1252042  M.  Segel,  Assigned  to  E.  Mehlfelder  Ubelmesser        328 

A  Motion  Picture  Projector  provided  with  an  apparatus  which  automatically 
inserts  advertiaements  in  displaying  position  when  the  film  runs  out. 

1252599  M.  F.  MacDonald        361 

An  Apparatus  for  Developing  Motion  Picture  Films.  It  comprises  an  apron  made 
up  of  plates  linked  together  and  provided  near  their  margins  with  protuberances  for 
spacing  the  film  when  the  latter  and  the  apron  are  coiled  up. 

1250364  A.  R.  Selden        861 

An  Operating  Device  for  Motion  Picture  Cameras.  The  camera  is  mounted  upon 
a  single  leg  and  is  aimed  at  the  object  by  an  operator  who  uses  both  hands  for  that 
purpose  onlv.  The  driving  of  the  camera  is  done  through  a  flexible  shaft  connected 
with  a  crank  operated  head  carried  on  a  separate  tripod  and  operatedrby^njwsistant. 


48  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  . 

British  Patents 

110993  E.  H.  Tarlton        K/33 

Two-Color  Screen.  To  one  side  of  a  sheet  of  glass  or  celluloid  is  applied  a  layer 
of  red  particles  spread  in  such  a  manner  that  interstices  are  left  of  approximately  the 
same  area  as  the  particles.  This  is  protected  with  varnish  and  coated  with  an  emul- 
sion sensitive  to  blue  and  green  only,  which  is  exposed  through  the  back  so  that  a 
black  deposit  is  formed  behind  the  interstices,  no  action  occurring  behind  the  red 
particles.  After  fixation,  the  silver  deposit  behind  the  interstices  is  toned  blue-green, 
thus  producing  a  two-color  screen,  the  units  consisting  of  the  particles  and  the  toned 
silver. 

110964  W.  H.  Kunz        K/34 

V 

Color  Photography.  Multicolored  photographs  are  produced  by  making  separate 
color  record  negatives  and  printing  from  them  simultaneously  onto  a  screen  plate  or 
film.  In  one  form  of  prfnting  apparatus  light  from  a  suitable  source  passes  through 
the  negatives  and  color  filters  to  three  lenses.  The  images  produced  are  united  on  the 
screen  film  by  means  of  a  totally  reflecting  mirror  and  two  transparent  mirrors.  Two 
glass  blocks  and  a  glass  plate  are  pro\nded  to  render  the  light  paths  optically  equal 
and  black  screens  absorb  the  rays  which  would  otherwise  produce  undesired  images 
on  the  film.  An  inclined  transparent  mirror  r(»flect8  some  of  the  united  rays  upwards 
to  an  eyepiece  so  that  the  registration,  etc.,  may  be  observed.  In  a  modified  form  of 
apparatus  the  three  lenses  are  replaced  by  one  lens  in  the  path  of  the  united  rays. 

111136  W.  C.Jeapes        363 

Developing  Cine  Film.  The  film  is  passed  through  the  baths  or  drying  chambers 
in  loops  which  are  weighted  at  their  fne  ends  to  take  up  expansion  of  the.film  due  to 
wetting.  In  order  to  obtain  a  long  travel  in  a  tank  the  film  may  pass  from  one  roller 
down  into  a  loop  up  to  another  roller  side  by  side  with  the  first  and  on  the  same 
shaft  and  so  on  to  the  width  of  the  tank.  The  weight  carried  by  each  loop  is  pre- 
ferably a  roller  which  can  rotate  freely  as  the  film  travels,  having  guide  flanges  to 
to  keep  it  in  place.     A  full  description  of  the  apparatus  is  given  in  B.  J.,  1918,  p.  32. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


/\ 


Monthly       ' 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


April,  1918 


Issued  hy  the  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  COMPANY 

Rochester,  Nevt^York 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BTLLETIN  49 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  4.  No.  4 


April,  1918 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


60  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


\f.C...... 


'    V  ^    <     ,i      i  ,      f 


Errata 

In  the  Abstract  Bulletin  for  March,  1918, 

Page  41,  line  50,  instead  of:  and  Evaporation  and  Drying  t^bA',  of  Evaporation 
and  Drying. 

Page  48,  Patent  II 1136  should  be:  111156, 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  51 


Photography 


Preparation  of  a  Bleach-out  Paper  A.  I).         A18X 

(Translated  from  the  Jour.  Suisse  de  Phot. ) 

Corriere  Fotografico,  1918,  p.  3193 

The  author  !?tate8  that  a  bleach-out  jmper  can  be  preparcni  by  coating  a  gelatine- 
coated  paper  with  collodion  containing  the  necessary  dyestuffs,  the  dyes  recommended 
being  a  mixture  of  Methylene  Bhie,  Auramine,  Thioflavine,  Pyronine  ii  and  Curcu- 
mine.  A  formula  is  given  for  the  preparation  of  the  dyed  collfxlion,  which  in  sensi- 
tized with  Anethol. 

Developer  Poisoning  (\  M.  Foster         (I 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  71 

A  correspondent  gives  a  prescription  for  an  ointment  to  cure  hands  poisoned  by 
developing  agents. 

Developer  Poisoning  J.  Dunning         O 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  82 

A  letter  on  the  prevention  and  tn^atnient  of  metol  poisoning. 

Chemical  Poisoning  (i 

Studio  Light,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  IB 

Chemical  poisoning  is  secondary  to  tiie  action  of  the  alkali  in  the  developer  on 
the  skin.  The  alkali  softens  the  outer  skin  and  causes  cracks  to  form.  This  exposes 
the  under  lajers  of  skin  to  attack  by  the  developing  agent  and  its  oxidation  products. 
Cracking  of  the  skin  is  also  caused  by  chemicals  drying  to  a  powdery  form  on  theskin, 
so  that  when  developing,  the  hands  should  by  frequently  rinsed  in  water  to  prevent 
at  any  time  the  crystallization  of  (he  solution  on  the  hands.  Before  drying,  wash  the 
handsinaweak  acid  solution  and  rinse  for  one  or  two  minutes  in  plain  water.  A  little 
vaseline  or  oily  ointment  rubbed  into  the  hands,  or  the  use  of  rubber  ^'loves,  will  pre- 
vent the  access  of  the  solutions  to  the  skin.  A  method  of  treatment  of  poisoned  hands 
is  suggested. 

Air  Bells  in  Tank  Development  Eagle  Tank  Company        G 4-041 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  58 

A  common  cause  of  air  bells  is  stated  to  be  bubbles  on  the  surface  of  the  solution 
before  putting  the  rack  of  plates  into  the  lank.  The  plates  carry  the  bells  down  on 
their  surface. 

The  Hypo  Scarcity  G6 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  63 

The  article  is  wri;ten  to  siijrgest  how  the  mnst  economical  i!Si»  can  be  made  of  the 
fixing  bath  in  view  of  the  present  shortage  of  hypo  in  Great  Britain. 

Degrees  of  Permanence  in  Ph()togra[)hic  Piintt;  J 

B.  J..  1918,  p.  74 
Discussion  of  the  general  purpose  of  penuaiience.  Dioitized  bvGoOQlc 


62  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Gaslight  Printing  from  Amateur  Negatives  D.  Charles        J3-241 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  42 
Describes  a  printing  box  for  printing  amatears'   negatives,  and  also  gives  a 
number  of  suggestions  as  to  the  development  and  handling  of  ihe  prints. 

The  Douglass  Procegs  of  Color  Cinematography  A.  S.  Cory         K/24 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  March  2,  1918,  p.  1333  - 
A  process  analogous  to  Kinemacolor  excepting  that  the  rotating  filters  in  the 
projector  are  eliminated,  alternate  pictures  of  the  positive  film  being  stained  red  and 
green  as  in  the  Technicolor  process. 

Decennia  Practica— Color  Photography  K/33 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1918,  p.  6 
Kxtra-Sensitizing  Autochrome  Plates.       Methods  of  treating  Autochrome  plates 
with  the  isocyanin  sensitizers  in  order  to  shorten  the  exposure. 

Reclaiming  Hvpo  P5-G6 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  74 
in  an  editorial  note  some  attempt.^  at  reclaiming  hypo  by  precipitating  silver 
with  various  metals  are  described— aluminum,  zinc,  copper  and  mercury.  All  the 
experiments  were  unaueer ssfnl  in  that  the  amount  of  active  hypo  present  did  not  ap- 
pear to  be  altered  in  any  way  by  the  treatment.  Incidentally,  it  was  shown  that  zinc 
and  aluminum  are  most  unsuitable  metals  for  use  with  hypo  since  they  are  rapidly 
attacked,  hydrogen  sulphide   being  liberated. 

Covering  Power  of  Lenses  and  Stray  Light  in  (t.  M.  Nichol         019 

the  Camera 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  41 
The  author  points  out  that  the  use  of  a  lens  of  wider  angle  than  is  required  for 
the  plate  used  involves  stray  light  in  the  camera  which  may  produce  veil  or  flatness 
in  the  negatives. 

Scientific  Design  in  Optical  Projection—Part  1.       J.  A.  Orange         019-067 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  51 
This  is  a  paper  read  before  the  New  York  Society  of  Illuminating  Engineers  and 
contains  a  great  deal  of  valuable  information  on  the  design  of  optical  projection 
systems.  It  discusses  the  subject  from  the  point  of  view  of  illumination  on  the  screen, 
and  the  light  source  necessarj-  to  obtain  a  given  result. 

Scientific  Design  in  Optical  Projection— Part  II.      J.  A.  Orange         019-067 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  65 
This  deals  with  motion  picture  projectors  with  regard  to  the  necessary  conditions 
as  regards  the  diameter  and  position  of  the  condenser  in  relation  to  the  film  and  the 
light. 

Scientific  Design  in  Optical  J.  A.  Orange         019-067 

Projection— Part  III. 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  78 

The  last  section  of  Mr.  Oranpe's  paper  on  this  subject.      This  deals  chiefly  with 

the  cine  shutter  in  relation  to  the  film  and  discusses  the  advaniages  and  disadvantages 

of  alternative  positions.  r^^^^I^ 

Digitized  by  VjOOV?  IC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  53 

Covering  Power  and  Illuminating  Power  C.  W.  Piper        019 

of  Lenses 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  76 
General  discu88io|i  of  the  question  of  illumination  and  covering  power  in  lenses. 

American  Copyright  in  Great  Britain  and  British  Copyright  0335 

in  the  United  States 

B.  J.,  1018,  pp.  39,  49,  53,  59 

The  Use  of  Compensating  Filters  in  A.  S.  Cory         0631-0561 

Cinematography 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  1201 
An  article  pointing  out  the  advantages  of  using  color  filters  and  Drthochromatic 
film  for  straight  black  and  white  cinematography.     The  imporiance  of  focusing  with 
the  filter  in  position  is  explained. 

Withdrawal  of-  Dry  Plate  Brands  1 1 

Studio  Light,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  12 

The  manufacture  of  the  following  kinds  of  plates  has  been  discontinued  owing  to 
the  fact  that  other  brands  will  answer  as  well  or  even  better  for  the  special  work  for 
which  they  have  been  used:  Seed  27  Gilt  Edge,  Seed  C  Ortho,  Seed  Non-Halation, 
Eastman  Extra  Rapid,  Standard  Thermic,  Standard  Panchromatic,  Standard  Slow 
Ortho,  Standard  Imperial,  Standard  Extra. 

Satista  Printing  Paper  1315         •/75 

B.  J.,  1918,  p..  56 
Mr.  W.  H.  Smith  of  the  Platinotype  Company  gave  a  demonstration  on  Satista 
printing  paper  at  the  Croydon  Camera  Club,  showing  how  the  combination  of  a  plati- 
num and  silver  salt  could  be  used  with  ferric  oxalate  to  make  a  satisfactory  paper. 

Eastman  Commercial  Ortho  Film  1213 

Studio  Light,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  20 

The  film  is  similar  to  the  Eastman  Commercial  film  but  has  orthochromatic 
qualities. 

Modern  Photographic  Developers  1531-163 

Phot.  Min.,  Jan..  1918,  No.  167 

A  practical  handbook  to  the  new  di  vcloptT.s ;  telling  what  tluy  art'  and  htm  to 
use  them;  with  reliable  formulse. 

Some  Needed  Reforms  in  Commercial  Enlarging  Lanterns  222 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  86 

It  is  recommended  that  tlu^  wooden  enlarging  lanterns,  at  present  comnion  in 
England,  be  replaced  with  metal  lanterns.  Focusing  should  be  done  by  moving  the 
negative,  condenser  an<l  hght,  and  not  by  moving  the  lens.  tluH  enaMing  tables  of 
conjugate  foci  to  be  usf'd.  Negative  holders  slumld  be  arranged  so  that  any  part  of 
a  large  negative  may  b'  brought  oi>posite  to  the  center  of  the  eondt  user.  It  is  im- 
(K>rtant  that  suflicient  1<  ngth  of  Ix  Hows  should  bt^  fitt<'d  so  that  the  lantern  cuit  K- 
nsid  for  reducing.  Digitized  by  V^OOglC 


54  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


A  Novel  Motion  Picture  Camera  317 

Mov.  Pict.  World,  March,  1918,  p.  1220 

A  motion  picture  camera  invented  by  G.  B  ttini,  by  which  the  various  pictxire 
unite  are  taken  on  a  glass  5"  wide,  instead  of  on  the  usual  continuous  film  band. 
Each  picture  is  one-quarter  inch  square  and  may  be  projected  for  any  length  of  time 
owing  to  the  non-inflanmiable  natuie  of  the. glass. 

German  Photographic  Industry  in  1917 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  79 

During  the  first  two  years  of  the  war,  it  seemed  as  if  the  manufacture  of  cameras 
would  be  classed  as  a  luxury  industry  and  would  be  in  difiiculties,  but  with  the  use 
of  photography  for  the  army,  the  demands  on  the  industry  became  such  that  the 
labor  li  ft  was  unable  to  coi)e  with  them  and  leave  was  granted  from  the  army  to 
skilled  workers.  As  a  consequence  of  the  military  demands  the  output  for  private 
requirements  is  insutficient  and  there  is  a  shortage  of  cameias  on  the  market.  Photo- 
graphic plate  and  paper  factories  are  also  working  at  high  pressure  and  trade  orders 
are  exe<!Uted  only  slowly  and  in  small  quantities,  but  there  is  at  present  no  maiked 
scarcity  as  the  dealers  had  good  stocks. 


Photo-Engraving 

Deaths  from  Nitric  Acid  Fumes  1511 

B.  J.,  Feb.  8,  1918,  p.  70 

In  an  English  Process  tstablishment  a  carboy  of  nitric  acid  cracked;  the  two 
workmen  who  took  steps  to  avoid  the  spread  of  the  liquid,  although  at  first  feeling 
no  ill  (ff(cts.  shortly  beranu-  ill  and  subst^quently  died. 

Indictment  against  New  York  Engravers  Dismissed 

Amer.  Printer,  March  5,  1918,  p.  57 

Tiie  indictment  against  the  New  York  Engravers  for  violation  of  the  Donnelly 
anti-trust  law  has  bi'en  dismissed,  on  the  ground  that  a  photo-mgraving  cannot  lx» 
clashed  a*j  a  commodity  within  the  nieaning  of  the  Act. 

Photogravure  in  America  S.  H.  Morgan 

Inland  Printer,  March,  1918,  p.  763 
Two  notes  pointing  out  that  hand-printed  photogravure  was  introduced  to  America 
in  1882  and  machine-printed  rotary  gravure  about  1907. 

To  make  Large  Tray  for  Acetic  Acid  S.  H.  Horgan 

Inland  Printer,  March,  1918,  p.  763 

Gives  directions  for  the  use  of  wood,  Owl  or  Probus  acid  proof  varnish  cement, 
and  unbleached  muslin,  and  states  such  a  tray  pioperly  made  will  last  for  years. 

Copyright  Complications  S.  H.  Horgan 

Inland  Printer,  March,  1918,  p.  763 

Photoengravers  must  not  make  an  engraving  from  an  uncopyright^  reproduc- 
tion of  a  copyrighted  picture.  Digitized  by  dOOQ Ic 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  56 

Etching  Aluminum  S.  H.  Morgan 

Inland  Printer,  March,  1918,  p.  763 
AH  etching  of  Aluminum  is  troublesome,  the  best  solution  so  far  found  is  iron 
chloride  acidified  with  Hydrochloric  acid  in  proporiion  of  I  part  to  20  parts  iron 
chloride. 


Physics 

Color  Symposium— In  six  parts. 

Trans.  I.  E.  S.,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  11 
Part  I — ^The  Potentiality  of  Color  in  Lighting.  M.  Luckiesh 

Part  Il—Color  From  the  Physical  Point  of  View.  H.  C.  Richards 

Part  III — Color  in  Illumination.  Beatrice  Irwin 

Part  IV— The  Psychology  of  Color,  in  Relation  L.  T.  Troland 

to  Illumination. 
Part  V — The  Work  of  the  National  Bureau  of  Standards  I.  G.  Prief»i 

on  the  Establishment   of   Color  Standards 

and  Methods  of  Color  Specification. 
Part  VI — Some  Experiments  pn  tlie  Eye  with  r.  K.  Ferree  and  G.  Rand 

Different  Illuminants.     Part  I. 

Newton  and  the  Color  of  the  Spectrum  R.  A.  Houstoun 

Science  Progress,  Oct.,  1917,    p.  2f50 

A  review  of  Newton's  researches  on  the  spectrum  and  spectral  colors.  Why 
Newton  missed  seeing  the  solar  absorption  lines  and  why  he  missed  the  true 
phenomena  of  dispersion  are  treated  at  some  length. 

The  Radius  of  the  Electron  J.  W.  Nicholson 

Proc.  Phys.  Soc,  Dec.  15,  1917,  p.  I 

The  assumption  of  an  electron  with  a  bounding  surface  leads  to  difficulties, 
especially  in  dealing  with  the  atomic  nucleus,  which  are  avoided  by  assuming  the 
electron  to  be  the  center  of  an  ether  strain,  the  strain  diminishing  according  to  an 
exponential  law. 

Photography  of  the  Solar  Spectrum  from  W.  F.  Meggers 

6800  A.  to  9600  A. 

Astrophys.  J.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  1 
After  giving  a  brief  historical  review  of  the  photography  of  the  infra-red  spec- 
trum, the  author  describes  a  method  of  using  ordinary  rapid  plates,  bathed  in  dicyanin, 
for  use  in  obtaining  photographs  to  wave-length  9600  A.      He  claims  greater  con- 
venience and  efficiency  (or  this  method. 

Triple  Cemented  Jelescope  Objectives  T.  Smith  and  A.  B.  Dale 

Proc.  Phys.  Soc,  Dec.  15,  1917,  p.  21 
This  paper  describes  the  four  series  of  triple  cemented  thin  telescope  objectives 
which  (an  bj  made  from  two  kinds  of  glass,  and  determines  their  construction  when 
first  order  spherical  aberration  and  coma  are  eliminated. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


5«  ABSTRACT     BULLETIN 


Multiple  Thin  Objectives  T.  Smith 

Proc.  Phys.  Soc,  Dec.  15,  1917,  p.  31 

A  continuation  of  the  preceding  paper,  in  whicti  a  general  method  is  developed 
of  treating  any  number  of  component?.  Only  first  order  spherical  aberration  and 
coma  arc  considered. 

An  Optical  Ammeter  P.  D.  Foote 

J.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  77 

The  author  dt^scriljes  two  forms  of  current  measuiing  instrument,  one  which  is 
strictly  a  hot  wire  ammeter  wiih  the  hot  wire  at  a  temperature  betwe«  n  600°  and 
1500°C  and  the  other  a  device  for  adjusting  a  current,  by  optical  meihcds  alone,  to 
any  preassigned  value. 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Some  General  Aspects  of  Evaporation  and  Drying  H.  K.  Moore 

Met.  Cbem.  Eng.,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  186 

A  coniinuation  of  the  previous  article.  (See  this  Bulletin,  1918,  p.  41.)  Tieats 
of  phenomena  in  an  evaporator  tube;  calulation  of  temperature  differences;  tyi  esof 
multiple  effect  evaporatois;  forward-flow  and  backward-flow;  temperature  differ- 
ences; i.res.-ure  diHerences;  heat  ^i  combination  with  water;  temperature  difference 
of  exchange;  drip  from  evaporator.    Tables  aid  charts  are  given. 

Ultra-violet  Energy  and  Its  Use  M.  Luckiesh 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  1918,  p.  231 
A  general  review  of  the  subject. 


Organic  Chemistry 


How  Coated  Papers  are  Made.    Some  Details  of  the       R.B.  Foulis         1412 
Coating  Process  and  the  Materials  Employed 

Paper,  Feb.  6,  1918,  p.  14 
A  general  description. 

Determining  the  Absorbency  of  Paper.     A  Review         E.O.  Reid         1412 
of  Tests,  Methods,  Apparatus  and  Results  with  Blotting  Paper 
Paper,  Jan.  16,  1918,  p.  14 

The  1  cc.  time  absorption  method  with  standard  ink  is  recommended.  The 
formula  for  the  U.  8.  Government  Standard  Blue-black  writing  ink  is  given.  Also 
tables  and  results. 

Important  Dates  in  the  History  of  Paper.     Chronological  1412 

Table  forming  a  Contribution  toward  the  History  of  Papermaking 
Paper,  Jan.  30,  1918,  p.  15  n  \ 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  67 

Blue  and  Brown  Print      F.P.  Veitch,  C.F.  Sammet  and  E.G.  Reid         1412  ' 
Paper;  Characteristic  Tests  and  Specifications 

J.  Ind.  Eng.  Chem.,  1918,  p.  222 

Results  of  physical  tests  and  specifications  are  given.  Physical  tests  are  made 
at  70°  F  and  65%  relative  humidity.  Wet  tests  are  made  after  immersing  the  paper 
in  water  at  70^  F  for  20  minutes.  For  papers  for  permanent  recordH  only  the  best  quality 
rag  stock  is  recommended.  Brown  print  papers  should  not  be  used  for  permanent 
records  as  the  coatinj^  seriously  injures  the  fibres.  Most  blue  print  coatings  are  not 
injurious  to  the  paper  if  properly  applied  and  protected  from  light,  heat  and  moisture. 
To  insure  strength  and  durability,  all  coating,  printing  and  drying  should  be  done  at 
the  lowest  possible  temperature. 

Intensive  Toluol  Production  II 

Proposed  Improvements  in  the  Concentrating  F.  E.  Lichtenthaeler 

and  Refining  Process 

Met.  Chem.  Eng.,  ^918,  p.  195 
(8ee  this  Bulletin,  1918,  p.  41.) 


From  Eastman  Kodak  Research  Laboratory 

The  Nature  of  a  Developer  Sludge  J.  I.  Crabtree         Gl-168 

Communication  No.  62 

A  sample  of  a  sludge  taken  from  a  deep  tank  pyro  developer  compounde<l  with 
sodium  bisulphite  was  found  to  consist  mainly  of  fine  needle  shaped  crystals  of  calcium 
sulfite  corresponding  to  the  fommla  CaSOa  2HgO. 

In  order  to  explain  the  presence  of  the  calcium  salt,  it  was  at  first  assumed  that 
some  compound  of  calcium  had  been  accidentally  added  to  the  developer,  or  that  some 
of  the  ingredients  contained  calcium  as  impurity,  but  as  only  pure  chemicals  were 
employed  it  was  concluded  that  the  calcium  must  have  been  originally  present  in  the 
water  used  for  compounding  the  developer. 

On  adding  definite  amounle  of  calcium  in  form  of  chloride  or  sulphate  to  water 
used  for  mixing  the  developer,  it  was  found  that  (he  presence  of  .025%  dry  calcium 
chloride  was  sufficient  to  ensure  the  formation  of  crystals  of  calcium  sulfile,  if  ihe 
solution  containing  the  sulphite  and  bisulfite  was  allowed  to  stand  before  adding  the 
carbonate. 

Calcium  sulfite  is  soluble  in  an  excess  of  sodium  bisulfite  forming  calcium 
bisulfite,  but  on  allowing  this  solution  to  stand  in  the  air,  needle  shaped  crystals  of 
of  CaSO,  2H,0  are  deposited.  The  absence  of  magnesium  from  the  sludge  in  ques- 
tion was  due  to  the  relative  high  solubility  of  magnesium  sulfide  and  magnesium  car- 
bonate in. a  solution  ot  sodium  curbonate. 

Although  a  number  of  trials  were  made  by  compounding  the  complete  developer 
with  water  containing  calcium  salts,  in  no  case  weie  needle  shaped  crystals  di  posited 
on  standing,  only  a  semi-amorphous  sludge  being  precipitated.  It  was  considered 
that  the  needles  could  only  have  crydtaliized  within  the  complete  develpper  if  it  |\ere 
mixed  very  warm.  Digitized  by  vjOOQ IC 


58  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

The  presence  of  a  sludge  such  as  the  ahove  in  a  developer  is  harmless  if  allowed 
to  settle,  though  tiu*  developer  is  robbed  of  sulfite  to  the  amount  requirtd  to  form  the 
sludge.  If  the  developer  is  agitated,  the  sludge  is  apt  to  cause  trouble  by  settling  on 
the  emulsion  of  tlie  plates  or  films.     It  may  be  removed  by  filtering. 

In  case  the  calcium  is  present  as  bicarbonate,  thus  causing  temporary  hardness 
of  the  water,  the  fonnation  of  the  sludge  may  be  preventc^l  by  boiling  the  water  and 
allowing  to  cool  previous  to  compounding  the  developer.  If  the  calcium  is  prefcent  as 
chloride  or  sulphate,  in  which  case  the  water  is  permanently  hard,  this  may  be 
removed  by  precipitating  \\  ith  sodium  or  potassium  oxalate  or  sodium  carbonate. 
The  oxalate  treatment  will  also  remove  temporary  hardness. 

Tests  showed  that  the  oxalate  had  no  effect  on  the  fogging  power  of  the  developer 
when  present  even  to  the  extent  of  1%,  so  that  a  little  excess  of  oxalate  during  pre- 
cipitation will  do  no  harm. 


The  Spectral  Selectivity  of  L.  A.  Jones  and  R.  B.  Wilsey        015 

Photographic  Deposits 

J.  Frank.  Inst.,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  231 

Communication  No.  57 

The  paper  is  introductory  to  work  on  tone  reproduction  and  deals  with  the  tlieory, 
nomenclature  and  methods  for  determining  the  photographic  transmi.-sion  of  silver 
deposits,  with  a  view  to  detei  mining  the  influence  exerted  by  the  color  of  a  negative 
on  the  quality  of  the  resulting  prints. 


The  Visibility  of  Radiation  Prentice  Reeves 

Trans.  I.  E.  S.,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  101 

Communication  No.  55 

This  experiment  was  performed  to  obtain  more  data  on  the  subject  by  using  a 
method  similar  to  that  ufced  by  Ives  and  Nutting.  The  values  for  the  spec.ral  enei^y 
dis.ribution  of  acetylene  were  those  offered  by  Nutting  and  two  values  offend  by 
Coblcntz.  The  daia  obtained  by  using  the  diflerent  acetylene  emrgy  values  enable 
one  to  compare  results  with  the  other  experiments  as  well  as  to  show  the  effect  of 
using  the  values  with  the  same  data. 

The  apparatus  used  was  a  modificiition  of  the  Nutting  monochromatic  colorimeter. 
The  li>^ht  from  a  siandard  acetylene  burner  passes  through  a  pair  of  nicol  prisms  and 
a  collimating  lens  to  a  constant  deviation  dispersing  prl-rin  which  is  operated  by  a 
screw  carrying  a  diiect  reading  wave  lengih  dium  and  then  to  the  obser\er'8  eye. 
By  means  of  a  Whitman  disk  the  light  from  a  gas  filled  tungsten  lamp  which  passes 
through  a  daylight  filter,  is  intermittently  mixed  with  the  mom  chromatic  light  and 
a  flicker  balance  is  made  by  varying  the  intent^ity  of  the  colored  light.  With  bo.h 
light  sources  constant  and  thne  independmt  feeries  taken  on  different  days  jt  is  safe 
to  assume  that  the  resultant  average  for  each  of  the  thirteen  observers  is  representative. 

Five  of  the  observers  in  the  experiment  were  also  observers  in  Nutting's  experi- 
ment and  the  results  from  the^e  five  observers  have  been  treated  separately.  For 
the!>e  observers  the  average  maximum  visibility  found  by  the 'writer  is  .556p  and  by 
Xutiing  .654p.  The  average  of  ihe  thirteen  observers  shows  a  maxin)um  at  ^553|i 
in  agreement  witli  Ives  as  against  .555ii  from  Nutting's  results,     -d  by  CiOOQIc 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  69 

Patent  Abstracts     • 

U.  S.  Patents 

1254579  M.  W.  Collet        F6 

A  Device  for  shading  part^  of  the  photographic  ima]^e  to  equalize  the  lighting. 
Plates  bearing  suitable  marks  are  plated  wiihin  the  camera  at  a  substantial  distance 
back  of  the  lens,  but  not  far  enough  to  form  distinct  images  of  the  shading  marks 
upon  the  plate. 

1253138         P.D.  Brewster,  Assigned  to  Brewster  Film  Corporation     K2116 
A  Light-Splitting  Mirror  for  Two-Color  Photography  provided  with  a  set  of  light 
transmitting  apertures,  the  walls  of  which  are  inclined  and  blackened  to  minimize 
undeciirable  reflections. 

12537D6  L.  F.  Douglass        K3117 

A  Two-polor  Motion  Picture  Cnmera  in  which  a  pair  of  90°  prisms  placed  face  to 
face  and  suitably  inclined  split  the  light  into  transmitted  and  reflected  rays  by  utiliz- 
ing the  principle  of  total  internal  reflection.  The  film  which  receives  the  images 
corresponding  to  one  color  sensation  moves  through  a  horizontal  gate  near  the  upper 
prism,  while  the  film  which  receives  the  images  corresponding  to  the  complementary 
sensation  passes  through  a  vertical  gate  adjacent  the  lower  prism. 

1255421  F.  W.  Hochstetter  and-E.  H.  Pryee         K32     K/24 

Assigned  to  H.  P.  Patents  and  Processes  Co.  Inc. 
Motion  Picture  Apparatus  for  use  in  Two-Color  Additive  Work.    A  frame  carry- 
ing red  and  grten  fiUeis  is  reciprocated  in  properly  timed  relation  in  front  of  the  film 
gate. 

1253883  D.  W.  Player        K/24    322 

A  Multi-Color  Motion  Picture  Apparatus,  the  principle  of  which  may  be  used 
either  in  a  cam(  ra  or  projector.  The  diffeient  color  sensation  pictures  aie  taken  upon 
the  same  negative  film  in  aLemate  series  at  difl'erent  film  gates.  T.y  means  of  rotating 
inclined  mirrors  and  suitably  timed  feeding  mechanism  the  portion  of  the  film  atone 
gate  is  held  stationary  whiK-  an  image  is  being  projected  then  on  and  the  section  of 
the  film  at  me  oiher  gate  is  advanced  a  step  during  such  interval. 

1256981  •  J.  H.Christensen         K/44 

A  Method  for  Producing  Colored  Prints.  A  dyed  gelatine  layer  is  coated  with  a 
coilodio-si her- bromide  film,  which  is  made  porous  by  glycerin.  A  print  on  this  is 
made  from  a  negative,  it  being  developed  and  wathed  in  the  usual  way,  but  not  fixed. 
It  is  then  treated  with  a  diluted  alkali  sulfide  solution  containing  an  ixcess  of  bulfur 
which  reacts  with  the  undeveloped  silver  bromide  in  the  collodion  film  and  plugs  up 
the  pores  or  such  film  in  proportion  to  the  amount  of  such  bromide.  The  dye  from 
the  gelatine  image  can  then  pass  through  the  collodion  film  to  make  a  colored  print 
only  in  proportion  to  the  original  silver  image. 

1254751  C.  N.  Wendelgass      •  M07 

An  etching  machine  of  the  type  that  raises  the  plate  in  and  out  of  the  etching 
fluid. 

1255514  F.  Cowan        MOT 

A  portable  holdfast  for  shading  films  used  in  lithography  and  photoengraving 
with  which  most  delicate  adjustments  may  be  made.  ^^  , 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


60  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1253285  W.  N.  ^elig,  Assigned  to  the  Selig  Polyscope  Co.  0631  319 
An  Attachment  for  a  Motion  Picture  Camera  dei-igned  to  photograph  subjects  at 
relatively  long  intervals  with  the  object  of  exhibiting  the  pictures  later  at  the  usual 
ratx?.  Thus  the  opening  of  a  flower  or  the  rising  of  the  sun  can  be  readily  shown. 
An  ordinary  automatic  photographic  shutter  is  placed  in  front  of  the  lens  while  the 
customary  sector  shutter  is  removed.  Suitable  gearing  connected  with  the  film-feed 
trips  the  shutter  at  regular  intervals.  A  motor  may  be  used  to  drive  the  apparatus 
at  the  desired  slow  speed. 

1252965  H.  B.  Stocks        069     323 

An  Apparatus  for  Photographically  Recording  Sounds  upon  a  Moving  Strip  of 
Film,  the  resulting  record  being  used  in  an  electromagnetic  reproducer  of  the  selenium 
cell  type.  For  the  making  of  the  record  a  mercury  vapor  lamp  is  used,  the  intensity 
of  which  is  varied  in  accordance  with  the  electrical  oscillations  from  a  telephone 
transmitter,  an  elect romagneticaily  operated  shutter  varying  the  light  to  the  film  in 
correspondence  to  the  variations  in  the  light  from  the  lamp. 

1254487  C.  W.  Ebeling        069    323 

A  System  for  Synchronizing  Motion  Picture  and  Sound  Reproducing  Apparatus. 
The  speed  of  the  sound  reproducing  device  is  electromagnetieally  controlled  from  the 
film,  the  latter  being  formed  at  intervals  with  ap)ertures  through  which  the  full  force 
of  the  projecting  light  can  periodlt'ally  flash  onto  a  selenium  cell  in  the  control  circuit. 

1253990         L.  LeCue,  Assigned  one-fifth  each  to  F.  L.  Harwood,     O70O4 
R.  \V.  Albertson,  J.  H.  Gilson  and  Nelson  M.  Whipple 
A  Drier  for  Sensitized  Plates.     The  plates  are  placed  upon  a  table  which  whirls 
above  a  gas-heated  sand  bath  and  beneath  a  screen  which  permits  ventilation,  but 
eliminates  dust. 

1256886  E.  Eberhard        07332 

Mechanism  for  automatically  progressively  opening  and  closing  the  iris  diaphragm 
in  making  screen  negatives  for  half-lone  photoengravings. 

1255288  A.  D.  Brixey         1212     3209 

1255338  C.  B.  Rearick,  Assigned  to  A.  Brixey 

A.  Motion  Picture  Film,  especially  of  the  safety  variety,  provided  with  staggered 
perforations  along  one  edge,  although  spaced  the  same  distance  as  those  along  the 
other  edge.  Such  film  can  be  used  either  on  a  standard  projector  or  on  a  safety  pro- 
jector provided  with  a  special  sprocket  in  schools  or  churel.es.  Standard  film  on  the 
other  hand  can  be  used  only  with  a  standard  projector  and  could  not  be  employed  on 
the  safety  projectors. 

1249726  A.  de  Salas         1411 

Process  of  preparing  flock-cotton  for  explosives.  The  rag  or  cotton  waste  is 
de-greased  by  boiling  with  an  alkaline  or  ammoniacal  solution  containing,  when 
grease  i^  present  (as  in  maLhinists'  waste),  a  small  proportion  of  aniline. 

1249511  S.  Saxe        1511 

Manufacture  of  Lactic  Acid  by  fermentation  of  vegetable  ivory  waste. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  61 

1255508  T.  J.  Brewster        163 

A  Photographic  Developer  alleged  to  be  specially  useful  in  connection  with  over- 
exposures and  exposures  on  subjects  of  great  contrast.     It  comprises: 

Paraphenylenedlamin    -  -  -  -  10  parts 

Sodium  Sulfiie 10     ** 

Sodium  Nitrite  (as  a  catalyzer)  -  -  10     ** 

Sodium  Carbonate         .  .  .  .  2     ** 

and  water. 

1253078  H.  G.  Mordaunt        2152 

A  Winding  Device  for  Roll  Film  Cameras  driven  by  a  spring  motor,  there  being 
a  simple  form  of  clutch  between  the  motor  and  the  winding  shaft.  No  provision  is 
made  for  the  increasing  diameter  of  the  film  on  the  winding  roll. 

1253205        P.  Brauner  and  L.  W.  Rosen,  Assigned  tg  A.E.  Brion      2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  film'winding  mechanism  driven  from  a  spring 
motor  and  released  after  i  ach  actuation  of  the  shutter  for  the  winding  up  of  a  fresh 
section  of  tilm.  Sets  of  small  corrugated  rollers  engage  the  edges  of  the  film  and 
draw  it  forwardly  a  correct  amount  at  each  cycle  of  operation.  An  escapement  pre- 
vents a  too  rapid  action  of  the  winding  motor. 

1253321  0.  H.  Wilber,  Jr.         2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  device  for  preventing  double  exprsure.  The 
shutter  levir  is  automatically  lccke«l  after  each  actuation  until  a  fiesh  section  of  film 
is  wound  into  position,  tlie  wuidirg  of  the  film  automatically  releasing  the  shutter 
lever.  The  connection  between  the  slmtter  and  the  winding  mechanism  includes  a 
flexible  cable. 

1254373  G.  E.  Stansell        2152 

A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  a  spring  motor  for  winding  the  film,  said 
motor  being  released  automatically  after  each  actuation  of  the  shutter  to  bringafiesh 
area  of  film  into  position  in  the  camera.  A  special  perforated  tape  is  connected  with 
the  winding  mechanism  to  stop  the  movement  of  the  latter  when  a  correctly  measured 
amount  of  film  has  been  wound  up. 

1251503  E.  J.  Hunt        2152 

An  Electromagnetic  Device  for  preventing  double  exposure.  The  shutter  lever  is 
locked  after  each  actuation,  but  is  electromagnetically  released  when  a  fresh  section 
of  film  is  wound  into  place.  The  circuit  to  the  unlocking  apparatus  is  completed  by 
means  of  small  tinfoil  strips  spaced  at  suitable,  intervals  along  the  edge  of  the  film. 
The  batteries  are  of  special  shape  so  as  to  fit  into  the  bottom  of  the  film  chambers. 

1254590  W.  F.  Congaware         2153 

A  Devices-  for  Light  Printing  titles  or  other  inscriptions  upon  a  film  in  a  camera 
simidtaneously  with  the  normal  exposure  of  the  film  through  the  regular  lens.  The 
inscription  is  written  upon  a  translticent  strip  formed  with  a  flange.  Ihe  strip  slides 
through  a  light- trapped  opening  into  the  camera  where  it  is  guided  in  front  of  the 
film  by  the  flange.  p.^.,.^^^  ^^  GoOglc 


62  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1256769  H.  F.  Blackwell,  Assigned  i  to  M.  E.  Jutte        2153 

i  to  M.  A.  Black  well 
A  Roll  Film  Camera  provided  with  means  for  locally  light  printing  inscriptions 
on  the  film.  A  coiled  translucent  strip  is  drawn  out  of  the  camera  and  an  inscription 
made  tliereon.  A  spring  then  draws  it  into  the  camera  with  the  inscription  adjacent 
the  sensitive  face  of  the  film.  A  door  in  the  side  of  the  camera  is  next  opened  to 
.  allow  light  to  pass  through  a  deflecting  prism  onto  the  inscription  to  print  the  latter 
onto  the  film.  The  opening  of  the  door  automatically  moves  the  prism  so  as  to  press 
the  inscription-b.aring  strip  against  the  film. 

1256'?84  A.  J.  Gaisman,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2153 

Roll  film  provided  with  means  for  light  printing  inscriptions  thereon  at  desired 
points  by  localized  exposure.  Between  the  partially  translucent  backing  paper  and 
the  sensitive  film  there  is  located  a  displac(  able  substance^  such  as  carbon  transfer 
matt? rial,  this  layer  being  covered  on  the  side  next  to  the  film  with  a  protective  coat- 
ing such  as  wax  or  varnish. 

1256774.  L.  J.  E.  Colardeau  and  J.  Richard        218 

A  Small  Stereoscopic  Film  Camera  using  rolls  of  perforated  motion  picture  film 
provided  with  suitable  opaque  lead  strips.  The  mechanism  automatically  clamps  the 
film  every  time  that  a  correct  amount  is  wound  up,  such  amount  being  indicated  on 
dial.  Since  the  pictures  of  each  stereoscopic  pair  are  considerably  separated  along 
the  film  strip,  the  pictures  are  arranged  in  alternating  order,  the  first  pair  on  the  first 
and  fourth  picture  spaces ;  the  next  pair  on  the  third  and  sixth ;  the  next  on  the  fifth 
and  eighth,  and  so  on. 

1253220  H.  Dumars        221 

An  advertising  Displaying  Machine  which  can  be  quickly  adapted  to  exhibit 
either  transparent  films  or  opaque  films,  a  projecting  system  of  the  reflecting  type 
being  substituted  for  the  regular  projecting  system  in  case  the  opaque  films  are  used. 
The  film,  in  the  form  of  an  endless  band,  runs  between  feed  sprockets  and  over  a 
considerable  number  of  loop  forming  sprockets  to  provide  for  an  adequate  length  of 
film. 

1254721       W.L.  Patterson,  Assigned  to  Bausch  &  Lomb  Optical  Co.        221 
A  Dissolving  View  Projection  Apparatus  embodying  improvements  in  a  pair  of 
bellows  and  the  mounting  of  the  lights. 

1253813  R.  D.  Gray         2233 

A  Concave  Reflecting  "Condenser"  for  Enlarging  Apparatus  in  which  the  inter- 
mediate zones  are  provided  with  sections  of  diminished  reflecting  power  to  equalize 
the  lighting  upon  the  negative. 

1251746  H.  J.  Troxell        2235 

An  Advertising  Projector  in  which  a  series  of  slides  are  arranged  upon  an  inter- 
mittently rotated  disc  which  brings  them  successively  in  front  of  the  condenser,  a 
shutter  cutting  off  the  light  duririjg  the  change  from  one  picture  to  the  next. 

1257278  T.  E.  Brown        2235 

A  Machine  for  Automatically  Displaying  Lantern  Slides.  The  latter  are  arranged 
on  carriers  in  a  magazine  at  the  top  of  the  a]»paratus  and  drop  successively  from  the 
front  of  the  magazine  into  the  displaying  position.  Fiom  the  displaying  position  each 
slide  is  carried  by  an  inclined  chain  to  the  rear  of  the  magazine.  /^  t 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  63 

1264054  R.  Scholze        241 

A  Post  Card  Printing  Apparatus  comprising  a  lamp  box  carrying  an  inclined 
printing  frame  beneath  which  is  a  pivoted  shutter  actuated  by  a  push  rod  projecting 
through  a  hole  in  the  wall  of  the  box. 

1256893  H.  Gindele        252 

A  Developing  Tank  for  plat's  or  cut  film  which  is  provided  with  light- trapped 
passages  for  entrance  and  exit  of  the  developer.  It  is  made  of  a  number  of  inter- 
locking metal  parts. 

1254300  H.  J.  Baker        258 

A  Machine  for  automatically  developing,  fixing  and  washing  bate  hes  of  photo- 
graphic  plates.  A  suitably  timed  driving  niechanism  lowers  a  rack  of  plates  into  the 
developing  bath,  lift-i  th<  m  out  and  lowers  them  into  tlie  first  washing  bath,  lifts  t  htm 
out  and  then  immerses  them  into  a  fixing  bath,  and  finally  lowers  them  into  a  wash- 
ing tank  when  the  driving  mechani^m  automatically  stops. 

1256290  H.  L.  Blondes        253 

A  Machine  for  automatically  developing,  fixing  and  drying  strips  of  photographic 
prints.  Such  strips  are  provided  at  their  ends  with  a  special  leader  n  d  which  through 
the  agency  of  star  wheels  and  endless  belts  pulls  the  strip  through  the  baths  and  dry- 
ing apparatus. 

1266247  R.  Newman         2512 

A  Film  Pack  Developing  Tank  designed  to  be  placed  at  the  rear  of  a  camera  so 
that  as  the  tabs  are  pulled  out  successively,  they  will  draw  the  films  into  skeleton 
holding  frames  in  the  tank.  When  all  of  the  films  are  thus  suitably  spaced  in  the 
tank,  the  film  entrance  is  closed  by  a  slide  and  the  developer  poured  in  through  a 
light-trapped  opening. 

1250618  W.  H.  Morgan         258 

A  Print  Drier  comprising  a  pair  of  heated  drums  over  which  the  prints  are  carried 
by  means  of  a  cooperating  pair  of  endless  belts,  the  latter  being  held  in  place  by  a 
rocking  tensioning  frame  carrying  rollers  which  prew  against  the  belts  between  the 
drums. 

1255915  P.  xMueller         258 

A  Print  Drying  Apparatus  consisting  of  a  metallic  tent -shaped  cupboard  with  a 
gas-jet  therein. 

1254013  H.  Van  Hoevonberg         2626 

An  Electromagnetic  Device  for  releasing  camera  shutters  from  a  distance. 

1254931       '  B.  L.  Parker         2626 

A  Spring  Operated  Device  for  automatically  actuating  a  camera  shutter,  the 
device  being  released  electromagnet ically  from  a  distance.. 

1255901  P.  J.  Marks,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.     '    2626 

An  Automatic  Shutter  Release  which  enables  the  operator  to  include  himself  in 
the  picture.  It  includes  a  spring-prefieed  plunger  for  operating  the  cabje  n  lease,  the 
movement  of  said  plunger  being  adjustably  retarded  pneumatically^  by  CjOOQ Ic 


64  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


1255868  W.  F.  Folm^r,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2652 

A  Magazine  Back  for  Plate  Cameras  of  the  type  in  which  the  plates  are  locked  in 
septunis  which  are  carried  from  a  storage  chamber  into  an  exposing  chamber  by 
means  of  catches  carried  by  the  slide  of  the  magazine.  Each  tipie  that  the  slide  is 
pushed  in  to  shift  a  plate  it  strikes  a  plunger  which  registers  the  number  of  such  plate 
on  an  indicator  and  when  all  of  the  plates  have  been  exposed  the  slide  is  automatically 
locked  to  prevent  double  exposure. 

1^55017  J.  G.  Jones,  Assigned  to  E.  K.  Co.         2653 

A  Photographic  Film  Cartridge  provided  with  a  specially  folded  coupling  strip 
l)etween  the  backing  paper  and  the  leader,  whereby  the  strain  of  winding  in  the 
camera  will  be  taken  up  by  the  film  itself,  thus  drawing  it  taut  and  flat.  The  fold  in 
the  coupling  strip  is  covered  by  a  shield  which  prevents  it  from  catching  in  the  camera. 

1255167  J.  P.  Howie        2682 

An  Exposure  Meter  attached  to  a  camera  finder.  It  comprises  a  rotary  disc  pro- 
vided with  openings  which  are  adapted  to  be  successively  brought  in  front  of  the 
finder  lens,  ^ach  opening  is  provided  with  a  light  retarding  means  and  a  legend 
indicating  the  time  of  exposure. 

1256760  R.  L.  Woods        275 

A  Retouching  Device  in  which  the  pencil  is  rapidly  vibrated  verticaUy  by  an 
electromagnetic  apparatus. 

1256931  H.  C.  Schlicker        315 

An  Amateur  Motion  Picture  Camera  in  which  the  series  of  pictures  are  taken 
helically  upon  a  wide  endless  band.  The  camera  may  be  driven  by  a  spring  motor 
which  moves  the  lens  laterally  and  advances  the  film  band  step  by  step. 

1254239  F.  E.  Keolla        317 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  of  the  type  in  which  a  disc  is  used  with  a  spiral 
series  of  pictures  thereon. 

1254552  M.  J.  Vinik        3201 

A  Motion  Picture  Apparatus  in  which  the  film  is  rapidly  shifted  between  stationary 
intervals  by  means  of  a  pair  of  coaxial  sprockets  which  carry  the  film  in  a  cylindrical 
curve  through  the  gate.  To  compensate  for  this  film  cur\'ature  a  cylindrical  lens  is 
placed  just  in  front  of  the  gate. 

1256613  F.  L.  Terwilliger,  Assigned  i  to  T.  G.  McHattan        3202 

A  Motion  Picture  Projecting  Machine  in  which  a  curved  resilient  frame  holds  ihe 

film  at  the  gate  in  a  cylindrical  bend  with  the  object  of  maintaining  it  in  proper  focus. 

1255344  M.  Segel         3205 

A  Condenser  Apparatus  for  Motion  Picture  I'rojectors.  A  plurality  of  sets  of 
condensers  are  mounted  in  a  latterly  shiftable  casing  so  that  when  one  of  them 
becomes  broken  a  new  one  can  be  immediately  slid  into  place. 

1253372  C.  J.  Gotti,  Assigned  i  to  S.  Fasanello         3208 

i  to  W.  F.  Peck 

A  Motion  Picture  Projection  App»ratus  in  which  the  projected  films  are  wound 

onto  special  intermediate  reels  and  finally  are  rewound  onto  the  original  reels,  thereby 

avoiding  the  necessity  of  providing  and  transporting  the  usual  double  f^T^^f^ 

Digitized  by*  '' ^' 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 66 

1254272  S.  Ponon,  Assigned  to  Daylight        3208 

Cinema  Corporation  of  New  York 

An  Endless  Reel  for  Motion  Picture  Film  so  constructed  that  the  latter  is  un- 
wound from  the  core  of  the  reel  and  simultaneously  rewound  on  its  periphery.  A 
spring-pressed  axially  shiftable  conical  hub  permits  the  discharge  of  the  film  from 
the  inner  convolution. 

1255044  I.  F.  Peck        3209 

Motion  Picture  Apparatus  in  which  an  electromagnetic  mechanism  automatically 
clamps  the  film  when  the  latter  breaks.  The  clamp  is  so  constructed  as  to  prevent 
the  spread  of  fire.  x 

1255336  N.  Power,  Assigned  to  Nicholas  Power  Co.         3209 

An  Enclosed  Motion  Picture  Projector  in  which  the  doors  to  the  magazines  and 
the  central  casing  are  all  connected  so  as  to  simultaneously  open,  close  and  be  fastened 
by  a  single  lock.  A  safety  fire  shutter  is  only  opt^ned  to  permit  projection  when  the 
lock  is  in  position. 

1254436  H.  VV.  Rogers        323 

A  Synchronized  Motion  Picture  and  Sound  Reproducing  Apparatus  in  which  the 
latter  is  electromagnetically  controlled  from  the  film.  The  film  is  provided  at  suitable 
intervals  witli  special  perforations  and  the  feed  sprockets  therefore  are  provided  with 
radial  plungers  which  slip  outwardly  through  such  special  perforations  in  the  film 
and  actuate  an  electric  switch. 

1254684  E.  L.  Greensfelder         823 

An  Apparatus  for  8ynchronizing  Motion  Pictures  and  Sound  Reproducers.  The 
latter  are  controlled  from  the  film,  which  is  provided  with  special  perforations,  per- 
mitting strong  flanhes  of  light  to  fall  upon  Hcleniuin  cells  and  thus  actuate  the  electro- 
magnetic synchronizing  apparatus.  The  sound  reproducer  may  be  a  piano  or  devices 
for  firing  a  j^un.  blowing  a  whistle,  ringing  a  bell,  etc. 

"1255822  H.  W.  Rogers         323 

>fechanism  for  Controlling  Sound  Reproducers  from  Motion  Picture  Projectors, 
The  film  is  provided  with  buttons,  which  through  an  electnjmagnetic  system,  cause 
the  sound  reproducers  to  be  connected  or  disconnected  from  the  main  power  shaft. 
This  allows  the  titles  of  songs  to  be  fiashed  upon  the  screen  without  putting  the  sound 
reproducer  out  of  phase  with  the  film. 

1255823  H.  W.  Rogers         323 

Apparatus  for  Synchronizing  Motion  Pictui-e  Projectors  and  Sound  Reproducers. 
The  latter  are  driven  from  the  former  through  clutches  which  are  electromagnetically 
controlled  from  the  film. 

1256147  L.  McCormick         324 

An  Apparatus  for  flashing  lights  behind  a  motion  picture  screen  in  timed  relation 
to  the  picture  exhibited  by  the  film.  The  film  at  suitable  intervals  carries  metiillic 
rivets  which  cloee  an  electric  circuit  relayed  to  the  lighting  circuit.  Thus  an  added 
twinkle  may  be  imparted  to  a  lighthouse  scene  or  increased  illuminatioii^  to  a  moon 

picture.  .Digitized  by  CjOOQ IC 


66  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

1256604  M.  H.  Spear         329 

A  Mutoscope  of  the  book-leaf  type,  the  pictures  being  arranged  in  a  helical  aeriep 
projecting  radially  from  a  rotary  drum. 

1254911  A.  S.  Howell,  Assigned  to  Bell  &  Howell  Co.         386 

A  Film  Splicing  Ac-cessory  adapted  to  scrape  beveled  portions  upon  the  endF  of 
the  film  in  order  to  make  a  flat  lapped  splice. 

1255257  E.  G.  Whitmore        :^6 

A  Splicing  Bar  for  Motion  Picture  Film  provided  with  ears  to  enter  the  standard 
film  perforations^  and  spurs  to  enter  the  central  portion  of  the  film. 


British  Patents 

111054  H.Shorzocks         KJ82     KJ88 

Dyeing  of  Colored  Images.  In  a  two-color  film,  where  one  image  is  to  be  dyed 
green  and  the  other  red,  the  green  picture  is  first  protected  from  action  in  some  way 
or  other  and  the  red  picture  is  bleached  to  silver  iodide.  The  whole  film  is  then 
immersed  in  a  combined  bath  of  basic  red  dye  and  green  toning  chemicals,  thus  ton- 
ing the  unbleached  picture  green  and  dyeing  the  bleached  picture  in  the  basic  dye. 
The  claims  are  for  the  employment  of  the  combined  bath  instead  of  separate  treatments. 

111913  A.  Edwards        X1214 

X-Ray  Photographic  Films.  X-ray  photographic  films  may  be  made  by  coating 
the  support  on  both  sides  with  the  emulsion.  The  main  advantage  claimed  is  the 
elimination  of  defects  due  to  the  diffen  nee  in  the  thickness  of  the  emulsion  coating. 
It  is  also  claimed  that  the  effective  speed  of  the  film  is  doubled  by  coating  on  both  sides. 

112210  R.  V.  Stambaugh        0631 

Cartoon  Cinematograph  Films.  The  method  is  for  incorporating  moving  figures, 
etc.,  with  a  set  of  wording,  and  consists  of  a  process  for  taking  the  film  such  that  the* 
saine  figures  witli  a  different  tet  of  wording  can  be  u-ed  for  different  advertisers.  A 
negative  film  is  first  made  with  a  black  background  and  light  or  white  drawings  so 
that  when  developed  it  shows  a  white  fitld  with  dark  lines  or  surfaces  depicting  the 
action.  For  the  text  a  white  field  is  used  with  black  lettering  in  a  reveise  posiiion, 
and  this  is  photographed  upon  a  positive  film  with  the  negative  film  alreiidj  made  in 
place  in  front  of  it  so  that  the  text  is  photographed  through  the  negative  film,  thus 
obtaining  both  the  lettering  and  the  figures  of  the  negative  in  whitt*  on  a  dark  ground. 

111619  B.  J.  Hall         0726 

Mnlti-Color  Copies  of  Plans.  The  process  described  is  a  combination  of  the 
"Ordoverax"  and  "Hectograph"  processes.  A  plate  is  coated  with  gelatine  con- 
taining ferrotis  sulfate  ai.d  on  this  is  placed  an  exposed  but  undexelopetl  blue  print, 
which  will  cause  a  ca.alytic  action  and  will  cause  printers'  ink  to  adhere  wherever 
the  exposed  lines  have  touched.  On  removal  of  the  blue  print  the  lines  are  inked  up 
and  then  on  the  gelatine  surface  the  colloid  is  colored  by  suitable  aniline  dyes.  The 
black  or  colored  outline  from  the  original  drawing  must  be  inked  up  for  every  im- 
pression but  the  dye  will  yield  the  color  without  inking,  and  a  number  of  good 

impressions  are  easily  obtained.  •  / — 

Digitized  by' 


/Google 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  67 


111240  F.  J.  von  Gonton         242 

Printing  Frame.  A  photographic  printing  frame  is  fitted  with  a  shutter  which 
when  withdrawn  so  as  to  start  the  exposure  is  locked  into  position  by  a  retaining 
mechanism  controlled  by  clock  work  so  that  after  a  definite  period  it  closes. 

111240  VV.  Dericksweiler        2688 

Exposure  Meters.  An  exposure  meter  combined  with  a  stop  watch  in  which  the 
sensitized  paper  is  fed  in  when  the  stop  watch  is  used,  thus  combining  the  stop 
mechanism  with  a  paper  feed. 

111109  J.  A.  Golden        3101 

Cinematograph  Apparatus.  In  a  cinematograph  camera  the  film  is  mounted  on 
a  carrier  which  is  reciprocated  with  a  step-by-step  motion  and  is  fed  relatively  to  the 
carrier  by  a  spring  mechanism  controlled  by  an  escapement  operated  by  the  means 
{(fr  reciprocating  the  carrier ;  the  camera  is  applicable  also  as  a  projection  apparatus. 


Italian  Patents 

467/29-1917  Hess  Ives  Corp.         K21 

Improvements  in  apparatus  for  taking  and  exhibiting  color  pictures. 

465/172-1917  G.  Manzoni        084 

Moving  Photographs. 

466/186-1917  A.  Mansueti        044 

Process  for  giving  a  relief  efl^ect  to  the  image. 

472/7-1917  R.  Breyer  and  M.  U.  Scoop        048 

Process  of  obtaining  photographic  images  on  metallic  supports. 

469/12-1917  J.  Ufora        0649 

Process  for  continuous  description  with  photographic  and  photomechanical  mov- 
ing pictures. 

471/213-1917  A,  Del  Bruno        089 

Klectric  Photographic  Apparatus  for  illuminating  the  route  and  for  taking  sub- 
marine pictures  during  the  night. 

464/170-1917  E.  Galantino        222 

Photographic  Apparatus  for  enlarging  and  reducing. 

468/54-1917      .  Laing  Claytong        2682 

Photometer  for  photographic  purposes. 

466/191-1917         A.  Spiegel,  R.  S.  Glendinning  and  G.  Felsenthal         31 
Improvements- in  apparatus  especially  adapted  for  moving  |j|k]^i|jM.(^QQQ|^ 


m  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


German  Patents 

DRP292852-19U  A.  Spitzer  and  L.  Wilhelm         J84 

Telhirium  Toning.  In  substituting  tellurium  chloride  for  gold  chloride  difficul- 
ties are  encountered  because  the  tellurium  bath  is  strongly  acid  and  the  toning  action 
is  therefore  slow.  The  toning  action  is  accomplished  very  satisfactorily  in  the  presence 
of  hyposulfite  of  sodium  or  ammonium  by  using  the  alkaline  tellurites  (e.  g.  50  cc.  of 
hyposulfite  10%,  1  cc.  of  a  5%  solution  of  sodium  tellurite. )  The  operation  requins 
6-10  minutes.     A  bath  of  lead  nitrate  can  be  added. 

DRP293004-1914  t.  Schleussner  Company         K/33 

Polychromatic  Screens  for  (^olor  Photography.  Colored  colloidal  dry  putrticles 
are  applied  directly  to  the  support.  There  are  no  spaces  betweeit  the  particles,  be- 
cause they  are  cemented  together  by  subjecting  them  to  the  vapor  of  a  solvent.  A 
small  quantity  of  glycerine  and  acetic  acid  is  also  added.  The  acetic  acid  evaporates. 
The  particles  are  equally  distributed  by  means  of  a  brush,  and  by  blowing  the  super- 
fluous particles  are  eliminated.  In  order  to  convert  the  colored  particles  to  the 
nature  of  a  mucilage,  solvent  vapors  are  passed  over  the  surface. 

DRP292193-1914  H.  Arnold  and  Levy  Dorn        X116 

Plates  especially  adapted  for  X-Rays.  A  patent  which  completes  the  previoos 
patent  No.  290872.  The  colloidal  solution  of  selenium  used  in  order  to  obtain  greater 
sensitiveness  has  a  tendency  to  fog  the  plate.  In  order  to  avoid  the  defect,  two  coat- 
ings are  employed ;  one  consisting  of  emulsion  with  the  addition  of  selenium  and  the 
other  of  the  usual  emulsion. 

DRP292723-1915  G.  W.  E.  Sosna  and  I.  E.  Biedebach         11-G5 

Plates  and  Films  made  less  sensitive  to  light  by  means  of  colored  substances.  A 
patent  which  completes  the  patent  No.  288328.  Phenolphthalein  is  added  to  the 
emulsion,  which  becomes  red  in  the  alkaline  developing  baths. 


Digitized  by  CjOOQIC 


Monthly 

ABSTRACT 

Bulletin 


May.  1918 


Issued  by-  the  Research  Laboratory 

EASTMAN  KODAK  CavtPANY 

Rx)chestcr.  Nev^York 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


Monthly  Abstract  Bulletin 


Vol.  4.  No.  5 


May,    1918 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


70 


ABSTRACT    BILLETIN 


;:^^ 


KRO  C0£/ 


WAY  14  191H    ) 


■'.i 


Errata 

In  the  Abstract  Bulletin  for  April,  1918, 
Page  55,  line  8,  for  p.  11  read  p.  1. 

Page  57,    The   reference  for  the  Communication   ''Tlie  Nature  of  a  Developer 
Sludge"  is:  B.  J.,  1918,  p.  87. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  71 


Photography 


How  to  Develop  the  Negative  G 

Photo  Miniature,  Feb.  1918,  No.  1G8 

A  Practical  Guide  to  all  incthmls  of  develop! nj?  the  negative,  whicli  have  been 
approved  in  practice,  explaining  their  advantages  and  giving  working  instructions 
covering  their  use. 

Another  Wet  Plate  Developer  VV'.  T.  Wilkinson         Gl         /63 

Process  Engrav.,  March,  1918,  p.  40 

Recommehda  in  absence  of  acetic  or  sulpuric  acid:  Water  20  oz.^;  Iron  Sulphate 
1  oz ;  Bisulphate  of  Potash  1  oz. 

Economy  in  Hypo  II.  J.  Comley         G6 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  lOG 

I^etter  ilescribing  the  methods  employed  for  the  greatest  pi^ssible  economy  in  the 
use  of  hypo,  while  at  the  same  time  insuring  adequate  fixing. 

Some  Minor  Processe:^  of  C.  H.  Bothamley         fl         J-82 

Photography 

B.  J.,  1918,  pp.  Ill,  123,  135 
Phot.  J.,  1918,  p.  48 

This  is  the  twentieth  Traill-Taylor  Memorial  UHture,  and  in  it  the  author  deals 
with  reduction  by  alkalinei)ersul fate's  chromium  intensification  an<l  intensification  and 
toning  by  metallic  ferricyanides.  The  author  suggests  that  in  the  case  of  persulfate 
some  difficulties  encountered  might  l)e  due  t(^  tlie  presence  of  chlorides  or  bromides 
either  in  the  persulphate  or  in  the  wash  wat<r.  Formula*  are  given  for  the  chromium 
intensifier,  including  some  for  the  use  of  chromic  acid  and  salt  in  tlie  place  of  potas- 
sium bichron)ate  an<l  hydrochloric  acid.  In  toning  by  the  production  of  metallic 
ferrocyanides  the  process  nmy  with  advantage  be  carried  otit  in  two  successive  ofx»ra- 
tions  instead  of  with  mixed  solutions,  ))leaching  Ix'ing  first  eH'ect(Hi  with  }>otassiiim 
ferricyanide  and  then  the  bleacluHl  image  treated  with  the  metallic  salt.  The  silver 
ferrocyanide  can  also  be  obtained  by  converting  the  silver  image  into  silver  chloride 
and  then  treating  this  with  potasium  ferrocyanide,  thus  avoi(iing  the  use  of  ferricyanide. 

Iodine  and  Iodine*-  S.  Becher  and  M.  Winterstein         HI  1655 

Thiourea  as  Subtract ive  R(»ducers  for  Photographic 
Negatives  and  Positives 

Z.  wiss.  Phot.,  1917,  /7,  p.  1 
(from  J.  Soc.  (Iiem.  Ind.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  40a.) 

Iodine  cyanide  nnlucer  8ho\^s  continued  action  after  removal  of  tlie  image  from 
the  reducing  bath.  The  other  methods  of  using  iodine  do  not  show  this  effect,  hypo 
immediately  stopping  the  aition.  When  reducing  with  iodine  in  potassium  iodide  it 
is  necessary  to  ust-  hypo  to  dissolve  the  silver  iodide  formed,  and  also  as  a  stop  bath 
when  using  imline  combined  with  thiourea.  Thioureii  cannot  be  used  in  higher  con- 
centration than  4%,  as  otherwise  it  destroys  the  gelatine.  Iodine  is  found  to  reduce 
in  a  manner  similar  to  the  ferricyanide-hypo  reducer  and  not  proportionally.  When 
ufled  with  paper  containing  starch,  iodine  in  potassium  iodide  gives  a  blue  color 
which,  however,  is  removed  in  the  hypo  bath. 


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72  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Violet  Brown  Tones  on  Gaslight  Papers  by  means  of  J-84 

the  Sulphide  Toning  Bath 

Lux,  Feb.  15,  1918,  p.  78 

Several  gaslight  papers  yield'  violet  brown  tones  in  the  sulphide  bath  similar  to 
P.  O.  Papers  in  the  gold  bath.  Potassium  Oxalate  yields  fine  tones  if  added  to  the 
bleaching  or  the  sulphide  batli.  Sedlaczek  recommends  the  following  formula  in 
Phot.  Chronik: 

Water, 120     . 

Potassium  ferricyanide, 3 

Potassium  bromide,  10%, 150 

Potossium  oxalate,  10%, 300 

After  bleaching,  the  prints  are  washed  and  developed  in 

Sodium  sulphide,  1  % ,         .         .        .        ,        .        .        120 
Potassium  thiocyanate,  1%, 30 

Decennia  Practica — Color  Photography  K/33 

B.  J.  Color  Supplement,  1918,  p.  12 

Autochromes  by  Flashlight.  This  deals  with  special  filters  for  flashlight  work 
and  for  other  artificial  light  sources. 

Making  Transparencies  from  A.  S.  Cory         K/41 

'     Tri-Color  Negatives 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  March,  1918,  p.  1942 

A  method  of  making  three-color  transparencies,  for  u^e  as  lantern  slides,  from 
sets  of  three-color  negatives. 

The  Fox  Method  of  Preparing  Positives  A.  S.  Cory         K/43 

for  Subtractive  Two-Color  Cinematography 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  April,  1918,  p.  2110 

A  review  of  recent  patents  by  W.  F.  Fox,  relating  to  the  preparation  of  subtractive 
two-color  images  on  one  emulsion.  The  blue  image  is  first  obtained  by  exposing,  de- 
veloping, and  toning  blue  (without  fixing)  in  a  one  solution  bath  in  the  well-known 
manner.  The  red  sensation  image  is  then  obtained  by  drying  and  printing  on  ihe  same 
emulsion,  toning  the  develoiKKi  image  in  a  bath  containing  a  vanadium  salt,  and  em- 
ploying the  toned  image  as  a  mordant  for  a  red  basic  dye.  In  a  later  patent, 
(U.  S.  1207527),  the  blue-green  image  is  first  obtained  by  toning  in  an  iron  vanadium 
bath  and  the  red  image  by  drying,  exposing  and  developing  as  above  and  applyinj^ 
the  Traube  process.  In  a  still  later  patent,  (U.  S.  1256676),  the  blue-green  image  is 
obtained  by  the  usual  two-solution  process  and  the  red  image  by  toning  with  uranium. 

The  Recovery  of  Silver  Residues  PI 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  98 

The  author  tried  retesting  with  sodium  sulphide  a  used  hypo  solution  from  which 
the  silver  had  been  precipitated  with  liver  of  sulphur,  and  found  that  a  further, 
heavy  precipitate  of  silver  sulphide  was  obtained.  It  is  suggested  that  sodium  sul- 
phide should  be  substituted  for  liver  of  sulphur. 

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ABSTRACT    BULLETIN  73 


True  Photo-chemical  Processes  F.  Weigert        012 

Z.  Elektrochem.,  1917,  23,  p.  357 

(From  J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  108a) 

A  theoretical  paper,  in  which  after  real  and  ideal  photochemical  processes  have 
been  differentiated  and  a  general  survey  has  been  made  of  a  number  of  real  processes, 
the  author  propounds  a  theory  of  the  mechanism  involved  in  the  reactions  involved. 
The  author  includes  in  the  general  discussion  the  processes  operative  in  photo-electric 
actions,  fluorescence,  luminescence,  and  Rontgen-ray  effects. 

A  Special  Problem  in  Depth  019 

B.  J.,  1918,  p.  99 

The  article  deals  with  the  calculation  of  the  stop  necessary  to  produce  a  given 
depth  of  focus. 

Axial  Aberrations  of  Lenses  E.  D.  Tillyer  and  H.  I.  Schultz        019 

B.  J.,  1918,  pp.  101,  113,  124 

Paper  from  the  Bureau  of  Standards  describing  the  method  of  the  Bureau  for  the 
measurement  and  plotting  of  aberrations.  The  method  employed  is  based  on  that  of 
Hartmann. 

Photographing  Glass,  China  and  Silverware  032 

The  Process  Engrav.,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  27 

Discourages  any  dulling  of  surfaces  and  gives  hints  as  to  how  good  photographs 
can  be  made  without  treatment  of  the  articles. 

Developer  for  Wet  Collodion  0.  Pfenninger         163  /eS 

Negatives 

^.  J.,  March  1,  1918,  p.  106 

The  following  is  recommended  instead  of  developer  containing  alcohol : 

Stock  Solution 

Gelatine, 2  ozs. 

Acetic  Acid,  99%, .  20    ** 

Water, 30    ** 

Developer 

Iron  Sulphate, 4    " 

Stock  Solution, 3    '* 

Water, 50    " 

Chapters  on  Intermittent  Movements  A.  S.  ('ory         3201 

Mot.  Pict.  News,  April,  1918,  pp.  2266,  2432 
Part  I.     The  Geneva  Stop. 

Photographic  Words  and  Phrases 

Photo  Miniature,  March,  1918,  No.  169 

A  pocket  dictionary  of  the  technical  words  and  phrases  used  in  current  photo- 
graphy and  what  they  mean. 

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74  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 


The  Fundamentals  of  Photograpliy  C.  E.  K.  Mees 

Kodakery,  April,  1918,  p.  18 

Chapter  I — Liglit  and  Vision — Tliia  is  the  first  of  a  series  of  articles  on  the 
elementary  theory  of  photography.  The  present  chapter  deals  with  tlie  dye  and  its 
reaction  to  light,  the  sensitiveness  of  the  retina,  and  the  change  in  the  size  of  the 
pupil  with  the  intensity  of  thii  Hght. 


Photo-Engraving 


Copying  to  Exact  Size  L.  G .  Rose        07002 

Proce^ss  Engrav. ,  March,  1918,  p.  46 

Suggests  the  use  of  a  beam  compass  for  measuring,  and  the  use  <»f  a  mariner's 
compass  and  plumb-bob  to  determine  tliat  camera  and  copyboard  are  strictly 
paralk'l. 

Want  of  Density  in  Collodion  Negatives  J.  G.  Wood         07003 

Process  Work  and  Electrotyping,  Jan.  1918,  p.  96 

Suggested  causes  are:  Bath  too  weak  or  too  strong;  too  acid  or  too  hot;  collodion 
too  old;  light  too  weak  or  ntop  too  small. 

Negatives  That  Have  Been  "Overcut"  S.  H.  Morgan         07003 

Inland  Printer,  April,  19-18,  p.  63 

It  is  suggested  that  negatives  tii at  have  been  n^ductMi  too  mucti  may  be  sometimes 
restored  byre-developing,  having  first  added  some  silver  solution  to  the  developer. 

Etching  Silver  Plates  S.  H.  Morgan         0700G 

Inland  Printer,  April,  1918,  p.  64 

The  use  of  nitric  acid  solution  is  recommended,  adding  gum  or  gelatine  to  thicken 
the  mordant  in  case  it  attacks  the  resist. 

Etching  Silver  J.  G.  Wood        07006 

Process  Work  and  Electrotyping,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  96 

A  plate  is  coaitnl  with  collodion,  then  enamel  solution  and  print  made  which  is 
then  transferred  to  silver  and  burned  in.  Etchi d  with  nitric  and  niirous  acid,  pyro- 
ligneous  acid  and  very  little  corrosive  sublimate;  proportions  not  given. 

Rotary  Photogravure  Unsuitable  for  Bank  Notes  0713 

Process  Work  and  Electrotyping,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  94 

Description  of  exhibit  by  A.  E.  Bawtree,  showing  that  rotary  photogravure  not€« 
can  be  easily  forged. 

Agre(»ment  between  Employers  and  Men  in  Chicago 

Phot.  Engr.  Bull.,  Feb.,  1918,  p.  22 

A  reprint  of  the  full  text  of  this  agreement  containing  the  famous  Clausi*  10 
setting  forth  thi*  terms  of  the  co-operation  between  the  employers  and  workmen. 

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ABSTRACT    BTLLETIN  76 


A  Slam  at  Photo- Engravers  R.  Scaver 

Printing  Art,  March;  1918,  p.  o3 

A  sarcastic  reference  to  the  engravers'  failure  to  use  the  point  system  for  measur- 
ing blocks. 

The  Choice  of  Suitable  EngravingH  J.  F.  Tobin 

Am.  Printer,  March  20,  1918,  p.  25 

Points  out  there  is  a  dead  level  in  illustration,  because  purchasers  of  engravhigs 
will  not  take  advantage  of  the  many  different  effects  tliey  could  get  if  they  co-operated 
with  the  engraver. 

To  Avoid  Fatalities  from  Nitric  Acid  Fumes  E.  W.  Hunter 

Process  Engrav.,  March,  1918,  p.  33 
Suggests  that(l)  Nitric  Acid  should  be  kept  in  smaller  containers  than  the  regular 
large  carboy;  (2)  Carboys  should  be  carefully  examined  for  breakage  before  being 
taken  into  the  workroom;  (3)  Gas  masks  should  be  kept  handy,  and  also  several 
pails  of  earth  or  alkali  such  as  soda  or  slakeil  lime;  (4)  In  the  event  of  anyone  being 
overcome  with  fumes,  thoroughly  mixed  chloroform  water  (Chloroform  30  minims  in 
Water  8  oz.^. )  should  he  administered  every  10  minutes  until  patient  recovers. 


Physics 

A  New  Globe  Photometer  for  Incandescent  R.  Von  Voss 

LampB 

Electrician,  Feb.  1,  1918,  p.  630 
(Translated  from  Elektrotechnische  Zeit.,  No.  14,  1917) 

An  instrument  of  the  Ulbricht  Globe  Photometer  type,  modified  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  render  its  use  more  rapid  and  convenient.  Direct  reading  from  2.5  to  750  mean 
spherical  candle-power.  , 

X-Rays  and  War  G.  W.  C.  Kaye 

J.  Roentgen  Soc. ,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  2 

This  paper  is  a  very  clear  exposition  of  the  science  of  the  X-rays  in  tlie  war,  in 
medical  practice,  in  industry,  and  in  general  science.  The  author  also  discussed  the 
value  of  the  pure  research  to  industry  and  makes  a  plea  for  the  proper  recognition  of 
the  science  worker  after,  as  well  as  during,  the  war. 

X-Rays  Absorption  Spectra  J.  W.  Nicholson 

J.  Roentgen  Soc,  Jan.,  1918,  p.  18 

This  paper  is  a  very  clear  summary  of  the  rt^search  of  M.  De  Broglie  in  investigat- 
ing the  absorption  phenomena  of  elements  to  X-rays.  The  conclusion  is  that  the 
X-rays  absorption  band  of  an  element  corresponds  to  its  emission  band  when  used  as 

a  radiator:  that  is,  to  its  characteristic  radiation.  r^^^^T^ 

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76  ABSTRACT    BULLETIN 

Resonance  Spectra  of  Iodine  R.  W.  Wood 

PhiL  Mag.,  March,  1918,  p.  237 

A  continuation  of  the  author's  previous  articles.  The  mercury  green  line  is  used 
as  excitation.  The  series  of  resonance  lines  is  studied  with  especial  reference  to  the 
absorption  spectrum  of  iodine. 

Calculation  of  Planck's  Constant  O2  J.  H.  Dellinger 

Bull.  Bur.  Stand.,  March  6,  1917,  p.  535 

A  more  general  method  of  calculation  than  has  heretofore  been  employed,  using 
as  a  basis  the  energy- wave  length  curve  at  constant  temperature. 

Wave-length  Measurements  in  Spectra  from  W.  F.  Meggers 

5600A.U.  to  9600A.U. 

Sci.  Papers,  Bur.  Stand.  No.  312 

The  arc  spectra  of  twenty  of  the  chemical  elements,  including  the  alkali  metals, 
the  alkaline  earths  and  elements  commonly  found  in  iron  as  impurities  were  photo- 
graphed with  plates  sensitized  for  the  long  waves  with  dicyanin.  The  photographs 
were  made  in  the  first-order  spectrum  of  a  concave  grating  of  640  cm.  radiutj,  the 
grating  being  mounted  in  parallel  light. 


General  and  Inorganic  Chemistry 

Modern  Methods  of  Sulphuric  Acid  Manufacture  G.  L.  Moss        1511 

J.  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,  1918,  p.  68  T 

The  article  is  principally  concerned  with  the  chamber  process,  no  mention  being 
ma<le  of  the  contact  method.  Useful  information  is  given  with  regard  to  the  purifi- 
cation of  the  gases  and  the  concentration  of  the  chamber  acid. 


Analytical  Chemistry 


The  Rapid  Estimation  H.  D.  Richmond         1511 

of  Sulphuric  Acid